J. KRISHNAMURTI Life Ahead

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Life Ahead Introduction
It  seems  to  me  that  a  totally  different  kind  of  morality  and  conduct,  and  an
action that springs from the understanding of the whole process of living, have
become an urgent necessity, in our world of mounting crises and problems. We
try to deal with these issues through political and organizational methods, through
economic  readjustment  and  various  reforms;  but  none  of  these  things  will  ever
resolve  the  complex  difficulties  of  human  existence,  though  they  may  offer
temporary  relief.  All  reforms,  however  extensive  and  seemingly  lasting,  are  in
themselves  merely  productive  of  further  confusion  and  further  need  of
reformation.  Without  understanding  the  whole  complex  being  of  man,  mere
reformation will bring about only the confusing demand for further reforms. There
is no end to reform; and there is no fundamental solution along these lines.
Political,  economic  or  social  revolutions  are  not  the  answer  either,  for  they
have produced appalling tyrannies, or the mere transfer of power and authority
into the hands of a different group. Such revolutions are not at any time the way
out of our confusion and conflict.
But there is a revolution which is entirely different and which must take place if
we are to emerge from the endless series of anxieties, conflicts and frustrations in
which we are caught. The revolution has to begin, not with theory and ideation,
which  eventually  prove  worthless,  but  with  a  radical  transformation  in  the  mind
itself. Such a transforation can be brought about only through right education and
the total development of the human being. It is a revolution that must take place
in the whole of the mind and not merely in thought. Thought, after all, is only a
result and not the source. There must be radical transformation in the source and
not mere modification of the result. At present we are tinkering with results, with
symptoms. We are not bringing about a vital change, uprooting the old ways of
thought, freeing the mind from traditions and habits. It is with this vital change we
are concerned and only right education can bring it into being.    4
To inquire and to learn is the function of the mind. By learning I do not mean
the  mere  cultivation  of  memory  or  the  accumulation  of  knowledge,  but  the
capacity  to  think  clearly  and  sanely  without  illusion,  to  start  from  facts  and  not
from  beliefs  and  ideals.  There  is  no  learning  if  thought  originates  from
conclusions. Merely to acquire information or knowledge, is not to learn. Learning
implies the love of understanding and the love of doing a thing for itself. Learning
is possible only when there is no coercion of any kind. And coercion takes many
forms,  does  it  not?  There  is  coercion  through  influence,  through  attachment  or
threat, through persuasive encouragement or subtle forms of reward.
Most people think that learning is encouraged through comparison, whereas
the  contrary  is  the  fact.  Comparison  brings  about  frustration  and  merely
encourages  envy,  which  is  called  competition.  Like  other  forms  of  persuasion,
comparison  prevents  learning  and  breeds  fear.  Ambition  also  breeds  fear.
Ambition, whether personal or identified with the collective, is always antisocial.
So-called noble ambition in relationship is fundamentally destructive.
It is necessary to encourage the development of a good mind – a mind which
is capable of dealing with the many issues of life as a whole, and which does not
try  to  escape  from  them  and  so  become  self-contradictory,  frustrated,  bitter  or
cynical. And it is essential for the mind to be aware of its own conditioning, its
own motives and pursuits.
Since the development of a good mind is one of our chief concerns, how one
teaches becomes very important. There must be a cultivation of the totality of the
mind,  and  not  merely  the  giving  of  information.  In  the  process  of  imparting
knowledge, the educator has to invite discussion and encourage the students to
inquire and to think independently.
Authority, as `the one who knows,’ has no place in learning. The educator and
the student are both learning through their special relationship with each other;
but this does not mean that the educator disregards the orderliness of thought.   5
Orderliness of thought is not brought about by discipline in the form of assertive
statements  of  knowledge;  but  it  comes  into  being  naturally  when  the  educator
understands  that  in  cultivating  intelligence  there  must  be  a  sense  of  freedom.
This does not mean freedom to do whatever one likes, or to think in the spirit of
mere contradiction. It is the freedom in which the student is being helped to be
aware of his own urges and motives, which are revealed to him through his daily
thought and action.
A disciplined mind is never a free mind, noT can a mind that has suppressed
desire ever be free. It is only through understanding the whole process of desire
that the mind can be free. Discipline always limits the mind to a movement within
the framework of a particular system of thought or belief, does it not? And such a
mind  is  never  free  to  be  intelligent.  Discipline  brings  about  submission  to
authority.  It  gives  the  capacity  to  function  within  the  pattern  of  a  society  which
demands functional ability, but it does not awaken the intelligence which has its
own capacity. The mind that has cultivated nothing but capacity through memory
is like the modem electronic computer which, though it functions with astonishing
ability and accuracy, is still only a machine. Authority can persuade the mind to
think in a particular direction. But being guided to think along certain lines, or in
terms of a foregone conclusion is not to think at all; it is merely to function like a
human machine, which breeds thoughtless discontent, bringing with it frustration
and other miseries.
We are concerned with the total development of each human being, helping
him to realize his own highest and fullest capacity – not some fictitious capacity
which the educator has in view as a concept or an ideal. Any spirit of comparison
prevents this full flowering of the individual, whether he is to be a scientist or a
gardener. The fullest capacity of the gardener is the same as the fullest capacity
of  the  scientist  when  there  is  no  comparison;  but  when  comparison  comes  in,
then there is the disparagement and the envious reactions which create conflict
between  man  and  man.  Like  sorrow,  love  is  not  comparative;  it  cannot  be   6
compared  with  the  greater  or  the  lesser.  Sorrow  is  sorrow,  as  love  is  love,
whether it be in the rich or in the poor.
The fullest development of every individual creates a society of equals. The
present social struggle to bring about equality on the economic or some spiritual
level has no meaning at all. Social-reforms aimed at establishing equality, breed
other forms of antisocial activity; but with right education, there is no need to seek
equality through social and other reforms, because envy with its comparison of
capacities ceases.
We  must  differentiate  here  between  function  and  status.  Status,  with  all  its
emotional  and  hierarchical  prestige,  arises  only  through  the  comparison  of
functions as the high and the low. When each individual is flowering to his fullest
capacity, there L.s then no comparison of functions; there is only the expression
of capacity as a teacher, or a prime minister, or a gardener, and so status loses
its sting of envy.
Functional or technical capacity is now recognized through having a degree
after one’s name; but if we are truly concerned with the total development of the
human  being,  our  approach  is  entirely  different.  An  individual  who  has  the
capacity may take a degree and add letters after his name, or he may not, as he
pleases. But he will know for himself his own deep capabilities, which will not be
framed by a degree, and their expression. will not bring about that self-centred
confidence  which  mere  technical  capacity  usually  breeds.  Such  confidence  is
comparative  and  therefore  antisocial.  Comparison  may  exist  for  utilitarian
purpose; but it is not for the educator to compare the capacities of his students
and give greater or lesser evaluation.
Since  we  are  concerned  with  the  total  development  of  the  individual,  the
student may not be allowed in the beginning to choose his own subjects, because
his choice is likely to be based on passing moods and prejudices, or on finding
the easiest thing to do; or he may choose according to the immediate demands of   7
a  particular  need.  But  if  he  is  helped  to  discover  by  himself  and  cultivate  his
innate  capacities,  then  he  will  naturally  choose,  not  the  easiest  subjects,  but
those  through  which  he  can  express  his  capacities  to  the  fullest  and  highest
extent. If the student is helped from the very beginning to look at life as a whole,
with  all  its  psychological,  intellectual  and  emotional  problems,  he  will  not  be
frightened by it.
Intelligence is the capacity to deal with life as a whole; and giving grades or
marks  to  the  student  does  not  assure  intelligence.  On  the  contrary  it  degrades
human  dignity.  This  comparative  evaluation  cripples  the  mind  –  which  does  not
mean that the teacher must not observe the progress of every student and keep a
record of it. Parents, naturally anxious to know the progress of their children, will
want a report; but il, unfortunately, they do not understand what the educator is
trying  to  do,  the  report  will  become  an  instrument  of  coercion  to  produce  the
results they desire, and so undo the work of the educator.
Parents should understand the kind of education the school intends to give.
Generally  they  are  satisfied  to  see  their  children  preparing  to  get  a  degree  of
some kind which will assure them of a livelihood. Very few are concerned with
more than this. Of course, they wish to see their children happy, but beyond this
vague  desire  very  few  give  any  thought  to  their  total  development.  As  most
parents desire above all else that their children should have a successful career,
they  frighten  or  affectionately  bully  them  into  acquiring  knowledge,  and  so  the
book becomes very important; and with it there is the mere cultivation of memory,
the mere repetition without the quality of real thought behind it.
Perhaps the greatest difficulty the educator has to face is the indifference of
parent to a wider and deeper education. Most parents are concerned only with
the  cultivation  of  some  superficial  knowledge  which  will  secure  their  children
respectable  positions  in  a  corrupt  society.  So  the  educator  not  only  has  to
educate the children in the right way, but also to see to it that the parents do not   8
undo whatever good may have been done at the school. Really the school and
the  home  should  be  joint  centres  of  right  education,  and  should  in  no  way  be
opposed  to  each  other,  with  the  parents  desiring  one  thing  and  the  educator
doing  something  entirely  different.  It  is  very  important  that  the  parents  be  fully
acquainted with what the educator is doing, and be vitally interested in the total
development of their children. It is as much the responsibility of the parents to see
that this kind of education is carried out, as it is of the teachers, whose burden is
already sufficiently heavy. A total development of the child can be brought about
only when there is the right relationship between the teacher, the student and the
parents.  As  the  educator  cannot  yield  to  the  passing  fancies  or  obstinate
demands of the parents, it is necessary for them to understand the educator and
co-operate with him, and not bring about conflict and confusion in their children.
The child’s natural curiosity, the urge to learn exists from the very beginning,
and surely this should be intelligently encouraged continually, so that it remains
vital and without distortion, and will gradually lead him to the study of a variety of
subjects. If this eagerness to learn is encouraged in the child at all times, then his
study of mathematics, geography, history, science, or any other subject, will not
be a problem to the child or to the educator. Learning is facilitated when there is
an atmosphere of happy affection and thoughtful care.
Emotional openness and sensitivity can be cultivated only when the student
feels secure in his relationship with his teachers. The feeling of being secure in
relationship is a primary need of children. There is a vast difference between the
feeling  of  being  secure  and  the  feeling  of  dependency.  Consciously  or
unconsciously, most educators cultivate the feeling of dependency, and thereby
subtly  encourage  fear  –  which  the  parents  also  do  in  their  own  affectionate  or
aggressive manner. Dependency in the child is brought about by authoritarian or
dogmatic assertions on the part of parents and teachers as to what the child must
be  and  do.  With  dependency  there  is  always  the  shadow  of  fear,  and  this  fear
compels the child to obey, to conform, to accept without thought the edicts and   9
sanctions of his elders. In this atmosphere of dependency, sensitivity is crushed;
but when the child knows and feels that he is secure, his emotional flowering not
thwarted by fear.
This sense of  security  in the child  is not the opposite of  insecurity.  It  is  the
feeling of being at ease, whether in his own home or at school, the feeling that he
can be what he is, without being compelled in any way; that he can climb a tree
and not be scolded if he falls. He can have this sense of security only when the
parents  and  the  educators  are  deeply  concerned  with  the  total  welfare  of  the
child.
It is important in a school that the child should feel at ease, completely secure
from the very first day. This first impression is of the highest importance. But if the
educator  artificially  tries  by  various  means  to  gain  the  child’s  confidence  and
allows him to do what he likes, then the educator is cultivating dependency; he is
not giving the child the feeling of being secure, the feeling that he is in a place
where there are people who are deeply concerned with his total welfare.
The very first impact of this new relationship based on confidence, which the
child  may  never  have  had  before,  will  help  to  wards  a  natural  communication,
without the young regarding the elders as a threat to be feared. A child who feels
secure has his own natural ways of expressing the respect which is essential for
learning. This respect is denuded of all authority and fear. When he has a feeling
of  security,  the  child’s  conduct  or  behaviour  is  not  something  imposed  by  an
elder, but becomes part of the process of learning. Because he feels secure in his
relationship with the teacher, the child will naturally be considerate; and it is only
in this atmosphere of security that emotional openness and sensitivity can flower.
Being at ease, feeling secure, the child will do what he likes; but in doing what he
likes, he will find out what is the right thing to do, and his conduct then will not be
due to resistance, or obstinacy, or suppressed feelings, or the mere expression of
a momentary urge.    10
Sensitivity means being sensitive to everything around one – to the plants, the
animals, the trees, the skies, the waters  of  the  river,  the  bird  on  the  wing;  and
also to the moods of the people around one, and to the stranger who passes by.
This sensitivity brings about the quality of uncalculated, unselfish response, which
is the morality and conduct. Being sensitive, the child in his conduct will be open
and not secretive; therefore a mere suggestion on the part of the teacher will be
accepted easily, without resistance or friction.
As we are concerned with the total development of the human being, we must
understand his emotional urges, which are very much stronger than intellectual
reasoning;  we  must  cultivate  emotional  capacity  and  not  help  to  suppress  it.
When we understand and are therefore capable of dealing with emotional as well
as intellectual issues, there will be no sense of fear in approaching them.
For  the  total  development  of  the  human  being,  solitude  as  a  means  of
cultivating  sensitivity  becomes  a  necessity.  One  has  to  know  what  it  is  to  be
alone, what it is to meditate, what it is to die; and the implications of solitude, of
meditation, of death, can be known only by seeking them out. These implications
cannot be taught, they must be learnt. One can indicate, but learning by what is
indicated is not the experiencing of solitude or meditation. To experience what is
solitude and what is meditation, one must be in a state of inquiry; only a mind that
is in a state of inquiry is capable of learning. But when inquiry is suppressed by
previous knowledge, or by the authority and experience of another, then learning
becomes mere imitation, and imitation causes a human being to repeat what is
learnt without experiencing it.
Teaching  is  not  the  mere  imparting  of  information  but  the  cultivation  of  an
inquiring mind. Such a mind will penetrate into the question of what is religion,
and not merely accept the established religions with their temples and rituals. The
search for God, or truth, or whatever one may like to name it – and not the mere
acceptance of belief and dogma – is true religion.    11
Just as the student cleans his teeth every day, bathes every day, learns new
things every day, so also there must be the action of sitting quietly with others or
by himself. This solitude cannot be brought about by instruction, or urged by the
external authority of tradition, or induced by the influence of those who want to sit
quietly  but  are  incapable  of  being  alone.  Solitude  helps  the  mind  to  see  itself
clearly as in a mirror, and to free itself from the vain endeavour of ambition with
all its complexities, fears and frustrations, which are the outcome of self-centred
activity.  Solitude  gives  to  the  mind  a  stability,  a  constancy  which  is  not  to  be
measured  in  terms  of  time.  Such  clarity  of  mind  is  character.  The  lack  of
character is the state of self-contradiction. To be sensitive is to love. The word
`love’ is not love. And love is not to be divided as the love of God and the love of
man, nor is it to be measured as the love of the one and of the many. Love gives
itself abundantly as a flower gives its perfume; but we are always measuring love
in our relationship and thereby destroying it.
Love is not a commodity of the reformer or the social worker; it is not a political
instrument  with  which  to  create  action.  When;  the  politician  and  the  reformer
speak of love, they are using the word and do not touch the reality of it; for love
cannot be employed as a means to an end, whether in the immediate or in the
far-off future. Love is of the whole earth and not of a particular field or forest. The
love of reality is not encompassed by any religion; and when organized religions
use  it,  it  ceases  to  be.  Societies,  organized  religions  and  authoritarian
governments,  sedulous  in  their  various  activities,  unknowingly  destroy  the  love
that becomes passion in action.
In  the  total  development  of  the  human  being  through  right  education,  the
quality of love must be nourished and sustained form the very beginning. Love is
not  sentimentality,  nor  is  it  devotion.  It  is  as  strong  as  death.  Love  cannot  be
bought through knowledge; and a mind that is pursuing knowledge without love is
a mind that deals in ruthlessness and aims merely at efficiency.    12
So the educator must be concerned from the very beginning with this quality of
love,  which  is  humility,  gentleness,  consideration,  patience  and  courtesy.
Modesty and courtesy are innate in the man of right education; he is considerate
to all, including the animals and plants, and this is reflected in his behaviour and
manner of talking.
The emphasis on this quality of love frees the mind from its absorption in its
ambition,  greed  and  acquisitiveness.  Does  not  love  have  about  it  a  refinement
which expresses itself as respect and good taste? Does it not also bring about
the purification of the mind, which otherwise has a tendency to strengthen itself in
pride? Refinement in behaviour is not a self-imposed adjustment or the result of
an outward demand; it comes spontaneously with this quality of love. When there
is the understanding of love, then sex and all the complications and subtleties of
human relationship can be approached with sanity and not with excitement and
apprehension.
The educator to whom the total development of the human being is of primary
importance,  must  understand  the  implications  of  the  sexual  urge  which  plays
such an important part in our life, and be able from the very beginning to meet the
children’s  natural  curiosity  without  arousing  a  morbid  interest.  Merely  to  impart
biological information at the adolescent age may lead to experimental lust if the
quality  of  love  is  not  felt.  Love  cleanses  the  mind  of  evil.  Without  love  and
understanding on the part of the educator, merely to separate the boys from the
girls,  whether  by  barbed  wire  or  by  edicts,  only  strengthens  their  curiosity  and
stimulates that passion which is bound to degenerate into mere satisfaction. So it
is important that boys and girls be educated together rightly.
This quality of love must express itself also in doing things with one’s hands,
such as gardening, carpentry, painting, handicrafts; and through the senses, as
seeing the trees, the mountains, the richness of the earth, the poverty that men   13
have created amongst themselves; and in healing music, the song of the birds,
the murmur of running waters.
We are concerned not only with the cultivation of the mind and the awakening
of emotional sensitivity, but also with a well-rounded development a the physique,
and to this we must give considerable thought. For if the body is not healthy, vital,
it will inevitably distort thought and make for insensitivity. This is so obvious that
we  need  not  go  into  it  in  detail.  It  is  necessary  that  the  body  be  in  excellent
health,  that  it  be  given  the  right  kind  of  food  and  have  sufficient  sleep.  If  the
senses are not alert, the body  will  impede  the  total development  of  the  human
being.  To  have  grace  of  movement  and  well-balanced  control  of  the  muscles,
there must be various forms of exercise, dancing and games. A body that is not
kept  clean,  that  is  sloppy  and  does  not  hold  itself  in  good  posture,  is  not
conducive to sensitivity of mind and emotions. The body is not the instrument of
the  mind,  but  body,  emotions  and  mind  make  up  the  total  human  being,  and
unless they live together harmoniously, conflict is inevitable.
Conflict  makes  for  insensitivity.  The  mind  may  dominate  the  body  and
suppress  the  senses,  but  it  thereby  makes  the  body  insensitive;  and  an
insensitive  body  becomes  a  hindrance  to  the  full  flight  of  the  mind.  The
mortification  of  the  body  is  definitely  not  conducive  to  the  seeking  out  of  the
deeper  layers  of  consciousness;  for  this  is  possible  only  when  the  mind,  the
emotions and the body are not in contradiction with each other, but are integrated
and in unison, effortlessly, without being driven by any concept, belief or ideal.
In the cultivation of the mind, our emphasis should not be on concentration,
but on attention. Concentration is a process of forcing the mind to narrow down to
a point, whereas attention is without frontiers. In that process the mind is always
limited  by  a  frontier  or  boundary,  but  when  our  concern  is  to  understand  the
totality  of  the  mind,  mere  concentration  becomes  a  hindrance.  Attention  is
limitless,  without  the  frontiers  of  knowledge.  Knowledge  comes  through   14
concentration, and any extension of knowledge is still within its own frontiers. In
the state of attention the mind can and does use knowledge, which of necessity is
the result of concentration; but the part is never the whole, and adding together
the many parts does not make for the perception of the whole. Knowledge which
is the additive process of concentration, does not bring about the understanding
of  the  immeasurable.  The  total  is  never  within  the  brackets  of  a  concentrated
mind.
So attention is of primary importance, but it does not come through the effort
of concentration. Attention is a state in which the mind is ever learning without a
centre around which knowledge gathers as accumulated experience. A mind that
is concentrated upon itself uses knowledge as a means of its own expansion; and
such activity becomes self-contradictory and antisocial.
Learning  in  the  true  sense  of  the  word  is  possible  only  in  that  state  of
attention, in which there is no outer or inner compulsion. Right thinking can come
about only when the mind is not enslaved by tradition and memory. It is attention
that allows silence to come upon the mind, which is the opening of the door to
creation. That is why attention is of the highest importance.
Knowledge is necessary at the functional level as a means of cultivating the
mind, and not as an end in itself. We are concerned, not with the development of
just one capacity, such as that of a mathematician, or a scientist, or a musician,
but with the total development of the student as a human being.
How  is  the  state  of  attention  to  be  brought  about?  It  cannot  be  cultivated
through persuasion, comparison, reward or punishment, all of which are forms of
coercion. The elimination of fear is the beginning of attention. Fear must exist as
long as there is an urge to be or to become, which is the pursuit of success, with
all its frustrations and tortuous contradictions. You can’t teach concentration, but
attention cannot be taught just as you cannot possibly teach freedom from fear;
but we can begin to discover the causes that produce fear, and in understanding   15
these causes there is the elimination of fear. So attention arises spontaneously
when around the student there is an atmosphere of well-being, when he has the
feeling of being secure, of being at ease, and is aware of the disinterested action
that  comes  with  love.  Love  does  not  compare,  and  so  the  envy  and  torture  of
`becoming’ cease.
The general discontent which all of us experience, whether young or old, soon
finds  a  way  to  satisfaction,  and  thus  our  minds  are  put  to  sleep.  Discontent  is
awakened  from  time  to  time  through  suffering,  but  the  mind  again  seeks  a
gratifying  solution.  In  this  wheel  of  dissatisfaction  and  gratification  the  mind  is
caught,  and  the  constant  awakening  through  pain  is  part  of  our  discontent.
Discontent is the way of inquiry, but there can be no inquiry if the mind is tethered
to tradition, to ideals. Inquiry is the flame of attention.
By discontent I mean that state in which the mind understands what is, the
actual, and constantly inquires to discover further. Discontent is a movement to
go beyond the limitations of what is; and if you find ways and means of smoothing
or  overcoming  discontent,  then  you  will  accept  the  limitations  of  self-centred
activity and of the society in which you find yourself.
Discontent is the flame which burns away the dross of satisfaction, but most of
us seek to dissipate it in various ways. Our discontent then becomes the pursuit
of `the more’, the desire for a bigger house, a better car, and so on, all of which is
within  the  field  of  envy;  and  it  is  envy  that  sustains  such  discontent.  But  I  am
talking  of  a  discontent  in  which  there  is  no  envy,  no  greed  for  `the  more’,  a
discontent that is not sustained by any desire for satisfaction, This discontent is
an unpolluted state which exists in each one of us, if it is not deadened through
wrong  education,  through  gratifying  solutions,  through  ambition,  or  through  the
pursuit of an ideal. When we understand the nature of real discontent, we shall
see that attention is part of this burning flame which consumes the pettiness and
leaves the mind free of the limitations of self-enclosing pursuits and gratifications.    16
So attention comes into being only when there is inquiry not based on self-
advancement or gratification. This attention must be cultivated in the child, right
from the beginning. You will find that when there is love – which expresses itself
through  humility,  courtesy,  patience,  gentleness  –  you  are  already  free  of  the
barriers  which  insensitivity  builds;  and  so  you  are  helping  to  bring  about  in  the
child this state of attention from a very tender age.
Attention is not something to be~ learnt, but you can help to awaken it in the
student by not creating around him that sense of compulsion which produces a
self-contradictory existence. Then his attention can be focussed at any moment
on any given subject, and it will not be the narrow concentration brought about
through the compulsive urge of acquisition or achievement.
A generation educated in this manner will be free of acquisitiveness and fear,
the psychological inheritance of their parents and of the society in which they are
born; and because they are so educated, they will not depend on the inheritance
of  property.  This  matter  of  inheritance  destroys  real  independence  and  limits
intelligence; for it breeds a false sense of security, giving a self-assurance which
has  no  basis  and  creating  a  darkness  of  the  mind  in  which  nothing  new  can
flourish. But a generation educated in this totally different manner which we have
been considering will create a new society; for they will have the capacity born of
that intelligence which is not hedged about by fear.
Since education is the responsibility of the parents as well as of the teachers,
we must learn the art of working together, and this is possible only when each
one  of  us  perceives  what  is  true.  It  is  perception  of  the  truth  that  brings  us
together, and not opinion, belief or theory. There is a vast difference between the
conceptual  and  the  factual.  The  conceptual  may  bring  us  together  temporarily,
but  there  will  again  be  separation,  if  our  working  together  is  only  a  matter  of
conviction. If the truth is seen by each one of us, there may be disagreement in
detail but there will be no urge to separate. It is the foolish who break away over   17
some detail. When the truth is seen by all, the detail can never become an issue
over which there is dissension.
Most  of  us  are  used  to  working  together  along  the  lines  of  established
authority. We come together to work out a concept, or to advance an ideal, and
this  requires  conviction,  persuasion,  propaganda,  and  so  on.  Such  working
together for a concept, for an ideal, is totally different from the co-operation which
comes  from  seeing  the  truth and  the  necessity  of  putting  that  truth  into  action.
Working under the stimulus of authority – whether it be the authority of an ideal, or
the authority of a person who  represents  that  ideal  –  is not real cooperation. A
central authority who knows a great deal, or who has a strong personality and is
obsessed  with  certain  ideas,  may  force  or  subtly  persuade  others  to  work  with
him for what he calls the ideal; but surely this is not the working together of alert
and vital individuals. Whereas, when each one of us understands for himself the
truth of any issue, then our common understanding of that truth leads to action,
and such action is cooperation. He who cooperates because he sees the truth as
the truth, the false as the false, and the truth in the false, will also know when not
to co-operate – which is equally important.
If  each  one  of  us  realizes  the  necessity  of  a  fundamental  revolution  in
education  and  perceives  the  truth  of  what  we  have  been  considering,  then  we
shall work together without any form of persuasion. persuasion exists only when
someone takes a stand from which he is unwilling to move. When he is merely
convinced of an idea or entrenched in an opinion, he brings about opposition, and
then  he  or  the  other  has  to  be  persuaded,  influenced  or  induced  to  think
differently. Such a situation will never arise when each one of us sees the truth of
the  matter  for  himself.  But  if  we  do  not  see  the  truth  and  act  on  the  basis  of
merely  verbal  conviction  or  intellectual  reasoning,  then  there  is  bound  to  be
contention,  agreement  or  disagreement,  with  all  the  associated  distortion  and
useless effort.    18
It is essential that we work together, and it is as if we were building a house. If
some  of  us  are  building  and  others  are  tearing  down,  the  house  will  obviously
never  be  built.  So  we  must  individually  be  very  clear  that  we  really  see  and
understand the necessity of bring about the kind of education that will produce a
new generation capable of dealing with the issues of life as a whole, and not as
isolated parts unrelated to the whole.
To  be  able  to  work  together  in  this  really  co-operative  way,  we  must  meet
often and be alert not to get submerged in detail. Those of us who are seriously
dedicated  to  the  bringing  about  of  the  right  kind  of  education  have  the
responsibility not only of carrying out in action all that we have understood, but
also  of  helping  others  to  come  to  this  understanding.  Teaching  is  the  noblest
profession – if it can be called a profession at all. It is an art that requires, not just
intellectual attainments, but infinite patience and love. To be truly educated is to
understand  our  relationship  to  all  things  –  to  money,  to  property,  to  people,  to
nature – in the vast field of our existence.
Beauty  is  part  of  this  understanding,  but  beauty  is  not  merely  a  matter  of
proportion, form, taste and behaviour. Beauty is that state in which the mind has
abandoned the centre of self in the passion of simplicity. Simplicity has no end;
and  there  can  be  simplicity  only  when  there  is  an  austerity  which  is  not  the
outcome  of  calculated  discipline  and  self-denial.  This  austerity  is  self-
abandonment,  which  love  alone  can  bring  about.  When  we  have  no  love  we
create a civilization in which beauty of form is sought without the inner vitality and
austerity of simple self-abandonment. There is no self-abandonment if there is an
immolation of oneself in good works, in ideals, in beliefs. These activities appear
to  be  free  of  the  self,  but  in  reality  the  self  is  still  working  under  the  cover  of
different  labels.  Only  the  innocent  mind  can  inquire  into  the  unknown.  But  the
calculated innocence which may wear a loincloth or the robe of a monk is not that
passion  of  self-abandonment  from  which  come  courtesy,  gentleness,  humility,
patience – the expressions of love.    19
Most  of  us  know  beauty  only  through  that  which  has  been  created  or  put
together – the beauty of a human form, or of a temple. We say a tree, or a house,
or  the  widely-running  river  is  beautiful.  And  through  comparison  we  know  what
ugliness is – at least we think we do. But is beauty comparable? Is beauty that
which  has  been  made  evident,  manifest?  We  consider  beautiful  a  particular
picture, poem, or face, because we already know what beauty is from what we
have been taught, or from what we are familiar with and about which we have
formed an opinion. But does not beauty cease with comparison. Is beauty merely
a familiarity with the known, or is it a state of being in which there may or may not
be the created form?
We  are  always  pursuing  beauty  and  avoiding  the  ugly,  and  this  seeking  of
enrichment  through  the  one  and  avoidance  of  the  other  must  inevitably  breed
insensitivity.  Surely,  to  understand  or  to  feel  what  beauty  is,  there  must  be
sensitivity to both the so-called beautiful and the so-called ugly. A feeling is not
beautiful or ugly, it is just a feeling. But we look at it through our religious and
social conditioning and give it a label; we say it is a good feeling or a bad feeling,
and  so  we  distort  or  destroy  it.  When  feeling  is  not  given  a  label  it  remains
intense, and it is this passionate intensity that is essential to the understanding of
that  which  is  neither  ugliness  nor  manifested  beauty.  What  has  the  greatest
importance is sustained feeling, that passion which is not the mere lust of self-
gratification; for it is this passion that creates beauty and, not being comparable, it
has no opposite.
In seeking to bring about a total development of the human being, we must
obviously  take  into  full  consideration  the  unconscious  mind  as  well  as  the
conscious.  Merely  to  educate  the  conscious  mind  without  understanding  the
unconscious,  brings  self-contradiction  into  human  lives,  with  all  its  frustrations
and  miseries.  The  hidden  mind  is  far  more  vital  than  the  superficial.  Most
educators  are  concerned  only  with  giving  information  or  knowledge  to  the
superficial mind, preparing it to acquire a job and adjust itself to society. So the   20
hidden  mind  is  never  touched.  All  that  so-called  education  does,  is  to
superimpose a layer of knowledge and technique, and a certain capacity to adjust
to environment.
The  hidden mind  is  far more potent than the superficial mind, however well
educated  and  capable  of  adjustment;  and  it  is  not  something  very  mysterious.
The hidden or unconscious mind is the repository of racial memories. Religion,
superstition,  symbol,  peculiar  traditions  of  a  particular  race,  the  influence  of
literature both sacred and profane, of aspirations, frustrations, mannerisms, and
varieties of food – all these are rooted in the unconscious. The open and secret
desires with their motivations, hopes and fears, their sorrows and pleasures, and
the beliefs which are sustained through the urge for security translating itself in
various ways – these things also are contained in the hidden mind, which not only
has this extraordinary capacity to hold the residual past, but also the capacity to
influence  the  future.  Intimations  of  all  this  are  given  to  the  superficial  mind
through  dreams  and  in  various  other  ways  when  it  is  not  wholly  occupied  with
everyday events.
The hidden mind is nothing sacred and nothing to be frightened of, nor does it
demand  a  specialist  to  expose  it  to  the  superficial  mind.  But  because  of  the
hidden  mind’s  enormous  potency,  the  superficial  mind  cannot  deal  with  it  as  it
would wish. The superficial mind is to a great extent impotent in relation to its own
hidden  part.  However  much  it  may  try  to  dominate,  shape,  control  the  hidden,
because of its immediate social demands and pursuits, the superficial can only
scratch  the  surface  of  the  hidden;  and  so  there  is  a  cleavage  or  contradiction
between the two. We try to bridge this chasm through discipline, through various
practices sanctions and so on; but it cannot so be bridged.
The  conscious  mind  is  occupied  with  the  immediate,  the  limited  present,
whereas  the  unconscious  is  under  the  weight  of  centuries,  and  cannot  be
stemmed or turned aside by an immediate necessity. The unconscious has the   21
quality of deep time, and the conscious mind, with its recent culture, cannot deal
with  it  according  to  its  passing  urgencies.  To  eradicate  self-contradiction,  the
superficial  mind  must  understand  this  fact  and  be  quiescent  –  which  does  not
mean  giving  scope  to  the  innumerable  urges  of  the  hidden.  When  there  is  no
resistance between the open and the hidden, then the hidden, because it has the
patience of time, will not violate the immediate.
The  hidden,  unexplored  and  un-understood  mind,  with  its  superficial  part
which has been `educated’, comes into contact with the challenges and demands
of  the  immediate  present.  The  superficial  may  respond  to  the  challenge
adequately; but because there is a contradiction between the superficial and the
hidden, any experience of the superficial only increases the conflict between itself
and  the  hidden.  This  brings  about  still  further  experience,  again  widening  the
chasm between the present and the past. The superficial mind, experiencing the
outer  without  understanding  the  inner,  the  hidden,  only  produces  deeper  and
wider conflict.
Experience does not liberate or enrich the mind, as we generally think it does.
As  long  as  experience  strengthens  the  experiencer,  there  must  be  conflict.  In
having experiences, a conditioned mind only strengthens its conditioning, and so
perpetuates  contradiction  and  misery.  Only  for  the  mind  that  is  capable  of
understanding the total ways of itself, can experiencing be a liberating factor.
Once there is perception and understanding of the power and capacities of the
many  layers  of  the  hidden,  then  the  details  can  be  looked  into  wisely  and
intelligently.  What  is  important  is  the  understanding  of  the  hidden,  and  not  the
mere education of the superficial mind to acquire knowledge, however necessary.
This understanding of the hidden frees the total mind from conflict, and only then
is there intelligence.
We must awaken the full capacity of the superficial mind that lives in everyday
activity, and also understand the hidden. In understanding the hidden there is a   22
total living in which self-contradiction, with its alternating sorrow and happiness,
ceases.  It  is  essential  to  be  acquainted  with  the  hidden  mind  and  aware  of  its
workings;  but  it  is  equally  important  not  to  be  occupied  with  it  or  give  it  undue
significance. It is only when the mind understands the superficial and the hidden
that it can go beyond its own limitations and discover that bliss which is not of
time.    23
Part 1
Part One Chapter 1
Have  you  ever  thought  why  you  are  being  educated,  why  you  are  learning
history, mathematics, geography or what else? Have you ever thought why you
go to schools and colleges? Is it not very important to find out why you are being
crammed with information, with knowledge? What is all this so-called education?
Your  parents  send  you  here,  perhaps  because  they  themselves  have  passed
certain  examinations  and  taken  various  degrees.  Have  you  ever  asked
yourselves  why  you  are  here,  and  have  the  teachers  asked  you  why  you  are
here.  Do  the  teachers  know why they are here? Should  you  not  try  to  find  out
what all this struggle is about – this struggle to study, to pass examinations, to live
in a certain place away from home and not be frightened, to play games well and
so on? Should your teachers not help you to inquire into all this and not merely
prepare you to pass examinations?
Boys pass examinations because they know they will have to get a job, they
will have to earn a livelihood. Why do girls pass examinations? To be educated in
order to get better husbands. Don’t laugh; just think about this. Do your parents
send  you  away  to  school  because  you  are  a  nuisance  at  home?  By  passing
examinations are you going to understand the whole significance of life? Some
people  are  very  clever  at  passing  examinations,  but  this  does  not  necessarily
mean that they are intelligent. Others who do not know how to pass examinations
may be far more intelligent; they may be more capable with their hands and may
think things out more deeply than the person who merely crams in order to pass
examinations.
Many boys study merely to get a job, and that is their whole aim in life. But
after getting a job, what happens? They get married, they have children – and for
the rest of their life they are caught in the machine, are they not? They become   24
clerks or lawyers or policemen; they have an everlasting struggle with their wives,
with their children; their life is a constant battle till they die.
And what happens to you girls? You get married – that is your aim, as it is also
the concern of your parents to get you married – and then you have children. If
you have a little money you are concerned about your saris and how you look;
you are worried about your quarrels with your husband and about what people
will say.
Do  you  see  all  this?  Are  you  not  aware  of  it  in  your  family,  in  your
neighborhood? Have you noticed how it goes on all the time? Must you not find
out what is the meaning of education, why you want to be educated, why your
parents want you to be educated, why they make elaborate speeches about what
education is supposed to be doing in the world? You may be able to read Bernard
Shaw’s plays, you may be able to quote Shakespeare or Voltaire or some new
philosopher; but if you in yourself are not intelligent, if you are not creative, what
is the point of this education?
So, is it not important for the teachers as well as for the students to find out
how  to  be  intelligent?  Education  does  not  consist  in  merely  being  able  to  read
and  pass  examinations;  any  clever  person  can  do  that.  Education  consists  in
cultivating  intelligence,  does  it  not.  By  intelligence  I  do  not  mean  cunning,  or
trying  to  be  clever  in  order  to  outdo  somebody  else.  Intelligence,  surely,  is
something quite different. There is intelligence when you are not afraid. And when
are you afraid? Fear comes when you think of what people may say about you, or
what your parents may say; you are afraid of being criticized, of being punished,
of failing to pass an examination. When your teacher scolds you, or when you are
not  popular  in  your  class,  in  your  school,  in  your  surroundings,  fear  gradually
creeps in.
Fear is obviously one of the barriers to intelligence, is it not? And surely it is
the very essence of education to help the student – you and me – to be aware of   25
and to understand the causes of fear, so that from childhood onwards he can live
free of fear.
Are you aware that you are afraid? You do have fear, do you not? Or are you
free of fear? Are you not afraid of your parents, of your teachers, of what people
might  think?  Suppose  you  did  something  of  which  your  parents  and  society
disapprove. Would you not be afraid? Suppose you wanted to marry a person not
of your own caste or class; would you not be afraid of what people might say? If
your future husband did not make the right amount of money, or if he did not have
position or prestige, would you not feel ashamed? Would you not be afraid that
your  friends  might  not  think  well  of  you?  And  are  you  not  afraid  of  disease,  of
death?
Most of us are afraid. Do not say `no’ so quickly. We may not have thought
about  it;  but  if  we  do  think  about  it  we  will  notice  that  almost  everybody  in  the
world, grown-ups as well as children, has some kind of fear gnawing at the heart.
And is it not the function of education to help each individual to be free of fear, so
that he can be intelligent? That is what we aim at in a school – which means that
the teachers themselves must really be free of fear. What is the good of teachers
talking about fearlessness if they are themselves afraid of what their neighbour
may say, afraid of their wives or their husbands?
If one has fear there can be no initiative in the creative sense of the word. To
have initiative in this sense is to do something original – to do it spontaneously,
naturally, without being guided, forced, controlled. It is to do something which you
love to do. You may often have seen a stone lying in the middle of the road, and
a car go bumping over it. Have you ever removed that stone? Or have you ever,
when  out  walking,  observed  the  poor  people,  the  peasants,  the  villagers,  and
done  something  kind  –  done  it  spontaneously,  naturally,  out  of  your  own  heart,
without waiting to be told what to do.    26
You see, if you have fear, then all  this is shut out of your life; you become
insensitive and do not observe what is going on around you. If you have fear, you
are bound by tradition, you follow some leader or guru. When you are bound by
tradition, when you are afraid of your husband or your wife, you lose your dignity
as an individual human being.
So, is it not the function of education to free you from fear, and not merely
prepare  you  to  pass  certain  examinations,  however  necessary  this  may  be?
Essentially, deeply, that should be the vital aim of education and of every teacher:
to help you from childhood to be completely free of fear so that when you go out
into the world you are an intelligent human being, full of real initiative. Initiative is
destroyed  when  you  are  merely  copping,  when  you  are  bound  by  tradition,
following  a  political  leader  or  a  religious  swami.  To  follow  anybody  is  surely
detrimental to intelligence. The very process of following creates a sense of fear;
and  fear  shuts  out  the  understanding  of  life  with  all  its  extraordinary
complications, with its struggles, its sorrows, its poverty, its riches and beauty –
the beauty of the birds, and of the sunset on the water. When you are frightened,
you are insensitive to all this.
May I suggest that you ask your teachers to explain to you what we have been
talking  about.  Will  you  do  that?  Find  out  for  yourself  if  the  teachers  have
understood these things – it will help them to help you to be more intelligent, not
to be frightened. In matters of this kind we need teachers who are very intelligent
– intelligent in the right sense, not just in the sense of having passed the M.A. or
B.A. examinations. If you are interested, see if you can arrange to have a period
during  the  day  in  which  to  discuss  and  talk  about  all  this  with  your  teachers.
Because  you  are  going  to  grow  up,  you  are  going  to  have  husbands,  wives,
children, and you will have to know what life is all about – life with its struggle to
earn a living, with its miseries, with its extraordinary beauty. All this you will have
to know and understand; and the school is the place to learn about these things.
If  the  teachers  teach  you  merely  mathematics  and  geography,  history  and   27
science, that is obviously not enough. The important thing for you is to be alert, to
question, to find out, so that your own initiative may be awakened.    28
Part One Chapter 2
We have been considering the problem of fear. We saw that most of us are
afraid, and that fear prevents initiative because it makes us cling to people and to
things as a creeper clings to a tree. We cling to our parents, our husbands, our
sons, our daughters, our wives, and to our possessions. That is the outward form
of  fear.  Being  inwardly  afraid,  we  dread  to  stand  alone.  We  may  have  a  great
many saris, jewels or other property; but inwardly, psychologically, we are very
poor. The poorer we are inwardly, the more we try to enrich ourselves outwardly
by clinging to people, to position, to property.
When we are afraid, we cling not only to outward things, but also to inward
things  such  as  tradition.  To  most  old  people,  and  to  people  who  are  inwardly
insufficient  and  empty,  tradition  matters  a  great  deal.  Have  you  noticed  this
amongst your fiends, parents and teachers? Have you noticed it in yourself? The
moment  there  is  fear,  inward  fear,  you  try  to  cover  it  up  with  respectability,  by
following a tradition; and so you lose initiative. Because you have no initiative and
are just following, tradition becomes very important – the tradition of what people
say, the tradition that has been handed down from the past, the tradition that has
no vitality, no zest in life because it is a mere repetition without any meaning.
When one is afraid, there is always a tendency to imitate. Have you noticed
that? People who are afraid imitate others; they cling to tradition, to their parents,
to  their  wives,  to  their  brothers,  to  their  husbands.  And  imitation  destroys
initiative. You know, when you draw or paint a tree, you do not imitate the tree,
you do not copy it exactly as it is, which would be mere photography. To be free
to paint a tree, or a flower, or a sunset, you have to feel what it conveys to you,
the significance, the meaning of it. This is very important – to try to convey the
significance of what you see and not merely copy it, for then you begin to awaken
the creative process. And for this there must be a free mind, a mind that is not   29
burdened  with  tradition,  with  imitation.  But  look  at  your  own  lives  and  the  lives
about you, how traditional, how imitative they are!
You are obliged in some matters to be imitative; as in the clothes you put on,
in  the  books  you  read,  in  the  language  you  speak.  These  are  all  forms  of
imitation. But it is necessary to go beyond this level and feel free to think things
out  for  yourself  so  that  you  do  not  thoughtlessly  accept  what  somebody  else
says, it does not matter who it is – a teacher in the school, a parent, or one of the
great religious teachers. To think out things for yourself, and not follow, is very
important; because following indicates fear, does it not? The moment somebody
offers you something you want – paradise, heaven, or a better job – there is fear of
not  getting  it;  therefore  you  begin  to  accept,  to  follow.  So  long  as  you  want
something,  there  is  bound  to  be  fear;  and  fear  cripples  the  mind  so  that  you
cannot be free.
Do you know what a free mind is? Have you ever observed your own mind? It
is not free, is it? You are always watching to see what your friends say about you.
Your mind is like a house enclosed by a fence or by barbed wire. In that state no
new thing can take place. A new thing can happen only when there is no fear.
And it is extremely difficult for the mind to be free of fear, because that implies
being  really  free  of  the  desire  to  imitate,  to  follow,  free  of  the  desire  to  amass
wealth or to conform to a tradition – which does not mean that you do something
outrageous.
Freedom of mind comes into being when there is no fear, when the mind has
no desire to show off and is not intriguing for position or prestige. Then it has no
sense of imitation. And it is important to have such a mind – a mind really free of
tradition, which is the habit-forming mechanism of the mind.
Is  this  all  too  difficult?  I  don’t  think  it  is  as  difficult  as  your  geography  or
mathematics. It is much easier, only you have never thought about it. You spend
perhaps ten or fifteen years of your life in school acquiring information, yet you   30
never take time – not a week, not even a day – to think fully, completely about any
of these things. That is why it all seems so difficult; but it is not really difficult at
all. On the contrary, if you give time to it you can see for yourself how your mind
works, how it operates, responds. And it is very important to begin to understand
your own mind while you are young, otherwise you will grow up following some
tradition  which  has  very  little  meaning.  you  will  imitate,  which  is  to  keep  on
cultivating fear, and so you will never be free.
Have you noticed here in India how tradition-bound you are? You must marry
in a certain way, your parents choose the husband or the wife. You must perform
certain rituals; they may have no meaning, but you must perform them. You have
leaders  whom  you  must  follow.  Everything  about  you  if  you  have  observed  it,
reflects  a  way  of  life  in  which  authority  is  very  well  established.  There  is  the
authority of the guru, the authority of the political group, the authority of parents
and of public opinion. The older the civilization, the greater the weight of tradition
with  its  series  of  imitations;  and  being  burdened  with  this  weight,  your  mind  is
never free. You may talk about political or any other kind of freedom, but you as
an individual are never really free to find out for yourself; you are always following
– following an ideal, following some guru or teacher, or some absurd superstition.
So, your whole life is hedged in, limited, confined to certain ideas; and deep
down within yourself there is fear. How can you think freely if there is fear? That
is why it is so important to be conscious of all these things. If you see a snake
and know it is venomous you move away, you don’t go near it. But you do not
know that you are caught in a series of imitations which prevent initiative; you are
caught in them unconsciously. But if you begin to be conscious of them, and of
how they hold you; if you are aware of the fact that you want to imitate because
you are afraid of what people may say, afraid of your parents or your teachers,
then you can look at these imitations in which you are caught, you can examine
them, you can study them as you study mathematics or any other subject.    31
Are you conscious, for example, why you treat women differently from men?
Why do you treat women contemptuously? At least men often do. Why do you go
to a temple, why do you perform rituals, why do you follow a guru?
You see, first you have to be aware of all these things, and then you can go
into  them,  you  can  question,  study  them;  but  if  you  blindly  accept  everything
because for the last thirty centuries it has been so, then it has no meaning, has
it? Surely, what we need in the world is not more imitators, not more leaders and
more  followers.  What  we  need  now  are  individuals  like  you  and  me  who  are
beginning to examine all these problems, not superficially or casually, but more
and more deeply so that the mind is free to be creative, free to think, free to love.
Education is a way of discovering our true relationship to things, to other human
beings, and to nature. But the mind creates ideas, and these ideas become so
strong, so dominant, that they prevent us from looking beyond. As long as there
is fear, there is the following of tradition; as long as there is fear, there is imitation.
A  mind  that  merely  imitates  is  mechanical,  is  it  not.  It  is  like  a  machine  in  its
functioning; it is not creative, it does not think out problems. It may bring about
certain actions, produce certain results, but it is not creative.
Now, what we all should do – you and I as well as the teachers, the managers
and the authorities – is to go into all these problems together, so that when you
leave  here  you  will  be  mature  individuals,  capable  of  thinking  things  out  for
yourselves, and will not be dependent on some traditional stupidity. Then you will
have the dignity of a human being who is really free. That is the whole intent of
education – not merely to prepare you to pass certain examinations and then be
shunted for the rest of your life into something which you do not love to do, like
becoming a lawyer, or a clerk, or a housewife, or a breeding machine. You should
insist on having the kind of education that encourages you to think freely without
fear,  that  helps  you  to  inquire,  to  understand;  you  should  demand  it  of  your
teachers. Otherwise life is a waste, is it not? You are `educated’, you pass the
B.A. or the M.A. examinations, you get a job which you dislike but because you   32
have  to  earn  money;  you  are  married  and  have  children  –  and  there  you  are,
stuck for the rest of your life. You are miserable, unhappy, quarrelsome; you have
nothing  to  look  forward  to  except  more  babies,  more  hunger,  more  misery.  Do
you call this the purpose of education? Surely, education should help you to be
so  keenly  intelligent  that  you  do  what  you  love  to  do,  and  not  get  stuck  in
something stupid which makes you miserable for the rest of your life.
So,  while  you  are  young  you  should  awaken  within  yourself  the  flame  of
discontent; you should be in a state of revolution. This is the time to inquire, to
discover,  to  grow;  therefore  insist  that  your  parents  and  your  teachers  educate
you  properly.  Do  not  be  satisfied  merely  to  sit  in  a  classroom  and  absorb
information about this king or that war. Be discontented, go to your teachers and
inquire, find out. If they are not intelligent, by inquiring you will help them to be
intelligent; and when you leave the school you will be growing into maturity, into
real freedom. Then you will continue to learn right through life till you die, and you
will be a happy, intelligent human being.
Questioner: How are we to gain the habit of fearlessness?
Krishnamurti: Look at the words you have used. `Habit’ implies a movement
which is repeated over and over again. If you do something over and over again,
does  that  ensure  anything  except  monotony?  Is  fearlessness  a  habit?  Surely,
fearlessness comes only when you can meet the incidents of life and thrash them
out, when you can see them and examine them, but not with a jaded mind that is
caught in habit.
If you do things habitually, if you live in habits, then you are merely an imitative
machine.  Habit  is  repetition,  thoughtlessly  doing  the  same  thing  over  and  over
again, which is a process of building a wall round yourself. If you have built a wall
round  yourself  through  some  habit,  you  are  not  free  of  fear,  and  it  is  the  very
living  within  the  wall  that  makes  you  afraid.  When  you  have  the  intelligence  to
look  at  everything  that  happens  in  life, which means examining every problem,   33
every  incident,  every  thought  and  emotion,  every  reaction  –  only  then  is  there
freedom from fear.    34
Part One Chapter 3
We have been talking about fear and how to be rid of it, and we have seen
how fear perverts the mind so that it is not free, creative, and is therefore without
the enormously important quality of initiative.
I  think  we  should  also  consider  the  question  of  authority.  You  know  what
authority is; but do you know how authority comes into being? The government
has  authority,  has  it  not?  There  is  the  authority  of  the  State,  of  the  law,  of  the
policeman  and  the  solider.  Your  parents  and  your  teachers  have  a  certain
authority over you, they make you do what they think you ought to do – go to bed
at a certain time, eat the right kind of food, meet the right kind of people. They
discipline you, do they not? Why? They say it is good for your own good. Is it?
We will go into that. But first we must understand how authority arises – authority
being  coercion,  compulsion,  the  power  of  one  person  over  another,  of  the  few
over the many or the many over the few.
Because you happen to be my father or mother, have you a right over me?
What  right  has  anyone  to  treat  another  like  dirt?  What  do  you  think  creates
authority?
First, obviously, there is the desire on the part of each one of to find a safe
way of behaviour; we want to be told what to do. Being confused, worried, and
not knowing what to do, we go to priest, to a teacher, to a parent or to somebody
else, seeking a way out of our confusion. Because we think he knows better then
we do, we go to the guru, or some learned man, and ask him to tell us what to do.
So,  it  is  the  desire  in  us  to  find  a  particular  way  of  life,  a  way  of  conduct  that
creates authority, is it not?
Say, for instance, I go to a guru. I go to him because I think he is a great man
who knows the truth, who knows God, and who can therefore give me peace. I
don’t know anything about all this for myself, so I go to him, I prostrate myself,   35
offer him flowers, I give him my devotion. I have the desire to be comforted, to be
told  what  to  do,  so  I  create  an  authority.  That  authority  does  not  really  exist
outside of me.
While you are young, the teacher may point out that you do not know. But if he
is at all intelligent he will help you to grow to be intelligent also; he will help you to
understand your confusion so that you do not seek authority, his own or another.
There is outward authority of the State, of the law, of the police. We create this
authority  outwardly  because  we  have  property  which  we  want  to  protect.  The
property  is  ours  and  we  don’t  want  anyone  else  to  have  it,  so  we  create  a
government  which  protects  what  we  own.  The  government  becomes  our
authority; it is our invention, to protect us, to protect our way of life, our system of
thought. Gradually, through centuries, we establish a system of law, of authority –
the State, the government, the police, the army – to protect `me’ and `mine’.
There is also the authority of the ideal, which is not outward but inward. When
we  say,  «I  must  be  good,  I  must  not  be  envious,  I  must  feel  brotherly  to
everybody,»  we  create  in  our  minds  the  authority  of  the  ideal,  do  we  not?
Suppose I am intriguing, stupid, cruel, I want everything for myself, I want power.
That is the fact, it is what I actually am. But I think I must be brotherly because
religious people have said so, and also because it is convenient, it is profitable to
say  so;  therefore  I  create  brotherhood  as  an  ideal.  I  am  not  brotherly,  but  for
various reasons I want to be, so the ideal becomes my authority.
Now,  in  order  to  live  according  to  that  ideal,  I  discipline  myself.  I  feel  very
envious of you because you have a better coat, or a prettier sari, or more titles;
therefore I say, «I must not have envious feelings, I must be brotherly.» The ideal
has  become  my  authority,  and  according  to  that  ideal  I  try  to  live.  So  what
happens?  My  life  becomes  a  constant  battle  between  what  I  am  and  what  I
should be. I discipline myself – and the State also disciplines me. Whether it is
communist, capitalist or socialist, the State has ideas as to how I should behave.   36
There are those who say the State is all-important. If I live in such a State and do
anything contrary to the official ideology, I am coerced by the State – that is, by
the few who control the State.
There are two parts of us, the conscious part and the unconscious part. Do
you  understand  what  that  means?  Suppose  you  are  walking  along  the  road,
talking to a friend. Your conscious mind is occupied with your conversation, but
there  is  another  part  of  you  which  is  unconsciously  absorbing  innumerable
impressions  –  the  trees,  the  leaves,  the  birds,  the  sunlight  on  the  water.  This
impact  on  the  unconscious  from  outside  is  going  on  all  the  time,  though  your
conscious  mind  is  occupied;  and  what  the  unconscious  absorbs  is  much  more
important  than  what  the  conscious  absorbs.  The  conscious  mind  can  absorb
comparatively little. You consciously absorb what is taught in school, for example,
and  that  is  really  not  very  much.  But  the  unconscious  mind  is  constantly
absorbing the interactions between you and the teacher, between you and your
friends;  all  this  is  going  on  underground,  and  this  matters  much  more  than  the
mere  absorption  of  facts  on  the  surface.  Similarly,  during  these  talks  every
morning  the  unconscious  mind  is  constantly  absorbing  what  is  being  said,  and
later on, during the day or the week, you will suddenly remember it. That will have
a far greater effect on you than what you listen to consciously.
To come back: we create authority – the authority of the State, of the police,
the authority of the ideal, the authority of tradition. You want to do something, but
your father says, «Don’t do it.» you have to obey him, otherwise he will get angry,
and you are dependent on him for your food. He controls you through your fear,
does he not? Therefore he becomes your authority. Similarly, you are controlled
by tradition – you must do this and not that, you must wear your sari in a certain
way, you must not look at the boys or at the girls. Tradition tells you what to do;
and  tradition,  after  all,  is  knowledge,  is  it  not?  There  are  books  which  tell  you
what to do, the State tells you what to do, your parents tell you what to do, society
and religion tell you what to do. And what happens to you? You get crushed, you   37
are  just  broken.  You  never  think, act, live vitally, for you are afraid of all these
things. You say that you must obey, otherwise you will be helpless. Which means
what? That you create authority because you are seeking a safe way of conduct,
a secure manner of living. The very pursuit of security creates authority, and that
is why you become a mere slave, a cog in a machine, living without any capacity
to think, to create.
I do not know if you paint. If you do, generally the art teacher tells you how to
paint.  You  see  a  tree  and  you  copy  it.  But  to  paint  is  to  see  the  tree  and  to
express on canvas or on paper what you feel about the tree, what it signifies – the
movement of the leaves with the whisper of the wind among them. To do that, to
catch the movement of light and shade, you must be very sensitive. And how can
you be sensitive to anything if you are afraid and are all the time saying, «I must
do this, I must do that, otherwise what will people think?» Any sensitivity to what is
beautiful is gradually destroyed by authority.
So, the problem arises as to whether a school of this kind should discipline
you.  See  the  difficulties  which  the  teachers,  if  they  are  true  teachers,  have  to
face. You are a naughty girl or boy; if I am a teacher, should I discipline you. If I
discipline you, what happens? Being bigger than you are, having more authority
and all the rest of it, and because I am paid to do certain things, I force you to
obey. In doing so, am I not crippling your mind? Am I not beginning to destroy
your intelligence? If I force you to do a thing because I think it is right, am I not
making you stupid? And you like to be disciplined, to be forced to do things, even
though outwardly you may object. It gives you a sense of security. If you were not
forced,  you  think  you  would  be  really  bad,  you  would  do  things  which  are  not
right; therefore you say, «Please discipline me, help me to behave rightly.»
Now, should  I  discipline you,  or  rather help you to understand why you are
naughty,  why  you  do  this  or  that?  This  means,  surely,  that  as  a  teacher  or  a
parent  I  must  have  no  sense  of  authority.  I  must  really  want  to  help  you  to   38
understand your difficulties, why you are bad, why you run away; I must want you
to understand yourself. If I force you, I do not help you. If as a teacher I really
want to help you to understand yourself, it means that I can look after only a few
boys and girls. I cannot have fifty students in my class. I must have only a few, so
that  I  can  pay  individual  attention  to  each  child.  Then  I  shall  not  create  the
authority which coerces you to do something which you will probably do on your
own, once you understand yourself.
So, I hope you see how authority destroys intelligence. After all, intelligence
can come only when there is freedom – freedom to think, to feel, to observe, to
question. But if I compel you, I make you as stupid as I am; and this is generally
what happens in a school. The teacher thinks that he knows and that you do not
know.  But  what  does  the  teacher  know?  Little  more  than  mathematics  or
geography.  He  has  not  solved  any  vital  problems,  he  has  not  questioned  the
enormously  important  things  of  life  –  and  he  thunders  like  Jupiter,  or  like  a
sergeant major!
So,  in  a  school  of  this  kind,  it  is  important  that,  instead  of  merely  being
disciplined to do what you are told, you are helped to understand, to be intelligent
and free, for then you will be able to meet all the difficulties of life without fear.
This requires a competent teacher, a teacher who is really interested in you, who
is not worried about money, about his wife and children; and it is the responsibility
of the students as well as of the teachers to create such a state of affairs. Do not
trust obey, but find out how to think through a problem for yourself. Do not say, «I
am doing this thing because my father wants me to», but find out why he wants
you to do it, why he thinks one thing is good and something else is bad. Question
him, so that you not only awaken your own intelligence, but you help him also to
be intelligent.
But  what  generally  happens  if  you  begin  to  question  your  father?  He
disciplines you, does he not? He is preoccupied with his work and he has not the   39
patience, he has not the love to sit down and talk over with you the enormous
difficulties of existence, of earning a livelihood, of having a wife or a husband. He
does  not  want  to  take  the  time  to  go  into  all  this;  so  he  pushes  you  away,  or
sends you off to school. And in this matter the teacher is like your father, he is like
everybody else. But it is the responsibility of the teachers, of your parents, and of
all you students, to help to bring about intelligence.
Questioner: How is one to be intelligent?
Krishnamurti: What is implied in this question? You want a method by which to
be intelligent – which implies that you know what intelligence is. When you want to
go some place, you already know your destination and you only have to ask the
way. Similarly, you think you know what intelligence is, and you want a method by
which you can be intelligent. Intelligence is the very questioning of the method.
Fear  destroys  intelligence,  does  it  not?  Fear  prevents  you  from  examining,
questioning, inquiring; it prevents you from finding out what is true. Probably you
will  be  intelligent  when  there  is  no  fear.  So  you  have  to  inquire  into  the  whole
question of fear, and be free of fear; and then there is the possibility of your being
intelligent. But if you say, «How am I to be intelligent?» you are merely cultivating
a method, and so you become stupid. Questioner: Everybody knows we are all
going to die. Why are we afraid of death?
Krishnamurti: Why are you afraid of death? Is it perhaps because you do not
know how to live? If you knew how to live fully, would you be afraid of death? If
you loved the trees, the sunset, the birds, the falling leaf; if you were aware of
men and women in tears, of poor people, and really felt love in your heart, would
you  be  afraid  of  death?  Would  you?  Don’t  be  persuaded  by  me.  Let  us  think
about it together. You do not live with joy, you are not happy, you are not vitally
sensitive to things; and is that why you ask what is going to happen when you
die. Life for you is sorrow, and so you are much more interested in death. You
feel that perhaps there will  be  happiness  after  death.  But that is a tremendous   40
problem, and I do not know if you want to go into it. After all, fear is at the bottom
of all this – fear of dying, fear of living, fear of suffering. If you cannot understand
what it is that causes fear and be free of it, then it does not matter very much
whether you are living or dead.
Questioner: How can we live happily?
Krishnamurti: Do you know when you are living happily ? You know when you
are suffering, when you have physical pain. When somebody hits you or is angry
with  you,  you  know  suffering.  But  do  you  know  when  you  are  happy?  Are  you
conscious  of  your  body  when  you  are  healthy?  Surely,  happiness  is  a  state  of
which  you  are  unconscious,  of  which  you  are  not  aware.  The  moment  you  are
aware that you are happy, you cease to be happy, don’t you? But most of you
suffer; and being conscious of that, you want to escape from suffering into what
you call happiness. You want to be consciously happy; and the moment you are
consciously happy, happiness is gone. Can you ever say that you are joyous? It
is only afterwards, a moment or a week later that you say, «How happy I was,
how  joyous  I  have  been».  In  the  actual  moment  you  are  unconscious  of
happiness, and that is the beauty of it.    41
Part One Chapter 4
The problem of discipline is really quite complex, because most of us think that
through some form of discipline we shall eventually have freedom. Discipline is
the  cultivation  of  resistance,  is  it  not?  By  resisting,  by  building  a  barrier  within
ourselves  against  something  which  we  consider  wrong,  we  think  we  shall  be
more capable of understanding and of being free to live fully; but that is not a fact,
is  it?  The  more  you  resist  or  struggle  against  something,  the  less  you
comprehend it. Surely, it is only when there is freedom, real freedom to think, to
discover – that you can find out anything.
But freedom obviously cannot exist in a frame. And most of us live in a frame,
in  a  world  enclosed  by  ideas,  do  we  not?  For  instance,  you  are  told  by  your
parents and your teachers what is right and what is wrong, what is bad and what
is beneficial. You know what people say, what the priest says, what tradition says
and  what  you  have  learned  in  school.  All  this  forms  a  kind  of  enclosure  within
which you live; and, living in that enclosure, you say you are free. Are you? Can a
man ever be free as long as he lives in a prison?
So, one has to break down the prison walls of tradition, and find out for oneself
what is real, what is true. One has to experiment and discover on one’s own, and
not  merely  follow  somebody,  however  good,  however  noble  and  exciting  that
person  may  be,  and  however  happy  one  may  feel  in  his  presence.  What  has
significance is to be able to examine and not just accept all the values created by
tradition,  all  the  things  that  people  have  said  are  good,  beneficial,  worth  while.
The  moment  you  accept,  you  begin  to  conform,  to  imitate;  and  conforming,
imitating, following, can never make one free and happy.
Our elders say that you must be disciplined. Discipline is imposed upon you by
yourself, and by others from outside. But what is important is to be free to think,
to inquire, so that you begin to find out for yourself. Unfortunately, most people do   42
not want to think, to find out; they have closed minds. To think deeply, to go into
things  and  discover  for  oneself  what  is  true,  is  very  difficult;  it  requires  alert
perception, constant inquiry, and most people have neither the inclination nor the
energy  for  that.  They  say,  «You  know  better  than  I  do;  you  are  my  guru,  my
teacher, and I shall follow you.»
So, it is very important, that from the tenderest age you are free to find out,
and are not enclosed by a wall of do’s and don’ts; for if you are constantly told
what to do and what not to do, what will happen to your intelligence? You will be
a thoughtless entity who just walks into some career, who is told by his parents
whom to marry or not to marry; and that is obviously not the action of intelligence.
You  may  pass  your  examinations  and  be  very  well  off,  you  may  have  good
clothes and plenty of jewels, you may have friends and prestige; but as long as
you are bound by tradition, there can be no intelligence.
Surely, intelligence comes into being only when you are free to question, free
to think out and discover, so that your mind becomes very active, very alert and
clear. Then you are a fully integrated individual – not a frightened entity who, not
knowing  what  to  do,  inwardly  feels  one  thing  and  outwardly  conforms  to
something different.
Intelligence demands that you break away from tradition and live on your own;
but you are enclosed by your parents’ ideas of what you should do and what you
should  not  do,  and  by  the  traditions  of  society.  So  there  is  a  conflict  going  on
inwardly, is there not? You are all young, but I don’t think you are too young to be
aware  of  this.  You  want  to  do  something,  but  your  parents  and  teachers  say,
«Don’t».  So  there  is  an  inward  struggle  going  on;  and  as  long  as  you  do  not
resolve  that  struggle  you  are  going  to  be  caught  in  conflict,  in  pain,  in  sorrow,
everlastingly wanting to do something and being prevented from doing it.
If  you  go  into  it  very  carefully  you  will  see  that  discipline  and  freedom  are
contradictory, and that in seeking real freedom there is set going quite a different   43
process  which  brings  its  own  clarification  so  that  you  must  do  not  do  certain
things.
While you are young it is very important that you be free to find out, and be
helped to find out, what you really want to do in life. If you don’t find out while you
are young, you will never find out, you will never be free and happy individuals.
The seed must be sown now, so that you begin now to take the initiative. On the
road you have often passed villagers carrying heavy loads, have you not? What
is your feeling about them? Those poor women with torn and dirty clothes, with
insufficient food, working day after day for a pittance – do you have any feeling for
them?  Or  are  you  so  frightened,  so  concerned  about  yourself,  about  your
examinations,  about  your  looks,  about  your  saris,  that  you  never  pay  any
attention to them? Do you feel you are much better than they, that you belong to
a higher class and therefore need have no regard for them? When you see them
go by, what do you feel? Don’t you want to help them? No? That indicates how
you are thinking. Are you so dulled by centuries of tradition, by what your fathers
and mothers say, so conscious of belonging to a certain class, that you do not
even look at the villagers? Are you actually so blinded that you do not know what
is happening around you?
It is fear – fear of what your parents will say, of what the teachers will say, fear
of tradition, fear of life – that gradually destroys sensitivity, is it not? Do you know
what  sensitivity  is?  To  be  sensitive  is  to  feel,  to  receive  impressions,  to  have
sympathy for those who are suffering, to have affection, to be aware of the things
that are happening around you. When the temple bell is ringing, are you aware of
it? Do you listen to the sound? Do you ever see the sunlight on the water? Are
you  aware  of  the  poor  people,  the  villagers who have been controlled,  trodden
down  for  centuries  by  exploiters?  When  you  see  a  servant  carrying  a  heavy
carpet, do you give him a helping hand?    44
All this implies sensitivity. But, you see, sensitivity is destroyed when one is
disciplined, when one is fearful or concerned with oneself. To be concerned about
one’s looks, about one’s saris, to think about oneself all the time – which most of
us do in some form or other – is to be insensitive, for then the mind and heart are
enclosed and one loses all appreciation of beauty.
To  be  really  free  implies  great  sensitivity.  There  is  no  freedom  if  you  are
enclosed by self-interest or by various walls of discipline. As long as your life is a
process of imitation there can be no sensitivity, no freedom. It is very important,
while you are here, to sow the seed of freedom, which is to awaken intelligence;
for with that intelligence you can tackle all the problems of life. Questioner: Is it
practicable for a man to free himself from all sense of fear and at the same time
to stay with society?
Krishnamurti: What is society? A set of values a set of rules, regulations and
traditions, is it not? You see these conditions from outside and you say, «Can I
have a practical relationship with all that?» Why not? After all, if you merely fit into
that framework of values, are you free? And what do you mean by `practicable’?
Do you mean earning a livelihood? There are many things you can do to earn a
livelihood; and if you are free, can you not choose what you want to do? Is that
not practicable? Or would you consider it practicable to forget your freedom and
just fit into the framework, becoming a lawyer, a banker, a merchant, or a road
sweeper?  Surely,  if  you  are  free  and  have  cultivated  your  intelligence,  you  will
find out what is the best thing for you to do. You will brush aside all traditions and
do something which you really love to do, regardless of whether your parents and
society approve or disapprove. Because you are free, there is intelligence, and
you will do something which is completely your own, you will act as an integrated
human being.
Questioner: What is God?    45
Krishnamurti:  How  are  you  going  to  find  out?  Are  you  going  to  accept
somebody else’s information? Or are you going to try to discover for yourself what
God is? It is easy to ask questions, but to experience the truth requires a great
deal of intelligence, a great deal of inquiry and search.
So the first question is, are you going to accept what another says about God?
It does not matter who it is, Krishna, Buddha or Christ, because they may all be
mistaken – and so may your own particular guru be mistaken. Surely, to find out
what is true your mind must be free to inquire, which means that it cannot merely
accept or believe. I can give you a description of the truth, but it will not be the
same  thing  as  your  experiencing  the  truth  for  yourself.  All  the  sacred  books
describe what God is, but that description is not God. The word `God’ is not God,
is  it?  To  find  out  what  is  true  you  must  never  accept,  you  must  never  be
influenced by what the books, the teachers or anyone else may say. If you are
influenced by them, you will find only what they want you to find. And you must
know that your own mind can create the image of what it wants; it can imagine
God with a beard, or with one eye; it can make him blue or purple. So you have to
be aware of your own desires and not be deceived by the projections of your own
wants and longings. If you long to see God in a certain form the image you see
will be according to your wishes; and that image will not be God, will it? If you are
in  sorrow  and  want  to  be  comforted,  or if  you  feel  sentimental  and  romantic  in
your religious aspirations, eventually you will create a God who will supply what
you want; but it will still not be God.
So, your mind must be completely free, and only then can you find out what is
true – not by the acceptance of some superstition, nor by the reading of the so-
called sacred books, nor by the following of some guru. Only when you have this
freedom,  this  real  freedom  from  external  influences  as  well  as  from  your  own
desires and longings so that your mind is very clear – only then is it possible to
find out what God is. But if you merely sit down and speculate, then your guess is
as good as your guru’s, and equally illusory.    46
Questioner: Can we be aware of our unconscious desires?
Krishnamurti:  First  of  all,  are  you aware of your conscious desires? Do you
know what desire is? Are you aware that usually you do not listen to anyone who
is saying something contrary to what you believe? Your desire prevents you from
listening. If you desire God, and somebody points out that the God you desire is
the outcome of your frustrations and fears, will you listen to him? Of course not.
You want one thing, and the truth is something quite different. You limit yourself
within your own desires. You are only half-aware of your conscious desires, are
you not? And to be aware of the desires that are deeply hidden is much more
difficult. To find out what is hidden, to discover what its own motives are the mind
which  is  seeking  must  be  fairly  clear  and  free.  So,  first  be  fully  aware  of  your
Conscious  desires;  then,  as  you  become  increasingly  aware  of  what  is  on  the
surface, you can go deeper and deeper.
Questioner: Why are some people born in poor circumstances, while others
are rich and well-to-do?
Krishnamurti:  What  do  you  think?  Instead  of  asking  me  and  waiting  for  my
answer, why do you not find out what you feel about it? Do you think it is some
mysterious  process  which  you  call  karma?  In  a  former  life  you  lived  nobly  and
therefore  you  are  now  being  rewarded  with  wealth  and  position!  Is  that  it?  Or,
having acted very badly in a former life, you are paying for it in this life!
You see, this is really a very complex problem. Poverty is the, fault of society –
a society in which the greedy and the cunning exploit and rise to the top. We want
the same thing, we also want to climb the ladder and get to the top. And when all
of us want to get to the top, what happens? We tread on somebody; and the man
who  is  trodden  on,  who  is  destroyed,  asks,  «Why  is  life  so  unfair?  You  have
everything and I have no capacity, I have nothing». As long as we go on climbing
the ladder of success, there will always be the sick and the unfed. It is the desire
for success that has to be understood, and not why there are the rich and the   47
poor, or why some have talent and others have none. What has to be changed is
our own desire to climb, our desire to be great, to be a success. We all aspire to
succeed,  do  we  not?  There  lies  the  fault,  and  not  in  karma  or  any  other
explanation. The actual fact is that we all want to be at the top – perhaps not right
at the top, but at least as high up the ladder as we can climb. As long as there is
this dive to be great, to be somebody in the world, we are going to have the rich
and the poor, the exploiter and those who are exploited.
Questioner: Is God a man or a woman, or something completely mysterious?
Krishnamurti: I have just answered that question, and I am afraid you did not
listen. This country is dominated by men. Suppose I said that God is a lady, what
would you do? You would reject it because you are full of the idea that God is a
man. So you have to find out for yourself; but to find out, you must be free of all
prejudice.    48
Part One Chapter 5
We have been talking the last three or four times about fear; and as it is one of
the fundamental causes of our deterioration, I think we ought to look at it from a
different angle, a different point of view.
You  know,  we  are  always  told  what  to  think  and  what  not  to  think.  Books,
teachers, parents, the society around us, all tell us what to think, but they never
help  us  to  find  out  how  to  think.  To  know  what  to  think  is  comparatively  easy,
because from early childhood our minds are conditioned by words, by phrases,
by established attitudes and prejudices. I do not know if you have noticed how the
minds of most older people are fixed; they are set like clay in a mould, and it is
very  difficult  to  break  through  this  mould.  This  moulding  of  the  mind  is  its
conditioning.
Here  in  India  you  are  conditioned  to  think  in  a  certain  way  by  centuries  of
tradition; your conditioning has economic, social and religious causes. In Europe
the  mind  is  conditioned  in  a  somewhat  different  way;  and  in  Russia,  since  the
revolution,  the  political  leaders  have  set  about  conditioning  the  mind  in  still
another way. So, everywhere the mind is being conditioned, not only superficially,
consciously, but also deeply. The hidden or unconscious mind is conditioned by
the race, by the climate, by un-verbalized and un-uttered imitations.
Now, the mind cannot be free as long as it remains moulded or conditioned.
And  most  people  think  that you  can  never  free  your  mind  from  its  conditioning
that it must always be conditioned. They say that you cannot help having certain
ways of thinking, certain prejudices, and that there can be no release, no freedom
for  the  mind.  Furthermore,  the  older  the  civilization,  the  greater  the  weight  of
tradition, of authority, of discipline which burdens the mind. People who belong to
an old race, as in India, are more conditioned than those who live in America, for   49
example,  where  there  is  more  social  and  economic  freedom,  and  where  the
people have fairly recently been pioneers.
A  conditioned  mind  is  not  free  because  it  can  never  go  beyond  its  own
borders,  beyond  the  barriers  it  has  built  around  itself;  that  is  obvious.  And  it  is
very  difficult  for  such  a  mind  to  free  itself  from  its conditioning and go beyond,
because  this  conditioning  is  imposed  upon  it,  not  only  by  society,  but  by  itself.
You like your conditioning because you dare not go beyond. You are frightened of
what your father and mother would say, of what society and the priest would say;
therefore  you  help  to  create  the  barriers  which  hold  you.  This  is  the  prison  in
which most of us are caught, and that is why your parents are always telling you –
as you in turn will tell your children – to do this and not do that.
What does generally happen in a school, especially if you like your teacher? If
you like your teacher, you want to follow him, you want to imitate him; therefore
the conditioning of your mind becomes more and more rigid, permanent. Say, for
instance,  you  are  in  a  hostel  under  a  teacher  who  performs  his  daily  religious
ritual. You like the show of it, or the beauty of it, so you begin to do it too. In other
words, you are being further conditioned; and such conditioning is very effective,
because  when  one  is  young,  one  is  eager,  impressionable,  imitative.  I  do  not
know if you are creative – probably not, because your parents will not allow you to
go outside the wall, they do not want you to look beyond your conditioning. Then,
you are married off and fitted into a mould, and there you are stuck for the rest of
your life.
While  you  are  young,  you  are  easily  conditioned,  shaped,  forced  into  a
pattern. It is said that if a child – a good, intelligent, alert child – is trained by a
priest for only seven years, the child will be so conditioned that for the rest of his
life he will continue essentially in the same way. That can happen in a school of
this kind, where the teachers themselves are not free of conditioning. They are
just like everybody else. They do their rituals, they have their fears, their desire   50
for  a  guru;  and  as  you  are  taught  by  them  –  and  also  because  you  may  like  a
particular teacher, or because you see a beautiful ritual and want to do it too –
unconsciously you get caught in imitation.
Why do older people perform rituals? Because their fathers did it before them,
and  also  because  it  gives  them  certain  feelings,  sensations,  it  makes  them
inwardly quiet. They chant some prayers, thinking that if they do not do so they
might be lost. And the young people copy them, so your imitation begins.
If the teacher himself would question all this ritualism, if he would really think
about  it  –  which  very  few  people  ever  do  –  ,  if  he  would  use  his  intelligence  to
examine it without prejudice, he would soon find out that it has no meaning. But
to  investigate  and  discover  the  truth  of  the  matter  requires  a  great  deal  of
freedom. If you are already prejudiced in favour of something and then proceed to
investigate  it,  there  can  obviously  be  no  investigation.  You  will  only  strengthen
your bias, your prejudice.
So,  it  is  very  important  for  the  teachers  to  set  about  unconditioning
themselves, and also to help the children to be free of conditioning. Knowing the
conditioning  influence  of  parents,  of  tradition,  of  society,  the  teacher  must
encourage the children not thoughtlessly to accept, but to investigate, to question.
If you observe as you grow, you will begin to see how various influences are
moulding  you,  how  you  are  not  helped  to  think,  but  are  told  what  to  think.
Ultimately, if you do not revolt against this process, you become like an automatic
machine, functioning without creativity, without much original thought.
You are all afraid that if you do not fit into society, you will be unable to earn a
livelihood. If your father is a lawyer, you think that you also must be a lawyer. If
you are a girl, you submit to being married off. So what happens? You start out
as a young person with lots of vitality, and enthusiasm, but all this is gradually
destroyed  by  the  conditioning  influence  of  your  parents  and  teachers  with  their   51
prejudices, fears and superstitions. You leave school and go out into the world
filled with information, but you have lost the vitality to inquire, the vitality to revolt
against the traditional stupidities of society. You sit here listening to all this – and
what  is  going  to  happen  when  you  have  finally  passed  your  B.A.  or  M.A.
examinations?  you  know  very  well  what  is  going  to  happen.  Unless  you  are  in
revolt,  you  will  be  just  like  the  rest  of  the  world  because  you  dare  not  be
otherwise. You will be so conditioned, so moulded, that you will be afraid to strike
out on your own. Your husband will control you, or your wife will control you, and
society will tell you what you must do; so, generation after generation, imitation
goes on. There is no real initiative, there is no freedom, there is no happiness;
there is nothing but slow death. What is the point of being educated, of learning to
read and write, if you are just going to carry on like a machine? But that is what
your parents want, and it is what the world wants. The world does not want you to
think, it does not want you to be free to find out, because then you would be a
dangerous  citizen,  you  would  not  fit  into the established pattern.  A  free  human
being can never feel that he belongs to any particular country, class, or type of
thinking. Freedom means freedom at every level, right through, and to think only
along a particular line is not freedom.
So  while  you  are  young  it  is  very  important  to  be  free,  not  only  at  the
conscious level, but also deep inside. This means that you must be watchful of
yourself,  more  and  more  aware  of  the  influences  which  seek  to  control  or
dominate  you;  it  means  that  you  must  never  thoughtlessly  accept,  but  always
question, investigate and be in revolt.
Questioner: How can we make our minds free when we live in a society full of
tradition?
Krishnamurti: First you must have the urge, the demand to be free. It is like the
longing of the bird to fly, or of the waters of the river to flow. Have you this urge to
be free? If you have, then what will happen? Your parents and society try to force   52
you into a mould. Can you resist them? You will find it difficult, because you are
afraid. You are afraid of not getting a job, of not finding the right husband or the
right wife; you are afraid you will starve, or that people will talk about you. Though
you want to be free, you are afraid, so you are not going to resist. Your fear of
what people may say, or of what your parents may do, blocks you, and so you
are forced into the mould.
Now,  can  you  say,  «I  want  to  know,  and  I  do  not  mind  standing.  Whatever
happens, I am going to battle against the barriers of this rotten society, because I
want to be free to find out.» Can you say that? When you are frightened, can you
withstand all these barriers, all these impositions?
So,  it  is  very  important  from  the  tenderest  age  to  help  the  child  to  see  the
implications of fear, and be free of it. The moment you are frightened, there is an
end to freedom.
Questioner: Since we have been brought up in a society based on fear, how is
it possible for us to be free of fear?
Krishnamurti: Are you aware that you are frightened? If you are, how are you
going to be free of fear? You and I have to find out, so do think it out with me.
When  you  are  conscious  that  you  are  frightened,  what  do  you  actually  do?
You run away from it, don’t you? You pick up a book, or go out for a walk; you try
to forget it. You are afraid of your parents, of society; you are conscious of that
fear, and you do not know how to resolve it. You are really frightened even to look
at  it,  so  you  run  away  from  it  in  various  directions.  That  is  why  you  keep  on
studying and passing examinations till the last moment, when you have to face
the inevitable and act. You continually try to escape from your problem, but that
will not help you to resolve it. You have to face it.
Now, can you look at your fear? If you want to examine a bird, observe the
shape of its wings, its legs, its beak, you must go very close to it, must you not?   53
Similarly, if you are afraid, you must look very closely at your fear. When you run
away from it you only increase fear.
Say,  for  instance,  you  want  to  give  your  life  to  something  which  you  really
love,  but  your  parents  tell  you  that  you  must  not  do  it  and  threaten  you  with
something terrible if you do. They say they will not give you any money, and you
are frightened. You are so frightened that you dare not even look at your fear. So
you give way, and fear continues. Questioner: What is real freedom, and how is
one to acquire it?
Krishnamurti: Real freedom is not something to be acquired, it is the outcome
of intelligence. You cannot go out and buy freedom in the market. You cannot get
it  by  reading  a  book,  or  by  listening  to  someone  talk.  Freedom  comes  with
intelligence.
But what is intelligence? Can there be intelligence when there is fear, or when
the mind is conditioned? When your mind is prejudiced, or when you think you
are a marvellous human being, or when you are very ambitious and want to climb
the ladder of success, wordily or spiritual, can there be intelligence? When you
are concerned about yourself, when you follow or worship somebody, can there
be intelligence? Surely, intelligence comes when you understand and break away
from  all  this  stupidity.  So  you  have  to  set  about  it;  and  the  first  thing  is  to  be
aware that your mind is not free. You have to observe how your mind is bound by
all  these  things,  and  then  there  is  the  beginning  of  intelligence,  which  brings
freedom. You have to find the answer for yourself. What is the use of someone
else being free when you are not, or of someone else having food when you are
hungry?
To be creative, which is to have real initiative, there must be freedom; and for
freedom there must be intelligence. So you have to inquire and find out what is
preventing intelligence. You have to investigate life, you have to question social
values, everything, and not accept anything because you are frightened.    54  55
Part One Chapter 6
Perhaps we can approach the problem of fear from still another angle. Fear
does  extraordinary  things  to  most  of  us.  It  creates  all  kinds  of  illusions  and
problems. Until we go into it very deeply and really understand it, fear will always
distort our actions. Fear twists our ideas and makes crooked the way of our life; it
creates barriers between people, and it certainly destroys love. So the more we
go into fear, the more we understand and are really free of it, the greater will be
our contact with all that is around us. At present our vital contacts with life are
very few, are they not? But if we can free ourselves of fear we shall have wide
contacts, deep understanding, real sympathy, loving consideration, and great will
be the extension of our horizon. So let us see if we can talk about fear from a
different point of view.
I wonder if you have noticed that most of us want some kind of psychological
safety. We want security, somebody on whom to lean. As a small child holds on
to the mother’s hand, so we want something to cling to; we want somebody to
love us. Without a sense of security, without a mental safeguard, we feel lost, do
we not? We are used to leaning on others, looking to others to guide and help us,
and without this support we feel confused, afraid, we do not know what to think,
how  to  act.  The  moment  we  are  left  to  ourselves,  we  feel  lonely,  insecure,
uncertain. From this arises fear, does it not?
So we want something to give us a sense of certainty and we have safeguards
of many different kinds. We have inward as well as outward protection. When we
close the windows and doors of our house and stay inside, we feel very secure,
we feel safe, unmolested. But life is not like that. Life is constantly knocking at our
door, trying to push open our windows so that we may see more; and if out of fear
we  lock  the  doors,  bolt  all  the  windows,  the  knocking  only  grows  louder.  The
closer we cling to security in any form, the more life comes and pushes us. The
more we are afraid and enclose ourselves, the greater is our suffering, because   56
life won’t leave us alone. We want to be secure but life says we cannot be; and so
our struggle begins. We seek security in society, in tradition, in our relationship
with our fathers and mothers, with our wives or husbands; but life always breaks
through the walls of our security.
We also seek security or comfort in ideas, do we not? Have you observed how
ideas come into being and how the mind clings to them? You have an idea of
something beautiful you saw when you were out for a walk, and your mind goes
back to that idea, that memory. You read a book and you get an idea to which
you cling. So you must see how ideas arise, and how they become a means of
inward comfort, security, something to which the mind clings.
Have you ever thought about this question of ideas? If you have an idea and I
have an idea, and each of us thinks that his own idea is better than the other’s,
we  struggle,  don’t  we?  I  try  to  convince  you,  and  you  try  to  convince  me.  The
whole world is built on ideas and the conflict between them; and if you go into it,
you will find that merely clinging to an idea has no meaning. But have you noticed
how your father, your mother, your teachers, your aunts and uncles all cling hard
to what they think?
Now, how does an idea come into being? How do you get an idea? When you
have the idea of going out for a walk, for example, how does it arise? It is very
interesting to find out. If you observe you will see how an idea of that kind arises,
and how your mind clings to it, pushing everything else aside. The idea of going
out for a walk is a response to a sensation, is it not? You have gone out for a
walk before and it has left a pleasurable feeling or sensation; you want to do it
again, so the idea is created and then put into action. When you see a beautiful
car, there is a sensation, is there not? The sensation comes from the very looking
at the car. The seeing creates the sensation. From the sensation there is born the
idea, «I want that car, it is my car», and the idea then becomes very dominant.    57
We seek security in outward possessions and relationships, and also in inward
ideas or beliefs. I believe in God, in rituals, I believe that I should be married in a
certain way, I believe in reincarnation, in life after death, and so on. These beliefs
are  all  created  by  my  desires,  by  my  prejudices,  and  to  these  beliefs  I  cling.  I
have external securities, outside the skin as it were, and also inward securities;
remove or question them, and I am afraid; I will push you away, I will battle with
you if you threaten my security.
Now, is there any such thing as security? Do you understand? We have ideas
about security. We may feel safe with our parents, or in a particular job. The way
we think, the way of our life, the way we look at things – with all this we may feel
satisfied. Most of us are very content to be enclosed in safe ideas. But can we
ever  be  safe,  can  we  ever  be  secure,  however  many  outward  or  inward
safeguards we may have? Outwardly, one’s bank may fail tomorrow, one’s father
or mother may die, there may be a revolution. But is there any safety in ideas?
We like to think we are safe in our ideas, in our beliefs, in our prejudices; but are
we?  They  are  walls  which  are  not  real;  they  are  merely  our  conceptions,  our
sensations. We like to believe there is a God who is looking after us, or that we
are going to be reborn richer, more noble than we are now. That may be, or it
may not be. So we can see for ourselves, if we look into both the outward and the
inward securities, that there is no safety in life at all.
If  you  ask  the  refugees  from  Pakistan  or  from  Eastern  Europe,  they  will
certainly tell you that there is no outward security. But they feel there is security
inwardly, and they cling to that idea. You may lose your outward security, but you
are then all the more eager to build your security inwardly, and you do not want to
let it go. This implies greater fear.
If tomorrow, or in a few years time, your parents tell you whom they want you
to marry, will you be frightened? Of course not, because you have been brought
up to do exactly as you are told; you have been taught by your parents, by the   58
guru, by the priest to think along certain lines, to act in a certain manner, to hold
certain  beliefs.  But  if  you  were  asked  to  decide  for  yourself,  would  you  not  be
completely at a loss? If your parents told you to marry whom you like, you would
shiver, wouldn’t you? Having been thoroughly conditioned by tradition, by fears,
you don’t want to be left to decide things for yourself. In being left alone there is
danger, and you never want to be left alone. You never want to think out anything
for yourself. You never want to go out for a walk by yourself. You all want to be
doing something like active ants. You are afraid to think out any problem, to face
any of life’s demands; and being frightened, you do chaotic  and absurd things.
Like a man with a begging bowl, you thoughtlessly accept whatever is offered.
Seeing  all  this,  a  really  thoughtful  person  begins  to  free  himself  from  every
kind of security, inward or outward. This is extremely difficult, because it means
that you are alone – alone in the sense that you are not dependent. The moment
you depend, there is fear; and where there is fear, there is no love. When you
love,  you  are  not  lonely.  The  sense  of  loneliness  arises  only  when  you  are
frightened of being alone and of not knowing what to do. When you are controlled
by ideas, isolated by beliefs, then fear is inevitable; and when you are afraid, you
are completely blind.
So, the teachers and the parents together have to solve this problem of fear.
But  unfortunately  your  parents  are  afraid  of  what  you  might  do  if  you  don’t  get
married, or if you don’t get a job. They are afraid of your going wrong, or of what
people  might  say,  and  because  of  this  fear  they  want  to  make  you  do  certain
things. Their fear is clothed in what they call love. They want to look after you,
therefore you must do this or that. But if you go behind the wall of their so-called
affection  and  consideration,  you  will  find  there  is  fear  for  your  safety,  for  your
respectability;  and  you  also  are  afraid  because  you  have  depended  on  other
people for so long.    59
That is why it is very important that you should, from the tenderest age, begin
to question and break down these feelings of fear so that you are not isolated by
them, and are not enclosed in ideas, in traditions, in habits, but are a free human
being with creative vitality.
Questioner: Why are we afraid, even though we know that God protects us?
Krishnamurti: That is what you have been told. Your father, your mother, your
older brother have all told you that God protects you; it is an idea, to which you
cling, and still there is fear. Though you have this idea, this thought, this feeling
that God protects you, the fact is that you are afraid. Your fear is the real thing,
not your idea that you are going to be protected by God because your parents
and your tradition assert that you will be.
Now,  what  is  actually  happening?  Are  you  being  protected?  Look  at  the
millions of people who are not protected, who are starving. Look at the villagers
who  carry  heavy  burdens,  who  are  hungry,  dirty,  with  torn  clothes.  Are  they
protected  by  God?  Because  you  have  more  money  than  others,  because  you
have a certain social position, because your father is an official, or a collector, or
a merchant who has cleverly cheated somebody, should you be protected while
millions in the world are going without sufficient food, without proper clothing and
shelter. You hope that the poor and the starving are going to be protected by the
State,  by  their  employers,  by  society,  by  God;  but  they  are  not  going  to  be
protected. Really there is no protection, even though you like to feel that God will
protect  you.  It  is  just  a  nice  idea  to  pacify  your  fear;  so  you  do  not  question
anything, but just believe in God. To start with the idea that you are going to be
protected by God, has no meaning. But if you really go into this whole problem of
fear, then you will find out whether God will protect you or not.
When  there  is  the  feeling  of  affection,  there  is  no  fear,  no  exploitation,  and
then there is no problem.    60
Questioner: What is society?
Krishnamurti: What is society? And what is the family? Let us find out, step by
step, how society is created, how it comes into being.
What is the family? When you say, «This is my family», what do you mean?
Your father, your mother, your brother and sister, the sense of closeness, the fact
that you are living together in the same house, the feeling that your parents are
going to protect you, the ownership of certain property, of jewels, saris, clothes –
all this is the basis of the family. There are other families like yours living in other
houses, feeling exactly the same things you feel, having the sense of `my wife’,
`my husband’, `my children’, `my house’, `my clothes’, `my car; there are many
such families living on the same piece of earth, and they come to have the feeling
that they must not be invaded by still other families. So they begin to make laws.
The  powerful  families  build  themselves  into  high  positions,  they  acquire  big
properties,  they  have  more  money,  more  clothes,  more  cars;  they  get  together
and frame the laws, they tell the rest of us what to do. So gradually there comes
into being a society, with laws, regulations, police- men, with an army and a navy.
Ultimately the whole earth becomes populated by societies of various kinds. Then
people get antagonistic ideas and want to overthrow those who are established in
high positions, who have all the means of power. They break down that particular
society and form another.
Society  is  the  relationship  between  people  –  the  relationship  between  one
person  and  another,  between  one  family  and  another,  between  one  group  and
another, and between the individual and the group. Human relationship is society,
the relationship between you and me. If I am very greedy, very cunning, if I have
great power and authority, I am going to push you out; and you will try to do the
same to me. So we make laws. But others come and break our laws, establishing
another  set  of  laws,  and  this  goes  on  all  the  time.  In  society,  which  is  human
relationship, there is constant conflict. This is the simple basis of society, which   61
becomes more and more complex  as  human  beings  themselves  become  more
and  more  complex  in  their  ideas,  in  their  wants,  in  their  institutions  and  their
industries.
Questioner: Can you be free while living in this society?
Krishnamurti: If I depend on society for my satisfaction, for my comfort, can I
ever be free? If I depend on my father for affection, for money, for the initiative to
do things, or if I depend in some way on a guru, I am not free, am I? So, is it
possible to be free as long as I am psychologically dependent? Surely, freedom is
possible  only  when  I  have  capacity,  initiative,  when  I  can  think  independently,
when I am not afraid of what anyone says, when I really want to find out what is
true and am not greedy, envious, jealous. As long as I am envious, greedy, I am
psychologically depending on society; and as long as I depend on society in that
way, I am not free. But if I cease to be greedy, I am free.
Questioner: Why do people want to live in society when they can live alone?
Krishnamurti:  Can  you  live  alone?  Questioner:  I  live  in  society  because  my
father and mother live in society.
Krishnamurti: To get a job, to earn a livelihood, have you not to live in society?
Can  you  live  alone?  For  your  food,  clothing  and  shelter  you  depend  on
somebody. You cannot live in isolation. No entity is completely alone. It is only in
death that you are alone. In living you are always related – related to your father,
to  your  brother,  to  the  beggar,  to  the  road-mender,  to  the  merchant,  to  the
collector.  You  are  always  related;  and  because  you  do  not  understand  that
relationship,  there  is  conflict.  But  if  you  understand  the  relationship  between
yourself  and  another,  there  is  no  conflict,  and then the question of living alone
does not arise.
Questioner: Since we are always related to one another, is it not true that we
can never be absolutely free?    62
Krishnamurti:  We  don’t  understand  what  relationship  is,  right  relationship.
Suppose  I  depend on you for my gratification, for  my  comfort,  for  my  sense  of
security;  how  can  I  ever  be  free?  But  if  I  do  not  depend  in  that  way,  I  am  still
related to you, am I not? I depend on you for some kind of emotional, physical or
intellectual comfort, therefore I am not free. I cling to my parents because I want
some  kind  of  safety,  which  means  that  my  relationship  to  them  is  one  of
dependence and is based on fear. How then can I have any relationship which is
free? There is freedom in relationship only when there is no fear. So, to have right
relationship, I must set about freeing myself from this psychological dependency
which breeds fear.
Questioner: How can we be free when our parents depend on us in their old
age.
Krishnamurti: Because they are old, they depend on you to support them. So
what happens? They expect you to earn a livelihood that will enable you to clothe
and feed them; and if what you want to do is to become a carpenter or an artist,
even though you may earn no money at all, they will say that you must not do it
because  you  have  to  support  them.  Just  think  about  this.  I  am  not  saying  it  is
good or bad. By saying it is good or bad we put an end to thinking. Your parents
demand that you should provide for them prevents you from living your own life,
and living your own life is considered selfish; so you become the slave of your
parents.
You  may  say  that  the  State  should  look  after  old  people  through  old  age
pensions  and  various  other  means  of  security.  But  in  a  country  where  there  is
overpopulation,  insufficiency  of  national  income,  lack  of  productivity  and  so  on,
the State cannot look after old people. So elderly parents depend on the young,
and the young always fit into the groove of tradition and are destroyed. But this is
not a problem to be discussed by me. You all have to think about it and work it
out.    63
I naturally want to support my parents within reasonable limits. But suppose I
also want to do something which pays very little. Suppose I want to become a
religious person and live my life to finding out what God is, what truth is. That way
of living may not bring me any money, and if I pursue it I may have to give up my
family – which means they will probably starve, like millions of other people. What
am I to do? As long as I am afraid of what people will say – that I am not a dutiful
son, that I am an unworthy son – I shall never be a creative human being. To be a
happy, creative human being, I must have a great deal of initiative.
Questioner: Would it be good on our part to allow our parents to starve?
Krishnamurti: You are not putting it in the right way. Suppose I really want to
become an artist, a painter, and I know painting will bring me very little money.
What am I to do? Sacrifice my deep urge to paint and become a clerk? That is
what generally happens, is it not? I become a clerk, and for the rest of my life I
am in great conflict, I am in misery; and because I am suffering, frustrated, I make
life  miserable  for  my  wife  and  children.  But  if,  as  a  young  artist,  I  see  the
significance of all this, I say to my parents, «I want to paint and I will give you what
I can from the little I have; that is all I can do».
You have asked certain questions, and I have answered them. But if you do
not really think about these questions, if you do not go into them for yourself more
and  more  deeply  and  approach  them  from  different  angles,  look  at  them  in
different ways, then you will only say, «This is good and that is bad; this is duty
and that is not duty; this is right and that is wrong» – and this will not lead you any
further. Whereas, if you and I think about all these questions together, and if you
and your parents and teachers discuss them, go into them, then your intelligence
will be awakened, and when  these  problems  arise  in  your daily life you will be
able to meet them. But you will not be able to meet them if you merely accept
what  I  am  saying.  My  answers  to  your  questions  are  only  intended  to  awaken   64
your intelligence, so that you will think out these problems for yourself and thus
be capable of meeting life rightly.    65
Part One Chapter 7
You know I have been talking about fear; and it is very important for us to be
conscious and aware of fear. Do you know how it comes into being? Throughout
the world we can see that people are perverted by fear, twisted in their ideas, in
their feelings, in their activities. So we ought to go into the problem of fear from
every possible angle, not only from the moral and economic viewpoint of society,
but also from the point of view of our inward, psychological struggles.
As  I  have  said,  fear  for  outward  and  inward  security  twists  the  mind  and
distorts our thinking. I hope you have thought a little about this, because the more
clearly  you  consider  this  and  see  the  truth  of  it,  the  freer  you  will  be  from  all
dependence. The older people have not brought about a marvellous society; the
parents,  the  ministers,  the  teachers,  the  rulers,  the  priests  have  not  created  a
beautiful  world.  On  the  contrary,  they  have  created  a  frightful,  brutal  world  in
which  everybody  is  fighting  somebody;  in  which  one  group  is  against  another,
one  class  against  another,  one  nation  against  another,  one  ideology  or  set  of
beliefs against another. The world in which you are growing up is an ugly world, a
sorrowful world, where the older people try to smother you with their ideas, their
beliefs, their ugliness; and if you are merely going to follow the ugly pattern of the
older people who have brought about this monstrous society, what is the point of
being educated, what is the point of living at all?
If  you  look  around  you  will  see  that  throughout  the  world  there  is  appalling
destruction and human misery. You may read about wars in history, but you do
not  know  the  actuality  of  it,  how  cities  are  completely  destroyed,  how  the
hydrogen  bomb,  when  dropped  on  an  island,  causes  the  whole  island  to
disappear.  Ships  are  bombed  and  they  go  up  into  thin  air.  There  is  appalling
destruction due to this so-called advancement, and it is in such a world you are
growing up. You may have a good time while you are young, a happy time; but
when you grow older, unless you are very alert, watchful of your thoughts, of your   66
feelings, you will perpetuate this world of battles, of ruthless ambitions, a world
where  each  one  is  competing  with  another,  where  there  is  misery,  starvation,
overpopulation and disease.
So, while you are young, is it not very important for you to be helped by the
right kind of teacher to think about all these things, and not just be taught to pass
some  dull  examinations?  Life  is  sorrow,  death,  love,  hate,  cruelty,  disease,
starvation, and you have to begin to consider all these things. That is why I feel it
is  good  that  you  and  I  should  go  into  these  problems  together,  so  that  your
intelligence is awakened and you begin to have some real feeling about all these
things. Then you will not grow up just to be married off and become a thoughtless
clerk or a breeding machine, losing yourself in this ugly pattern of life like waters
in the sands.
One of the causes of fear is ambition, is it not? And are you all not ambitious?
What is your ambition? To pass some examination? To become a governor? Or,
if you are very young, perhaps you just want to become an engine-driver, to drive
engines across a bridge. But why are you ambitious? What does it mean? Have
you  ever  thought  about  it?  Have  you  noticed older people, how  ambitious  they
are? In your own family, have you not heard your father or your uncle talk about
getting more salary, or occupying some prominent position? In our society – and I
have explained what our society is, everybody is doing that, trying to be on top.
They all want to become somebody, do they not? The clerk wants to become the
manager, the manager wants to become something bigger, and so on and so on –
the  continual  struggle  to  become.  If  I  am  a  teacher,  I  want  to  become  the
principal; if I am the principal, I want to become the manager. If you are ugly, you
want to be beautiful. Or you want to have more money, more saris, more clothes,
more furniture, houses, property – more and more and more. Not only outwardly,
but also inwardly, in the so-called spiritual sense, you want to become somebody,
though you cover that ambition by a lot of words. Have you not noticed that? And   67
you  think  it  is  perfectly  all  right,  don’t  you?  You  think  it  is  perfectly  normal,
justifiable, right.
Now, what has ambition done in the world? So few of us have ever thought
about  it.  When  you  see  a  man  struggling  to  gain,  to  achieve,  to  get  ahead  of
somebody else, have you ever asked yourself what is in his heart? If you will look
into your own heart when you are ambitious, when you are struggling to become
somebody, spiritually or in the wordily sense, you will find there the worm of fear.
The ambitious man is the most frightened of men, because he is afraid to be what
he  is.  He  says,  «If  remain  what  I  am,  I  shall  be  nobody,  therefore  I  must  be
somebody, I must become a magistrate, a judge, a minister». If you examine this
process very closely, if you go behind the screen of words and ideas, beyond the
wall of status and success, you will find there is fear; because the ambitious man
is afraid to be what he is. He thinks that what he is in himself is insignificant, poor,
ugly;  he  feels  lonely,  utterly  empty,  therefore  he  says,  «I  must  go  and  achieve
something». So either he goes after what he calls God, which is just another form
of  ambition,  or  he  tries  to  become  somebody  in  the  world.  In  this  way  his
loneliness, his sense of inward emptiness – of which he is really frightened – is
covered  up.  He  runs  away  from  it,  and  ambition  becomes  the  means  through
which he can escape.
So,  what  is  happening  in  the  world?  Everybody  is  fighting  somebody.  One
man  feels  less  than  another  and  struggles  to  get  to  the  top.  There  is  no  love,
there is no consideration, there is no deep thought. Or society is a constant battle
of man against man. This struggle is born of the ambition to become somebody,
and the older people encourage you to be ambitious. They want you to amount to
something, to marry a rich man or a rich woman, to have influential friends. Being
frightened, ugly in their hearts, they try to make you like themselves; and you in
turn  want  to  be  like  them,  because  you  see  the  glamour  of  it  all.  When  the
governor comes, everybody bows down to the earth to receive him, they give him
garlands, make speeches. He loves it, and you love it too. You feel honoured if   68
you know his uncle or his clerk, and you bask in the sunshine of his ambition, his
achievements. So you are easily caught in the ugly web of the older generation,
in  the  pattern  of  this  monstrous  society.  Only  if  you  are  very  alert,  constantly
watchful, only if you are not afraid and do not accept, but question all the time –
only then will you not be caught, but go beyond and create a different world.
That is why it is very important for you to find your true vocation. Do you know
what `vocation’ means? Something which you love to do, which is natural to you.
After all, that is the function of education – to help you to grow independently so
that you are free of ambition and can find your true vocation. The ambitious man
has never found his true vocation; if he had, he would not be ambitious.
So, it is the responsibility of the teachers, of the principal, to help you to be
intelligent, unafraid, so that you can find your true vocation, your own way of life,
the way you really want to live and earn your livelihood. This implies a revolution
in thinking; because, in our present society, the man who can talk, the man who
can write, the man who can rule, the man who has a big car, is thought to be in a
marvellous position; and the man who digs in the garden, who cooks, who builds
a  house,  is  despised.  Are  you  aware  of  your  own  feelings  when  you  look  at  a
mason, at the man who mends the road, or drives a taxi, or pulls a cart? Have
you noticed how you regard him with absolute contempt? To you he hardly even
exists.  You  disregard  him;  but  when  a  man  has  a  title  of  some  kind,  or  is  a
banker, a merchant, a guru, or a minister, you immediately respect him. But if you
really  find  your  true  vocation,  you  will  help  to  break  down  this  rotten  system
completely;  because  then,  whether  you  are  a  gardener,  or  a  painter,  or  an
engineer, you will be doing something which you love with your whole being; and
that is not ambition. To do something marvellously well, to do it completely, truly,
according to what you deeply think and feel – that is not ambition and in that there
is no fear.    69
To help you to discover your true vocation is very difficult, because it means
that the teacher has to pay a great deal of attention to each student to find out
what  he  is  capable  of.  He  has  to  help  him  not  to  be  afraid,  but to question, to
investigate. You may be a potential writer, or a poet, or a painter. Whatever it is, if
you  really  love  to  do  it,  you  are  not  ambitious;  because  in  love  there  is  no
ambition.
So, is it not very important while you are young that you should be helped to
awaken your own intelligence and thereby find your true vocation? Then you will
love what you do, right through life, which means there will be no ambition, no
competition, no fighting another for position, for prestige; and then perhaps you
will be able to create a new world. In that new world all the ugly things of the older
generation will cease to exist – their wars, their mischief, their separative gods,
their  rituals  which  mean  absolutely  nothing,  their  sovereign  governments,  their
violence.  That  is  why  the  responsibility  of  the  teachers,  and  of  the  students,  is
very great.
Questioner: If somebody has an ambition to be an engineer, does it not mean
that he is interested in engineering?
Krishnamurti: Would you say that being interested in something is ambition?
We  can  give  to  that  word  `ambition’  various  meanings.  To  me,  ambition  is  the
outcome of fear. But if as a boy I am interested in being an engineer because I
want to build beautiful structures, marvellous irrigation systems, splendid roads, it
means I love engineering; and that is not ambition. In love there is no fear.
So, ambition and interest are two different things, are they not? If I am really
interested in painting, if I love to paint, then I do not compete to be the best or the
most famous painter. I just love painting. You may be better at painting than I, but
I do not compare myself with you. When I paint, I love what I am doing, and for
me that is sufficient in itself.    70
Questioner: What is the easiest way of finding God?
Krishnamurti: I am afraid there is no easy way, because to find God is a most
difficult, a most arduous thing. Is not what we call God something which the mind
creates? You know what the mind is. The mind is the result of time, and it can
create anything, any illusion. It has the power of creating ideas, of projecting itself
in  fancies,  in  imagination;  it  is  constantly  accumulating,  discarding,  choosing.
Being prejudiced, narrow, limited, the mind can picture God, it can imagine what
God is according to its own limitations. Because certain teachers, priests and so-
called  saviours  have  said  there  is  God  and  have  described  him,  the  mind  can
imagine God in those terms; but that image is not God. God is something that
cannot be found by the mind.
To understand God, you must first understand your own mind – which is very
difficult. The mind is very complex, and to understand it is not easy. But it is easy
enough  to  sit  down  and  go  into  some  kind  of  dream,  have  various  visions,
illusions,  and  then  think  that  you  are  very  near  to  God.  The  mind  can  deceive
itself  enormously.  So,  to  really  experience  that  which  may  be  called  God,  you
must be completely quiet; and have you not found out how extremely difficult that
is? Have you not noticed how even the older people never sit quietly, how they
fidget, how they wiggle their toes and move their hands? It is difficult physically to
sit still; and how much more difficult it is for the mind to be still ! You may follow
some guru and force your mind to be quiet; but your mind is not really quiet. It is
still restless, like a child that is made to stand in the corner. It is a great art for the
mind to be completely silent without coercion; and only then is there a possibility
of experiencing that which may be called God.
Questioner: Is God everywhere?
Krishnamurti:  Are  you  really  interested  to  find  out?  You  ask  questions,  and
then subside; you do not listen. Have you noticed how the older people almost
never  listen  to  you?  They  rarely  listen  to  you  because  they  are so enclosed in   71
their own thoughts, in their own emotions, in their own satisfactions and sorrows.
I hope you have noticed this. If you know how to observe and how to listen, really
listen, you will find out a lot of things, not only about people but about the world.
Here is this boy asking if God is everywhere. He is rather young to be asking
that question. He does not know what it really means. He probably has a vague
inkling of something – the feeling of beauty, an awareness of the birds in the sky,
of  running  waters,  of  a  nice,  smiling  face,  of  a  leaf  dancing  in  the  wind,  of  a
woman carrying a burden. And there is anger, noise, sorrow – all that is in the air.
So  he  is  naturally  interested  and  anxious  to  find  out  what  life  is  all  about.  He
hears the older people talking about God, and he is puzzled. It is very important
for him to ask such a question, is it not? And it is equally important for you all to
seek  the  answer;  because,  as  I  said  the  other  day,  you  will  begin  to  catch  the
meaning of all this inwardly, unconsciously, deep down; and then, as you grow
up,  you  will  have  hints  of  other  things  besides  this  ugly  world  of  struggle.  The
world is beautiful, the earth is bountiful; but we are the spoilers of it.
Questioner: What is the real goal of life?
Krishnamurti: It is, first of all, what you make of it. It is what you make of life.
Questioner: As far as reality is concerned, it must be something else. I am not
particularly interested in having a personal goal, but I want to know what is the
goal for everybody.
Krishnamurti:  How  will  you  find  out?  Who  will  show  you?  Can  you  discover
that by reading? If you read, one author may give you a particular method, while
another  author  may  offer  quite  a  different  method.  If  you  go  to  a  man  who  is
suffering, he will say that the goal of life is to be happy. If you go to a man who is
starving, who has not had sufficient food for years, his goal will be to have a full
tummy. If you go to a politician, his goal will be to become one of the directors,
one of the rulers of the world. If you ask a young woman, she will say, «My goal is
to have a baby». If you go to a sannyasi, his goal is to find God. The goal, the   72
underlying desire of people is generally to find something gratifying, comforting;
they  want  some  form  of  security,  safety,  so  that  they  will  have  no  doubts,  no
questions, no anxiety, no fear. Most of us want something permanent to which we
can cling, do we not.
So, the general goal of life for man is some kind of hope, some kind of safety,
some kind of permanency. Don’t say, «Is that all?» That is the immediate fact, and
you  must  first  be  fully  acquainted  with  that.  You  must  question  all  that  –  which
means, you must question yourself. The general goal of life for man is embedded
in you, because you are part of the whole. You yourself want safety, permanency,
happiness; you want something to which to cling.
Now, to find out if there is something else beyond, some truth which is not of
the  mind,  all  the  illusions  of  the  mind  must  be  finished  with;  that  is,  you  must
understand them and put them aside. Only then can you discover the real thing,
whether there is a goal or not. To stipulate that there must be a goal, or to believe
that  there  is  a  goal,  is  merely  another  illusion.  But  if  you  can  question  all  your
conflicts, struggles, pains, vanities, ambitions, hopes, fears, and go through them,
go beyond and above them, then you will find out. Questioner: If I develop higher
influences will I eventually see the ultimate?
Krishnamurti:  How  can  you  see  the  ultimate  as  long  as  there  are  many
barriers between you and that? First you must remove the barriers. You cannot
sit in a closed room and know what fresh air is like. To have fresh air you must
open the windows. Similarly, you must see all the barriers all the limitations and
conditionings  within  yourself;  you  must  understand  them  and  put  them  aside.
Then you will find out. But to sit on this side and try to find out what is on the
other, has no meaning.    73
Part One Chapter 8
As you know, we have been talking a great deal about fear, because it is a
very powerful factor in our lives. Let us now talk for a while about love; let us find
out whether behind this word and this feeling – which for all of us has so much
significance – there is also that peculiar element of apprehension, of anxiety, the
thing which grownup people know as loneliness.
Do you know what love is? Do you love your father, your mother, your brother,
your teacher, your friend? Do you know what it means to love? When you say
that you love your parents, what does it mean? You feel safe with them, you feel
at home with them. Your parents are protecting you, they are giving you money,
shelter, food and clothing, and you feel with them a sense of close relationship,
don’t you? You also feel that you can trust them – or you may not. Probably you
do not talk to them as easily and happily as you do to your own friends. But you
respect them, you are guided by them, you obey them, you have a certain sense
of responsibility towards them, feeling that you must support them when they are
old. They in turn love you, they want to protect you, to guide you, to help you – at
least they say so. They want to marry you off so that you will lead a so-called
moral life and stay out of trouble, so that you will have a husband to look after
you, or a wife to cook for you and bear your children. All this is called love, is it
not?
We cannot immediately say what is love, because love is not readily explained
by  words.  It  does  not  come  to  us  easily.  Yet  without  love,  life  is  very  barren;
without love, the trees, the birds, the smile of men and women, the bridge across
the river, the boatmen and the animals have no meaning. Without love, life is like
a shallow pool. In a deep river there is richness and many fish can live; but the
shallow pool is soon dried up by the strong sun, and nothing remains except mud
and dirt.    74
For most of us, love is an extraordinarily difficult thing to understand because
our lives are very shallow. We want to be loved, and also we want to love, and
behind that word there is a lurking fear. So, is it not very important for each one of
us to find out what this extraordinary thing really is? And we can find out only if
we are aware of how we regard other human beings, how we look at the trees, at
the animals, at a stranger, at the man who is hungry. We must be aware of how
we  regard  our  friends,  of  how  we  regard  our  guru,  if  we  have  one,  of  how  we
regard our parents.
When  you  say,  «I  love  my  father  and  my  mother,  I  love  my  guardian,  my
teacher»,  what  does  it  mean?  When  you  respect  somebody  tremendously  and
look  up  to  them,  when  you  feel  it  is  your  duty  to  obey  them  and  they  in  turn
expect your obedience, is that love? Is love apprehensive? Surely, when you look
up to somebody, you also look down upon somebody else, don’t you? And is that
love? In love is there any sense of looking up or looking down, any compulsion to
obey another?
When you say you love somebody, don’t you inwardly depend on that person?
While you are a child you naturally depend on your father, on your mother, on
your  teacher,  on  your  guardian.  You  need  to  be  cared  for,  to  be  provided  with
food, clothing and shelter. You need a sense of security, the feeling that someone
is looking after you.
But  what  generally  happens?  As  we  grow  older,  this  feeling  of dependence
continues, does it not? Haven’t you noticed it in older people, in your parents and
teachers? Haven’t you observed how they depend emotionally on their wives or
husbands, on their children, or on their own parents? When they grow up, most
people still cling to somebody; they continue to be dependent. Without someone
to lean on, to give them a sense of comfort and security, they feel lonely, do they
not? They feel lost. This dependency on another is called love; but if you observe
it very closely you will see that dependency is fear, it is not love.    75
Most people are afraid to stand alone; they are afraid to think things out for
themselves, afraid to feel deeply, to explore and discover the whole meaning of
life. Therefore they say they love God, and they depend on what they call God;
but it is not God, the unknown, it is a thing created by the mind.
We do the same with an ideal or a belief. I believe in something, or I hold on to
an ideal, and that gives me great comfort; but remove the ideal, remove the belief
and  I  am  lost.  It  is  the  same  thing  with  a  guru.  I  depend  because  I  want  to
receive, so there is the ache of fear. Again it is the same when you depend on
your parents or teachers. It is natural and right that you should do so when you
are young; but if you keep on depending when you have grow to maturity, that will
make you incapable of thinking, of being free. Where there is dependence there
is  fear,  and  where  there  is  fear  there  is  authority;  there  is  no  love.  When  your
parents say that you must obey, that you must follow certain traditions, that you
must take only a certain job or do only a particular kind of work – in all this there is
no love. And there is no love in your heart when you depend on society in the
sense that you accept the structure of society as it is, without question.
Ambitious men and women do not know what love is – and we are dominated
by ambitious people. That is why there is no happiness in the world, and why it is
very important that you, as you grow up, should see and understand all this, and
find out for yourself if it is possible to discover what love is. You may have a good
position, a very fine house, a marvellous garden, clothes; you may become the
prime minister; but without love, none of these things have any meaning.
So, you have to begin to find out now – not wait until you are old, for you will
never  find  out  then  –  what  it  is  you  actually  feel  in  your  relationship  with  your
parents, with your teachers, with the guru. You cannot merely accept the word
`love’ or any other word, but must go behind the meaning of words to see what
the  reality  is  –  the  reality  being  that  which  you  actually  feel,  not  what  you  are
supposed  to  feel.  If  you  actually  feel  jealous,  or  angry,  to  say,  «I  must  not  be   76
jealous, I must not be angry» is merely a wish, it has no reality. What matters is to
see  very  honestly  and  very  clearly  exactly  what  it  is  you  are  feeling  at  the
moment, without bringing in the ideal of how you should feel or will feel at some
future date, for then you can do something about it. But to say, «I must love my
parents,  I  must  love  my  teachers»,  has  no  meaning,  has  it?  Because  your  real
feelings are quite different, and those words become a screen behind which you
hide.
So, is it not the way of intelligence to look beyond the accepted meaning of
words? Words like `duty’, `responsibility’, `God’, `love’, have acquired a traditional
meaning;  but  an  intelligent  person,  a  truly  educated  person  looks  beyond  the
traditional meaning of such words. For instance, if someone told you that he did
not  believe  in  God,  you  would  be  shocked,  would  you  not?  You  would  say,
«Goodness, how awful!», because you believe in God – at least you think you do.
But belief and non-belief have very little meaning.
What is important is for you to go behind the word `love’ to see whether you
actually  do  love  your  parents,  and  whether  your  parents  actually  do  love  you.
Surely,  if  you  and  your  parents  really  loved  one  another,  the  world  would  be
entirely  different.  There  would  be  no  wars,  no  starvation,  no  class  differences.
There  would  be  no  rich  and  no  poor.  You  see,  without  love  we  try  to  reform
society economically, we try to put things right, but as long as we have no love in
our heads we cannot  bring about a social structure free of conflict and misery.
That is why we have to go into these things very carefully; and perhaps then we
shall find out what love is.
Questioner: Why is there sorrow and misery in the world?
Krishnamurti:  I  wonder  if  that  boy  knows  what  those  words  mean.  He  has
probably seen an over-loaded donkey with his legs almost breaking, or another
boy  crying,  or  a  mother  beating  her  child.  perhaps  he  has  seen  older  people
quarrelling with each other. And there is death, the body being carried away to be   77
burnt; there is the beggar; there is poverty, disease, old age; there is sorrow, not
only outside, but also inside us. So he asks, «Why is there sorrow?» Don’t you
want  to  know  too?  Have  you  never  wondered  about  the  cause  of  your  own
sorrow? What is sorrow, and why does it exist? If I want something and cannot
get it, I feel miserable; if I want more saris, more money, or if I want to be more
beautiful, and cannot have what I want, I am unhappy. If I want to love a certain
person and that person does not love me, again I am miserable. My father dies,
and I am in sorrow. Why?
Why do we feel unhappy when we cannot have what we want? Why should
we necessarily have what we want? We think it is our right, do we not? But do we
ever ask ourselves why we should have what we want when millions have not got
even  what  they  need?  And  besides,  why  do  we  want  it?  There  is  our  need  of
food, clothing and shelter; but we are not satisfied with that. We want much more.
We want success, we want to be respected, loved, looked up to, we want to be
powerful,  we  want  to  be  famous  poets,  saints,  orators,  we  want  to  be  prime
ministers, presidents. Why? Have you ever  looked  into  it?  Why do we want all
this? Not that we must be satisfied with what we are. I do not mean that. That
would be ugly, silly. But why this constant craving for more and more and more?
This craving indicates that we are dissatisfied, discontented; but with what? With
what we are? I am this, I do not like it, and I want to be that. I think I shall look
much more beautiful in a new coat or a new sari, so I want it. This means I am
dissatisfied  with  what  I  am,  and  I  think  I  can  escape  from  my  discontent  by
acquiring  more  clothes,  more  power,  and  so  on.  But  the  dissatisfaction  is  still
there, is it not? I have only covered it up with clothes, with power, with cars.
So,  we  have  to  find  out  how  to  understand  what  we  are.  Merely  to  cover
ourselves with possessions, with power and position, has no meaning, because
we will still be unhappy. Seeing this, the unhappy person, the person who is in
sorrow, does not run away to gurus, he does not hide in possessions, in power;
on the contrary, he wants to know what lies behind his sorrow. If you go behind   78
your own sorrow you will find that you are very small, empty, limited, and that you
are  struggling  to  achieve,  to  become.  This  very  struggle  to  achieve  to  become
something  is  the  cause  of  sorrow.  But  if  you  begin  to  understand  what  you
actually are, go deeper and deeper into it, then you will find that something quite
different takes place.
Questioner: If a man is starving and I feel that I can be helpful to him, is this
ambition or love?
Krishnamurti: It all depends on the motive with which you help him. By saying
he  is  for  helping  the  poor  man,  the  politician  gets  to  New  Delhi,  lives  in  a  big
house and shows himself off. Is that love? Do you understand? Is that love?
Questioner: If I relieve his starvation by my helpfulness, isn’t that love?
Krishnamurti: He is starving and you help him with food. Is that love? Why do
you want to help him? Have you no motive, no incentive other than the desire to
help him? Do you not get any benefit out of it? Think this out, do not say `yes’ or
`no’.  If  you  are  looking  for  some  benefit  out  of  it,  politically  or  otherwise,  some
inward or outward benefit, then you do not love him. If you feed him in order to
become more popular, or in the hope that your friends will help you to go to New
Delhi, then that is not love, is it? But if you love him, you will feed him without any
ulterior  motive,  without  wanting  anything  in  return.  If  you  feed  him  and  he  is
ungrateful, do you feel hurt? If so, you do not love him. If he tells you and the
villagers that you are a wonderful man, and you feel very flattered, it means you
are thinking about yourself; and surely that is not love. So, one has to be very
alert to find out if one is deriving any kind of benefit from one’s helpfulness, and
what the motive is that leads one to feed the hungry. Questioner: Suppose I want
to go home and the Principal says `no’. If I disobey him, I will have to face the
consequences. If I obey the Principal, it will break my heart. What am I to do?    79
Krishnamurti:  Do  you  mean  to  say  that  you  cannot  talk  it  over  with  the
Principal,  that  you  cannot  take  him  into  your  confidence  and  show  him  your
problem?  If  he  is  the  right  kind  of  Principal  you  can  trust  him,  talk  over  your
problem  with  him.  If  he  still  says  you  must  not  go,  it  is  possible  that  he  is  just
being obstinate, which means there is something wrong with the principal; but he
may have good reasons for saying `no’, and you have to find out. So it requires
mutual confidence. You must have confidence in the Principal, and the Principal
must have confidence in you. Life is not just a one-sided relationship. You are a
human  being;  so  is  the  Principal  a  human  being,  and  he  also  may  make
mistakes. So both of you must be willing to talk it over. You may want very much
to go home but that may not be quite enough; your parents may have written to
the Principal not to let you come home. It must be a mutual inquiry, must it not?,
so that you do not get hurt, so that you do not feel ill-treated or brutally pushed
aside; and that can happen only when you have confidence in the teacher and he
has  confidence  in  you.  In  other  words,  there  has  to  be  real  love;  and  such  an
environment is what a school should provide.
Questioner: Why should we not do puja?
Krishnamurti:  Have  you  found  out  why  the  older  people  do  puja?  They  are
copying, are they not? The more immature we are, the more we want to copy.
Have you noticed how people love uniforms? So, before you ask why you should
not do puja, ask the older people why they do it. They do it, first of all, because it
is a tradition; their grandfathers did it. Then the repetition of words gives them a
certain  sense  of  peace.  Do  you  understand  this?  Words  constantly  repeated
make  the  mind  dull,  and  that  gives  you  a  sense  of  quietness.  Sanskrit  words
especially  have  certain  vibrations  which  make  you  feel  very  quiet.  The  older
people also do puja because everybody else is doing it; and you, being young,
want to copy them. Do you want to do puja because somebody tells you it is the
right thing to do? Do you want to do it because you find a pleasant hypnotic effect
in repeating certain words? Before you do anything, should you not find out why   80
you want to do it? Even if millions of people believe in puja, should you not use
your own mind to discover the true significance of it?
You see, the mere repetition of Sanskrit words, or of certain gestures, will not
really help you to find out what truth is, what God is. To find that out, you must
know  how  to  meditate.  But  this  is  quite  a  different  matter  –  quite  different  from
doing puja. Millions of people do puja; and has it brought about a happier world?
Are such people creative? To be creative is to be full of initiative, full of love, of
kindness, of sympathy and consideration. If as a little boy you begin to do puja
and  go  on  repeating  it,  you  will  become  like  a  machine.  But  if  you  begin  to
question, to doubt, to inquire, then perhaps you will find out how to meditate. And
meditation, if you know how to do it properly, is one of the greatest blessings.    81
Part One Chapter 9
I  do  not  think  we  shall  understand  the  complex  problem  of  love  till  we
understand  the  equally  complex  problem  which  we  call  the  mind.  Have  you
noticed, when we are very young, how inquisitive we are? We want to know, and
we see many more things than the older people do. If we are at all awake, we
observe things that the older people do not even notice. The mind, when we are
young, is much more alert, much more curious and wanting to know. That is why
we learn so easily mathematics, geography, or whatever it is. As we grow older,
the  mind  becomes  more  and  more  crystallized,  heavy,  dull.  Have  you  noticed
how prejudiced most older people are? Their minds are not open, they approach
everything from a fixed point of view. You are young now; but if you are not very
watchful,  your  mind  also  will  become  like  that.  Is  it  not  then  very  important  to
understand the mind, and to see whether, instead of gradually becoming dull, you
can be supple, capable of instant adjustments, of extraordinary initiative, of deep
research and understanding in every department of life? Must you not know the
ways  of  the  mind  to  understand  the  way  of  love?  Because  it  is  the  mind  that
destroys love. People who are merely clever, cunning, do not know what love is,
because their minds, although sharp, are superficial; they live on the surface, and
love is not a thing that rests on the surface.
What is the mind? I do not mean just the brain, the physical organism which
reacts  to  stimuli  through  various  nervous  responses,  and  about  which  any
physiologist can tell you. Rather we are going to find out what the mind is. The
mind which says, ` I think; `it is mine; `I am hurt; `I am jealous; `I love; `I hate; `I
am an Indian; `I am a Moslem; `I believe in this and I do not believe in that; `I
know and you do not know; `I respect; `I despise; `I want; `I do not want’ – what is
this  thing?  Unless  you  begin  now  to  understand  and  make  yourself  thoroughly
familiar with the whole process of thinking which is called the mind, unless you   82
are  fully  aware  of  it  in  yourself,  you  will  gradually,  as  you  grow  older,  become
hard, crystallized, dull, fixed in a certain pattern of thought.
What is this thing which we call the mind? It is the way of our thinking, is it
not? I am talking of your mind, not somebody else’s mind – the way you think and
feel, the way you look at the trees, at the fishermen, the way you consider the
villager. Your mind, as you grow older, gradually becomes warped or fixed in a
certain pattern. You want something, you crave it, you  desire  to  be  or  become
something, and this desire sets a pattern; that is, your mind creates a pattern and
gets caught in it. Your desire crystallizes your mind.
Say, for example, you want to be a very rich man. The desire to be wealthy
creates a pattern, and your thinking then gets caught in it; you can think only in
those  terms,  and  you  cannot  go  beyond  them.  Therefore  your  mind  slowly
becomes crystallized, it gets hard, dull. Or, if you believe in something – in God, in
Communism,  in  a  certain  political  system  –  that  very  belief  sets  the  pattern,
because it is the outcome of your desire; and your desire strengthens the walls of
the pattern. Gradually your mind becomes incapable of quick adjustment, of deep
penetration, of real clarity, because you are caught in the labyrinth of your own
desires.
So, until we begin to investigate this process which we call the mind, until we
are  familiar  with  and  understand our own ways of thinking,  we  cannot  possibly
find out what love is. There can be no love as long as our minds desire certain
things of love, or demand that it act in a certain way. When we imagine what love
should be and give to it certain motives, we gradually create a pattern of action
with regard to love; but that is not love, it is merely our idea of what love should
be.
Say, for example, I possess my wife or husband, as you possess a sari or a
coat.  If  somebody  took  away  your  coat,  you would be anxious, irritated,  angry.
Why?  Because  you  regard  that  coat  as  your  property;  you  possess  it,  and   83
through its possession you feel enriched, don’t you? Through possessing many
clothes you feel enriched, not only physically but inwardly; and when somebody
takes away your coat, you feel irritated because inwardly you are being deprived
of that feeling of richness, that sense of possession.
Now, the feeling of possession creates a barrier with regard to love, does it
not? If I own you, possess you, is that love? I possess you as I possess a car, a
coat,  a  sari,  because  in  possessing,  I  feel  very  gratified,  and  I  depend  on  that
feeling;  it  is  very  important  to  me  inwardly.  This  sense  of  owning,  possessing
someone, this emotional dependence on another, is what we call love; but if you
examine it, you will find that, behind the word `love’, the mind is taking satisfaction
in possession. After all, when you possess many beautiful saris, or a fine car, or a
big house, the feeling that it is yours, inwardly gives you great satisfaction.
So, in desiring, wanting, the mind creates a pattern, and in that pattern it gets
caught; and then it grows weary, dull, stupid, thoughtless. The mind is the centre
of  this  feeling  of  possession,  the  feeling  of  the  `me’  and  the  `mine:  `I  own
something’, `I am a big man’, `I am a little man’, `I am insulted’, `I am flattered’, `I
am clever’, `I am very beautiful’, `I want to be somebody’, `I am the son or the
daughter of somebody’. This feeling of the `me’ and the `mine’ is the very core of
the  mind,  it  is  the  mind  itself.  The  more  the  mind  has  this  feeling  of  being
somebody, of being great, or very clever, or very stupid, and so on, the more it
builds walls around itself and becomes enclosed, dull. Then it suffers, for in that
enclosure inevitably there is pain. Because it is suffering, the mind says, «What
am I to do?» But instead of removing the enclosing walls by awareness, by careful
thought, by going into and understanding the whole process by which they are
created,  it  struggles  to  find  something  else  outside  with  which  to  enclose  itself
again.  So  the  mind  gradually  becomes  a  barrier  to  love;  and  without
understanding  what  the  mind  is,  which  is  to  understand  the  ways  of  our  own
thinking, the inner source from which there is action, we cannot possibly find out
what love is.    84
Is not the mind also an instrument of comparison? You know what it means to
compare. You say, «This is better than that; you compare yourself with somebody
who  is  more  beautiful,  or  less  clever.  There  is  comparison  when  you  say,  «I
remember a river which I saw a year ago, and it is still more beautiful than this
one». You compare yourself with a saint or a hero, with the ultimate ideal. This
comparative judgment makes the mind dull; it does not quicken the mind, it does
not  make  the  mind  comprehensive  inclusive.  When  you  are  constantly
comparing, what happens? When you see the sunset and immediately compare it
with a previous sunset, or when you say, «That mountain is beautiful, but I saw a
still  more  beautiful  mountain  two  years  ago»,  you  are  really  not  looking  at  the
beauty which is there before you. So comparison prevents you from looking fully.
If, in looking at you, I say, «I know a much nicer person», I am not really looking at
you, am I? My mind is occupied with something else. To really look at a sunset,
there must be no comparison; to really look at you, I must not compare you with
someone else. It is only when I look at you fully, not with comparative judgment,
that I can understand you. When I compare you with another, I do not understand
you, I merely judge you, I say you are this or that. So, stupidity arises when there
is comparison, because in comparing you with somebody else there is a lack of
human dignity. But when I look at you without comparing, then my only concern is
to understand you, and in that very concern, which is not comparative, there is
intelligence, there is human dignity.
As long as the mind is comparing, there is no love; and the mind is always
comparing, weighing, judging, is it not? It is always looking to find out where the
weakness is; so there is no love. When the mother and father love their children,
they  do  not  compare  one  child  with  another.  But  you  compare  yourself  with
someone  better,  nobler,  richer;  you  are  all  the  time  concerned  with  yourself  in
relation to somebody else, so you create in yourself a lack of love. In this way the
mind  becomes  more  and  more  comparative,  more  and  more  possessive,  more
and  more  dependent,  thereby  establishing  a  pattern  in  which  it  gets  caught.   85
Because it cannot look at anything anew, afresh, it destroys the very perfume of
life, which is love.
Questioner: What should we ask God to give us?
Krishnamurti:  You  are  very  interested  in  God,  are  you  not?  Why?  Because
your  mind  is  asking  for  something,  wanting  something.  So  it  is  constantly
agitated. If I am asking or expecting something from you, my mind is agitated, is it
not?
This boy wants to know what he should ask of God. He does not know, what
God  is,  or  what  it  is  he  really  wants.  But  there  is  a  general  feeling  of
apprehension,  the  feeling,  «I  must  ask,  I  must  pray,  I  must  be  protected».  The
mind  is  always  seeking  in  every  corner  to  get  something;  it  is  always  wanting,
grasping, watching pushing, comparing, judging, and so it is never still. Observe
your own mind and you will see what it is doing, how it tries to control itself, to
dominate,  to  suppress,  to  find  some  form  of  satisfaction,  how  it  is  constantly
asking, begging, struggling, comparing. We call such a mind very alert; but is it
alert? Surely, an alert mind is a still mind, not one that, like a butterfly is chasing
all over the place. And it is only a still mind that can understand what God is. A
still mind never asks anything of God. It is only the impoverished mind that begs,
that asks. What it asks, it can never have, because what it really wants is security
comfort, certainty. If you ask anything of God, you will never find God.
Questioner: What is real greatness and how can I be great?
Krishnamurti: You see, the unfortunate thing is that we want to be great. We
all want to be great. We want to be a Gandhi or a prime minister, we want to be
great  inventors,  great  writers.  Why?  In  education,  in  religion,  in  all  the
departments of our life, we have examples. The great poet, the great orator, the
great  statesman,  the  great  saint,  the  great  hero  –  such  people  are  held  up  as
examples, and we want to be like them.    86
Now, when you want to be like another, you have created a pattern of action,
have you not? You have set a limitation on your thought, bound it within certain
limits. So your thought has already become crystallized, narrow, limited, stifled.
Why  do  you  want  to  be  great?  Why  do  you  not  look  at  what  you  are  and
understand  that?  You  see,  the  moment  you  want  to  be  like  another,  there  is
misery,  conflict,  there  is  envy,  sorrow.  If  you  want  to  be  like  the  Buddha,  what
happens? You struggle everlastingly to achieve that ideal. If you are stupid and
crave to be clever, you constantly try to leave what you are and go beyond it. If
you are ugly and want to be beautiful, you long to be beautiful till you die, or you
deceive yourself into thinking you are beautiful. So, as long as you are trying to
be something other than what you actually are, your mind merely wears itself out.
But  if  you  say,  «This  is  what  I  am,  it  is  a  fact,  and  I  am  going  to  investigate,
understand it», then you can go beyond; for you will find that the understanding of
what you are brings great peace and contentment, great insight, great love.
Questioner: Is not love based on attraction?
Krishnamurti: Suppose you are attracted to a beautiful woman or a handsome
man. What is wrong with that? We are trying to find out. You see, when you are
attracted to a woman, to a man, or to a child, what generally happens? you not
only want to be with that person, but you want to possess, to call that person your
own. Your body must be near that persons body. So what have you done? The
fact is that when you are attracted, you want to possess, you do not want that
person to look at anybody else; and when you consider another human being as
yours, is there love? Obviously not. The moment your mind creates a hedge as
the `mine’ around that person, there is no love.
The  fact  is  that  our  minds  are  doing  this  all  the  time.  That  is  why  we  are
discussing  these  things  –  to  see  how  the  mind  is  working;  and  perhaps,  being
aware of its own movements, the mind will be quiet of its own accord.
Questioner: What is prayer? Has it any importance in daily life?    87
Krishnamurti: Why do you pray? And what is prayer? Most prayer is merely a
petitioning, an asking. You indulge in this kind of prayer when you suffer. When
you feel all alone, when you are depressed and in sorrow, you ask God for help;
so what you call prayer is a petition. The form of prayer may vary, but the intent
behind it is generally the same. Prayer, with most people, is a petition, a begging,
an asking. Are you doing that? Why do you pray? I am not saying that you should
or  should  not  pray.  But  why  do  you  pray?  Is  it  for  more  knowledge,  for  more
peace? Do you pray that the world may be free from sorrow? Is there any other
kind of prayer? There is prayer which is really not a prayer, but the sending out of
good  will,  the  sending  out  of  love  the  sending  out  of  ideas.  What  is  it  you  are
doing?
When you pray, generally you are asking God, or some saint, to fill your empty
bowl, are you not? You are not satisfied with what happens, with what is given,
but you want your bowl filled according to your wishes. So your prayer is merely a
petition, it is a demand that you should be satisfied, therefore it is not prayer at
all. You say to God, «I am suffering, please gratify me; please give me back my
brother, my son. please make me rich». You are perpetuating your own demands,
and that is obviously not prayer.
The real thing is to understand yourself, to see why you are perpetually asking
for something, why there is in you this demand, this urge to beg. The more you
know yourself through awareness of what you are thinking, what you are feeling,
the more you will discover the truth of what is; and it is this truth that will help you
to be free.    88
Part One Chapter 10
I think it is very important to know how to listen. If you know how to listen, you
will get to the root of the matter immediately. If you listen to pure sound, you have
immediate  contact  with  the  beauty  of  it.  Similarly,  if  you  knew  how  to  listen  to
what  is  being  said,  there  would  be  an  immediate  understanding.  Listening  the
complete focussing of attention. You think that attention is a tiresome thing, that
to  learn  to  concentrate  is  a  drawn  out  process.  But  if  you  really  know  how  to
listen, then attention is not difficult, and you will find that you get to the heart of
the matter immediately with an extraordinary alertness.
Most  of  us  do  not  really  listen.  We are distracted by external noises, or we
have  some  prejudice,  some  bias  which  gives  a  twist  to  the  mind,  and  this
prevents us from really listening to what is being said. This is especially so with
older  people,  because  they  have  a  long  series  of  achievements  and  failures
behind them; they are somebodies or nobodies in the world, and it is very difficult
to  penetrate  the  layers  of  their  formulations,  their  preconceptions.  Their
imagination,  their  conditioning,  their  sense  of  achievement  will  not  allow  that
which is being said to penetrate. But if we know how to listen to what is being
said, if we can listen to it without any barrier, without any interpretation, just listen
as  we  would  to  the  song  of  a  bird  in  the  morning,  then  listening  is  an
extraordinary  thing,  especially  when  something  true  is  being  said.  We  may  not
like it, we may instinctively resist it; but if we can really listen, we will see the truth
of it. So real listening unburdens the mind, it clears away the dross of many years
of failure, of success, of longing.
You  know  what  propaganda  is,  don’t  you?  It  is  to  propagate,  to  sow  or
constantly  repeat  an  idea.  That  is  how  the  propa-  gandist,  the  politician,  the
religious leader imprints on your mind what he wants you to believe. There is a
listening involved in this process also. Such people constantly repeat what you
should do, what books you should read, whom you should follow, which ideas are   89
right  and  which  are  wrong;  and  this  constant  repetition  leaves  a  mark  on  your
mind. Even if you do not consciously listen, it is making an imprint, and that is the
purpose  of  propaganda.  But  you  see,  propaganda  is  merely  vested  interest,  it
does not bring that truth which you immediately understand when you are really
listening, when you are paying attention without effort.
You are now listening to me; you are not making an effort to pay attention, you
are just listening; and if there is truth in what you hear, you will find a remarkable
change taking place in you – a change that is not premeditated or wished for, a
transformation, a complete revolution in which the truth alone is master and not
the creations of your mind. And if I may suggest it, you should listen in that way to
everything  –  not  only  to  what  I  am  saying,  but  also  to  what  other  people  are
saying, to the birds, to the whistle of a locomotive to the noise of the bus going
by. You will find that the more you listen to everything, the greater is the silence,
and  that  silence  is  then  not  broken  by  noise.  It  is  only  when  you  are  resisting
something, when you are putting up a barrier between yourself and that to which
you do not want to listen – it is only then that there is a struggle.
Now, is it not very important to be refined, both outwardly and inwardly? Do
you know what refinement is? It is to be sensitive to everything about you, and
also  to  the  thoughts,  the  beliefs,  the  feelings  that  you  have  within  yourself.
Refinement is reflected in your clothes, in your manners, in your gestures, in the
way you walk, the way you talk, the way you look at people. And refinement is
essential, is it not? For without refinement, there is deterioration.
Do you know what it means to deteriorate? It is the opposite of creating, or
building, of having the initiative to move forward, to develop. Deterioration implies
slow  decay,  a  withering  away  –  and  that  is  what  is  happening  in  the  world.  In
colleges and universities, among nations, among people, in the individual, there
is  a  slow  decay;  the  deteriorating  process  is  going  on  all  the  time,  and  this  is
because  there  is  no  inward  refinement.  You  may  have  a  certain  amount  of   90
outward  refinement,  you  may  wear  fine  clothes,  live  in  a  nice  house,  eat  good
food, observe scrupulous cleanliness; but without inner refinement, the outward
prediction  of  form  has  very  little  meaning.  It  is  merely  another  form  of
deterioration. To have beautiful possessions but to be inwardly gross, that is, to
be  concerned  with  one’s  own  vanity  and  grandeur,  with  one’s  ambitions  and
achievements, is the way of deterioration.
There is beauty of form in poetry, or in a person, or in a lovely tree, but it has
meaning only through the inward refinement of love. If there is love, there will be
outward  as  well  as  inward  refinement.  Refinement  is  expressed  outwardly  in
consideration for others, in the way you treat your parents, your neighbours, your
servant,  your  gardener.  The  gardener  may  have  created  for  you  a  beautiful
garden,  but  without  that  refinement  which  is  love,  the  garden  is  merely  an
expression of your own vanity.
So, it is essential to have both outward and inward refinement. The way you
eat matters a great deal; if you make a noise while you are eating, it matters very
much. The way you behave, your manners when you are with your friends, the
way you talk about others, all these things matter because they point to what you
are inwardly, they indicate whether or not there is inward refinement. A lack of
inward  refinement  expresses  itself  in  the  outward  degeneration  of  form;  so
outward refinement has very little meaning if there is no love. And we have seen
that love is not a thing we can possess. It comes into being only when the mind
understands the complex problems which it has itself created.
Questioner: Why do we feel a sense of pride when we succeed?
Krishnamurti: With success is there a sense of pride? What is success? Have
you  ever  considered  what  it  is  to  be  successful  as  a  writer,  as  a  poet,  as  a
painter, as a business man or politician? To feel that you have inwardly achieved
a  certain  control  over  yourself  which  others  do  not  have,  or  that  you  have
succeeded where others have failed; to feel that you are better than somebody   91
else, that you have become a successful man, that you are respected, looked up
to  by  others  as  an  example  –  what  does  all  this  indicate?  Naturally,  when  you
have  this  feeling,  there  is  pride:  I  have  done  something,  I  am  important.  The
feeling of `I’ is in its very nature a sense of pride. So pride grows with success;
one  is  proud  of  being  very  important  compared  with  other  people.  This
comparison of yourself with another exists also in your pursuit of the example, the
ideal,  and  it  gives  you  hope,  it  gives  you  strength,  purpose,  drive,  which  only
strengthens the `I’, the pleasurable feeling that you are much more important than
anybody else; and that feeling, that sense of pleasure, is the beginning of pride.
Pride brings a great deal of vanity, an egotistic inflation. You can observe this
in the older people and in yourself. When you pass an examination and feel that
you are a little cleverer than another, a sense of pleasure comes in. It is the same
when  you  outdo  somebody  in  an  argument,  or  when  you  feel  that  you  are
physically much stronger or more beautiful – immediately there is a sense of your
own  importance.  This  feeling  of  the  importance  of  the  `me’  inevitably  brings
conflict,  struggle,  pain,  because  you  have  to  maintain  your  importance  all  the
time.
Questioner: How can we be free of pride?
Krishnamurti: If you had really listened to the answer to the previous question,
you  would  have  understood  how  to  be  free  of  pride,  and  you  would  be  free  of
pride; but you were concerned with how to put the next question, were you not?
So you were not listening. If you really listen to what is being said, you will find
out for yourself the truth of it.
Suppose I am proud because I have achieved something. I have become the
Principal;  I  have  been  to  England  or  to  America;  I  have  done  great  things,  my
photograph has appeared in the newspapers, and so on and so on. Feeling very
proud, I say to myself, «How am I to be free of pride?»    92
Now, why do I want to be free of pride? That is the important question, not
how to be free. What is the motive, what is the reason, what is the incentive? Do I
want  to  be  free  of  pride  because  I  find  it  harmful  to  me,  painful,  spiritually  not
good? If that is the motive, then to try to free myself from pride is another form of
pride, is it not? I am still concerned with achievement. Finding that pride is very
painful, spiritually ugly, I say that I must be free of it. The `I must be free’ contains
the same motive as the `I must be successful’. The `I’ is still important, it is the
centre of my struggle to be free.
So, what matters is not how to be free of pride, but to understand the `I; and
the `I’ is very subtle. It wants one thing this year and another thing next year; and
when that turns out to be painful, it then wants something else. So, as long as the
centre of the `I’ exists, whether one is proud or so-called humble is of very little
significance.  They  are  only  different  coats  to  put  on.  When  a  particular  coat
appeals to me I put it on; and next year, according to my fancies, my desires, I
put on another coat.
What you have to understand is how this `I’ comes into being. The `I’ comes
into  being  through  the  sense  of  achievement  in  various  forms.  This  does  not
mean  that  you  must  not  act;  but  the  feeling  that  you  are  acting,  that  you  are
achieving,  that  you  must  be  without  pride,  has  to  be  understood.  You  have  to
understand the structure of the `I’. You have to be aware of your own thinking;
you  have  to  observe  how  you  treat  your  servant,  your  mother  and  father,  your
teacher and the servant; you have to be conscious of how you regard those who
are above you and those who are below you, those whom you respect and those
whom you despise. All this reveals the ways of the `I’. Through understanding the
ways of the `I’ there is freedom from the `I’. That is what matters, not just how to
be free of pride.
Questioner: How can a thing of beauty be a joy forever?    93
Krishnamurti: Is that your original thought, or are you quoting somebody? Do
you want to find out if beauty is perishable, and whether there can be everlasting
joy?
Questioner: Beauty comes in certain forms.
Krishnamurti: The tree, the leaf, the river, the woman, the man, those villagers
carrying a burden on their heads and walking beautifully. Is beauty perishable?
Questioner: The villagers walk by, but they leave an impression of beauty.
Krishnamurti: They walk by, and the memory of it remains. You see a tree, a
leaf, and the memory of that beauty remains.
Now,  is  the  memory  of  beauty  a  living  thing?  When  you  see  something
beautiful,  there  is  immediate  joy;  you  see  a  sunset  and  there  is  an  immediate
response of joy. That joy, a few moments later, has  become  a  memory.  Is  the
memory of that joy a living thing? Is your memory of the sunset a living thing? It is
a dead imprint, is it not? And through that dead imprint of the sunset, you want to
recapture the joy. But memory has no joy; it is only the image of something which
has gone and which once created joy. There is joy as the immediate response to
beauty, but memory comes in and destroys it. If there is constant perception of
beauty without the accumulations of memory – only then is there a possibility of
joy everlasting.
But it is not easy to be free from the accumulations of memory, because the
moment you see something very pleasurable, you make it into a memory which
you hold on to. When you see a beautiful object, a beautiful child, a beautiful tree,
there is immediate joy; but then you want more of it. Wanting more of it is the
accumulation of memory. In wanting more you have already started the process
of  disintegration,  and  in  that  there  is  no  joy.  Memory  can  never  produce
everlasting  joy.  There  is  everlasting  joy  only  when  there  is  a  constant  and
spontaneous response to beauty, to ugliness, to everything, without the activating   94
impulse of memory – which implies great inward and outward sensitivity, having
real love.
Questioner: Why are the poor happy and the rich unhappy?
Krishnamurti:  Are  the  poor  particularly  happy?  They  may  sing,  they  may
dance;  but  are  they  happy?  They  have  insufficient  food,  they  have  little  or  no
clothing, they cannot be clean, they have to work from morning till night year after
year. They may have occasional moments of happiness; but they are not really
happy, are they?
And are the rich unhappy? They have an abundance if everything, they have
high positions, they travel. They are unhappy when they are frustrated in some
way, when they are hindered and cannot get what they want.
What do you mean by happiness? Some will say that happiness consists in
getting what you want. If you want a car and you get it, you are happy, at least for
the time being. It is the same whether you want a sari, or a trip to Europe: if you
can  get  what  you  want,  you  are  happy.  If  you  want  to  be  the  best  known
professor,  or  the  greatest  politician,  you  are  happy  if  you  can  get  there,  and
unhappy if you cannot.
So,  what  you  call  happiness  is  the  outcome  of  getting  what  you  want,  of
achieving success, or becoming noble. You want something, and as long as you
can get it you feel perfectly happy, you are not frustrated; but if you cannot get
what you want, then unhappiness begins.
All of us are concerned with this problem, not only the rich and the poor. The
rich  and  the  poor  alike  want  to  get  something  for  themselves,  and  if  they  are
prevented, they are unhappy. I am not saying that the poor should not have what
they want or need. That is not the question we are considering. We are trying to
find out what happiness is, and whether happiness is something of which you are
conscious.    95
When  you  are  conscious  that  you  are  happy,  is  that  happiness?  It  is  not
happiness,  is  it?  It  is  like  humility:  the  moment  you  are  conscious  that  you  are
humble, you are not humble. So you cannot go after happiness; it is not a thing to
be pursued. It comes; but if you seek it, it will elude you.
Questioner: Though there is progress in different directions, why is there no
brotherhood?
Krishnamurti:  What  do  you  mean  by  `progress’.  Questioner:  Scientific
progress.
Krishnamurti: From the bullock cart to the jet plane – that is progress, is it not?
Centuries  ago  there  was  only  the  bullock  cart;  but  gradually,  through  time,  we
have developed the jet plane. The means of transport in ancient times was very
slow, and now it is very rapid; you can be in London within a few hours. Through
sanitation,  through  proper  nutrition  and  medical  care,  there  has  been  a  great
improvement also in matters of physical health. All this is scientific progress; and
yet we are not developing or progressing equally in brotherhood.
Now,  is  brotherhood  a  matter  of  progress?  We  know  what  we  mean  by
`progress’. It is evolution, achieving something through time. The scientists say
that we have evolved from the monkey; they say that, through millions of years,
we have progressed from the lowest forms of life to the highest, which is man.
But is brotherhood a matter of progress? Is it something which can be evolved
through time? There is the unity of the family and the unity of a particular society
or nation; from the nation the next step is internationalism, and then comes the
idea  of  one  world.  The  one-world  concept  is  what  we  call  brotherhood.  But  is
brotherly feeling a matter of evolution? Is the feeling of brotherhood to be slowly
cultivated through the stages of family, community, nationalism, internationalism
and world unity? Brotherliness is love, is it not? And is love to be cultivated step
by step? Is love a matter of time? Do you understand what I am talking about?    96
If  I  say  there  will  be  brotherhood  in  ten,  or  thirty,  or  a  hundred  years,  what
does that indicate? It indicates, surely, that I do not love, I do not feel brotherly.
When I say, «I will be brotherly, I will love», the actual fact is that I do not love, I
am not brotherly. As long as I think in terms of `I will be’, I am not. Whereas, if I
remove from my mind this concept of being brotherly in the future, then I can see
what I actually am; I can see that I am not brotherly, and begin to find out why.
Which is important, to see what I am, or to speculate about what I will be?
Surely, the important thing is to see what I am, because then I can deal with it.
What I will be is in the future, and the future is unpredictable. The actual fact is
that I have no brotherly feeling, I do not really love; and with that fact I can begin,
I can immediately do something about it. But to say that one will be something in
the future is mere idealism, and the idealist is an individual who is escaping from
what  is;  he  is  running  away  from  the  fact,  which  can  be  altered  only  in  the
present.    97
Part One Chapter 11
You  will  remember  that  we  have  been  talking  about  fear.  Now,  is  not  fear
responsible for the accumulation of knowledge? This is a difficult subject, so let
us see if we can go into it, let us consider it very carefully.
Human beings accumulate and worship knowledge, not only scientific but so-
called  spiritual  knowledge.  They  think  that  knowledge  is  so  important  in  life  –
knowledge of what has happened, and of what is going to happen. This whole
process of accumulating information, worshipping knowledge – does it not arise
from the background of fear? We are afraid that without knowledge we would be
lost, we would not know how to conduct ourselves. So, through reading what the
sages  have  said,  through  other  people’s  beliefs  and  experiences,  and  also
through our own experiences, we gradually build up a background of knowledge
which becomes tradition; and behind this tradition we take refuge. We think this
knowledge or tradition is essential, and that without it we would be lost, we would
not know what to do.
Now, when we talk about knowledge, what do we mean by that word? What is
it  that  we  know?  What  do  you  really  know,  when  you  come  to  consider  the
knowledge  you  have  accumulated?  At  a  certain  level,  in  science,  engineering,
and so on, knowledge is important; but beyond that, what is it that we know?
Have you ever considered this process of accumulating knowledge? Why is it
that  you  study,  why  do  you  pass  examinations?  Knowledge  is  necessary  at  a
certain level, is it not? Without a knowledge of mathematics and other subjects,
one could not be an engineer or a scientist. Social relationship is built upon such
knowledge, and we would not be able to earn a livelihood without it. But beyond
that  kind  of  knowledge,  what  do  we  know?  Beyond  that,  what  is  the  nature  of
knowledge?    98
What do we mean when we say that knowledge is necessary to find God, or
that knowledge is necessary to understand oneself, or that knowledge is essential
to  find  a  way  through  all  the  turmoils  of  life?  Here  we  mean  knowledge  as
experience;  and  what  is  this  experience?  What  is  it  that  we  know  through
experience? Is not this knowledge used by  the  ego,  by  the  `me’,  to  strengthen
itself?
Say,  for  instance,  that  I  have  achieved  a  certain  social  standing.  This
experience, with its feelings of success, of prestige, of power, gives me a certain
sense of assurance, of comfort. So the knowledge of my success the knowledge
that I am somebody, that I have position, power, strengthens the `me’, the ego,
does it not?
Have  you  not  noticed  how  knowledge-puffed  the  pundits  are,  or  how
knowledge  gives  to  your  father,  your  mother,  your  teacher  the  attitude,  `I  have
experienced more than you have; I know and you do not’? So knowledge, which
is  merely  information,  gradually  becomes  the  sustenance  of  vanity,  the
nourishment of the ego, the `me’. For the ego cannot exist without this or some
other form of parasitical dependence.
The  scientist  uses  his  knowledge  to  feed  his  vanity,  to  feel  that  he  is
somebody, just as the pundit does. Teachers, parents, gurus – they all want to be
somebody in this world, so they use knowledge as a means to that end, to fulfil
that desire; and when you go behind their words, what is it that they really know?
They know only what the books contain, or what they have experienced; and their
experiences depend on the background of their conditioning. Like them, most of
us are filled with words, with information which we call knowledge, and without it
we  are  lost;  so  there  is  always  fear  lurking  behind  this  screen  of  words,  of
information.
Where there is fear, there is no love; and knowledge without love destroys us.
That is what is happening in the world at the present time. For example, we now   99
have sufficient knowledge to feed human beings throughout the world; we know
how to feed, clothe and shelter mankind, but we are not doing it because we are
divided into nationalistic groups, each with its own egotistic pursuits. If we really
had the desire to stop war we could do so; but we have not that desire, and for
the same reason. So knowledge without love becomes a means of destruction.
Until we understand this, merely to pass examinations and achieve positions of
prestige  and  power  inevitably  leads  to  deterioration,  to  corruption,  to  the  slow
withering away of human dignity.
It  is  obviously  essential  to  have  knowledge  at  certain  levels,  but  it  is  even
more important to see how knowledge is used egotistically, for selfish purposes.
Observe yourself and you will see how experience is employed by the mind as a
means of self-expansion, as a means of power and prestige. Watch the grown-
ups and you will see how they hanker after position and cling to their success.
They  want  to  build  a  nest  of  safety  for  themselves,  they  want  power,  prestige,
authority – and most of us, in various ways, are after the same thing. We don’t
want to be ourselves, whatever we are; we want to be somebodies. There is a
difference,  surely  between  being  and  wanting  to  be.  The  desire  to  be  or  to
become is continued and strengthened through knowledge, which is used for self-
aggrandizement.
It is important for all of us, as we are maturing, to go into these problems and
understand them, so that we do not respect a person merely because he has a
title or a high position, or is supposed to have a great deal of knowledge. Actually,
we  know  very  little.  We  may  have  read  many  books,  but  very  few  have  direct
experience of anything. It is the direct experiencing of reality, of God, that is of
vital importance; and for that, there must be love.    100
Part One Chapter 12
Is  it  not  very  important,  while  we  are  young,  to  be  loved,  and  also  to  know
what it means to love? But it seems to me that most of us do not love, nor are we
loved. And I think it is essential, while we are young, to go into this problem very
seriously and understand it; for then perhaps we can be sensitive enough to feel
love, to know its quality, its perfume, so that when we grow older it will not be
entirely destroyed. So let us consider this question.
What does it mean to love? Is it an ideal, something far away, unattainable?
Or can love be felt by each one of us at odd moments of the day? To have the
quality  of  sympathy,  of  understanding,  to  help  someone  naturally,  without  any
motive, to be spontaneously kind, to care for a plant or a dog, to be sympathetic
to the villager, generous to your friend, to a neighbour – is this not what we mean
by  love?  Is  not  love  a  state  in  which  there  is  no  sense  of  resentment,  but
everlasting forgiveness? And is it not possible, while we are young to feel it?
While we are young many of us do experience this feeling – a sudden outgoing
sympathy  for  the  villager,  for  a  dog,  for  those  who  are  little  or  helpless.  And
should it not be constantly tended? Should you not always give some part of the
day to aiding another, to caring for a tree or a garden, to helping in the house or
in the hostel, so that, as you grow to maturity, you will know what it means to be
considerate naturally, without enforcement, without motive? Should you not have
this quality of real affection?
Real affection cannot be brought into being artificially, you have to feel it; and
your guardian, your parents, your teachers must also feel it. Most people have no
real  affection;  they  are  too  concerned  with  their  achievements,  their  longings,
their knowledge, their success. They give to what they have done and want to do,
such colossal importance that it ultimately destroys them.    101
That  is  why  it  is  very  important,  while  you  are  young,  to  help  look  after  the
rooms, or to care for a number of trees which you yourself have planted, or to go
to the assistance of a sick friend, so that there is a subtle feeling of sympathy, of
concern, of generosity – real generosity which is not just of the mind, and which
makes you want to share with somebody whatever you may have, however little.
If you do not have this feeling of love, of generosity, of kindness, of gentleness,
while you are young, it will be very difficult to have it when you are older; but if
you begin to have it now, then perhaps you can awaken it in others.
To have sympathy and affection implies freedom from fear, does it not? But
you  see,  it  is  very  difficult  to  grow  up in  this  world  without  fear,  without  having
some personal motive in action. The older people have never thought about this
problem of fear, or they have thought about it only abstractly, without acting upon
it  in  daily  existence.  You  are  still  very  young,  you  are  watching,  inquiring,
learning, but if you do not see and understand what causes fear, you will become
as  they  are.  Like  some  hidden  weed,  fear  will  grow  and  spread  and  twist  your
mind. You should therefore be aware of everything that is happening around you
and within yourself – how the teachers talk, how our parents behave, and how you
respond – so that this question of fear is seen and understood.
Most grown-up people think that some kind of discipline is necessary. Do you
know what discipline is? It is a process of making you do something which you do
not want to do. Where there is discipline, there is fear; so discipline is not the way
of  love.  That  is  why  discipline  at  all  costs  should  be  avoided  –  discipline  being
coercion, resistance, compulsion, making you do something which you really do
not understand, or persuading you to do it by offering you a reward. If you don’t
understand  something,  don’t  do  it,  and  don’t  be  compelled  to  do  it.  Ask  for  an
explanation; don’t just be obstinate, but try to find out the truth of the matter so
that no fear is involved and your mind becomes very pliable, very supple.    102
When  you  do  not  understand  and  are  merely  compelled  by  the  authority  of
grown-up people, you are suppressing your own mind, and then fear comes into
being; and that fear pursues you like a shadow throughout life. That is why it is so
important  not  to  be  disciplined  according  to  any  particular  type  of  thought  or
pattern of action. But most older people can think only in those terms. They want
to make you do something for your so-called good. This very process of making
you do something for your own `good’, destroys your sensitivity, your capacity to
understand, and therefore your love. To refuse to be coerced or compelled is very
difficult, because the world about us is so strong; but if we merely give in and do
things without understanding, we fall into a habit of thoughtlessness, and then it
becomes still more difficult for us to break away.
So, in your school, should you have authority, discipline? Or should you be
encouraged  by  your  teachers  to  discuss  these  questions,  go  into  them,
understand them so that, when you are grown up and go out into the world, you
will be a mature human being who is capable of meeting intelligently the world’s
problems?  You  cannot  have  that  deep  intelligence  if  there  is  any  kind  of  fear.
Fear only makes you dull, it curbs your initiative, it destroys that flame which we
call  sympathy  generosity,  affection,  love.  So  do  not  allow  yourself  to  be
disciplined into a pattern of action, but find out – which means that you must have
the time to question, to inquire; and the teachers must also have the time; if there
is  no  time,  then  time  must  be  made.  Fear  is  a  source  of  corruption,  it  is  the
beginning  of  degeneration,  and  to  be  free  of  fear  is  more  important  than  any
examination or any scholastic degree.
Questioner: What is love in itself?
Krishnamurti:  What  is  intrinsic  love?  Is  that  what  you  mean?  What  is  love
without motive, without incentive? Listen carefully and you will find out. We are
examining  the  question,  we  are  not  looking  for  the  answer.  In  studying
mathematics,  or  in  putting  a  question,  most  of  you  are  more  concerned  with   103
finding the answer than with understanding the problem. If you study the problem,
look  into  it,  examine  it,  understand  it,  you  will  find  that  the  answer  is  in  the
problem. So let us understand what the problem is, and not look for an answer,
either in the Bhagavad Gita, in the Koran, in the Bible, or from some professor or
lecturer. If we can really understand the problem, the answer will come out of it;
because the answer is in the problem, it is not separate from the problem.
The problem is: what is love without motive? Can there be love without any
incentive, without wanting something for oneself out of love? Can there be love in
which there is no sense of being wounded when love is not returned? If I offer
you my friendship and you turn away, am I not hurt? Is that feeling of being hurt
the outcome of friendship, of generosity, of sympathy? Surely, as long as I feel
hurt, as long as there is fear, as long as I help you hoping that you may help me –
which is called service – , there is no love.
If you understand this, the answer is there.
Questioner: What is religion?
Krishnamurti: Do you want an answer from me, or do you want to find out for
yourself?  Are  you  looking  for  an  answer  from  somebody,  however  great  or
however stupid? Or are you really trying to find out the truth of what religion is?
To find out what true religion is, you have to push aside everything that stands
in the way. If you have many coloured or dirty windows and you want to see the
clear sunlight, you must clean or open the windows, or go outside. Similarly, to
find out what true religion is, you must first see what it is not, and put that aside.
Then you can find out, because then there is direct perception. So let us see what
is not religion.
Doing  puja,  performing  a  ritual  –  is  that  religion?  You  repeat  over  and  over
again a certain ritual, a certain mantram in front of an altar or an idol. It may give
you a sense of pleasure, a sense of satisfaction; but is that religion? putting on   104
the sacred thread, calling yourself a Hindu a Buddhist, or a Christian, accepting
certain traditions, dogmas, beliefs – has all this got anything to do with religion?
Obviously not. So religion must be something which can be found only when the
mind has understood and put all this aside.
Religion, in the true sense of the word, does not bring about separation, does
it? But what happens when you are a Moslem and I am a Christian, or when I
believe  in  something  and  you  do  not  believe  in  it?  Our  beliefs  separate  us;
therefore our beliefs have nothing to do with religion. Whether we believe in God
or do not believe in God has very little significance; because what we believe or
disbelieve is determined by our conditioning is it not? The society around us, the
culture in which we are brought up, imprints upon the mind certain beliefs, fears
and superstitions which we call religion; but they have nothing to do with religion.
The fact that you believe in one way and I in another, largely depends on where
we  happen  to  have  been  born,  whether  in  England,  in  India,  in  Russia  or
America. So belief is not religion, it is only the result of our conditioning.
Then  there  is  the  pursuit  of  personal  salvation.  I  want  to  be  safe;  I  want  to
reach Nirvana, or heaven; I must find a place next to Jesus, next to Buddha, or
on  the  right  hand  of  a  particular  God.  Your  belief  does  not  give  me  deep
satisfaction, comfort, so I have my own belief which does. And is that religion?
Surely, one’s mind must be free of all these things to find out what true religion is.
And is religion merely a matter of doing good, of serving or helping others? Or
is  it  something  more?  Which  does  not  mean  that  we  must  not  be  generous  or
kind. But is that all? Is not religion something much greater, much purer, vaster,
more expansive than anything conceived by the mind?
So,  to  discover  what  is  true  religion,  you  must  inquire  deeply  into  all  these
thing; and be free of fear. It is like going out of a dark house into the sunshine.
Then you will not ask what is true religion; you will know. There will be the direct
experiencing of that which is true.    105
Questioner: If somebody is unhappy and wants to be happy, is that ambition?
Krishnamurti: When you are suffering, you want to be free of suffering. That is
not  ambition,  is  it?  That  is  the  natural  instinct  of  every  person.  It  is  the  natural
instinct of us all not to have fear, not to have physical or emotional pain. But our
life is such that we are constantly experiencing pain. I eat something which does
not agree with me, and I have a tummyache. Somebody says something to me,
and I feel hurt. I am prevented from doing something which I long to do, and I feel
frustrated, miserable. I am unhappy because my father or my son is dead, and so
on. Life is constantly acting upon me, whether I like it or not, and I am always
getting  hurt,  frustrated,  having  painful  reactions.  So  what  I  have  to  do  is  to
understand this whole process. But you see, most of us rum away from it.
When  you  suffer  inwardly,  psychologically,  what  do  you  do?  You  look  to
somebody for consolation; you read a book, or turn on the radio, or go and do
puja.  These  are  all  indications  of  your  running  away  from  suffering.  If  you  run
away from something, obviously you do not understand it. But if you look at your
suffering,  observe  it  from  moment  to  moment,  you  begin  to  understand  the
problem  involved  in  it,  and  this  is  not  ambition.  Ambition  arises  when  you  run
away from your suffering, or when you cling to it, or when you fight it, or when
around it you gradually build theories and hopes. The moment you run away from
suffering, the thing to which you run becomes very important because you identify
yourself  with  it.  You  identify  yourself  with  your  country,  with  your  position,  with
your God, and this is a form of ambition.    106
Part One Chapter 13
What I am saying in all these talks is not something to be merely remembered.
It is not intended that you should try to store in your mind what you hear, to be
recollected and either thought about or acted upon later. If you merely store in
your mind what I am telling you, it will be nothing but memory; it won’t be a living
thing,  something  which  you  really  understand.  It  is  understanding  that  matters,
not recollection. I hope you see the difference between the two. Understanding is
immediate,  direct,  it  is  something  which  you  experience  intensely.  But  if  you
merely remember what you have heard, it will only serve as a pattern, a guide to
be followed, a slogan to be repeated, an idea to be imitated, an ideal on which to
base your life. Understanding is not a matter of remembrance. It is a continuous
intensity, a constant discovery.
So, if you merely remember what I am talking about, you will compare and try
to  modify  your  action  or  adjust  it  to  what  you  remember.  But  if  you  really
understand,  that  very  understanding  brings  about  action,  and  then  you  do  not
have to act according to your remembrance. That is why it is very important not
just to remember, but to listen and understand immediately.
When you remember certain words, certain phrases, or recall certain feelings
that are awakened here, and compare your action with what you remember, there
is always a gap between your action and what is remembered. But if you really
understand, there is no copying. Anyone with a certain capacity can remember
words and pass examinations; but if you begin to understand all that is involved in
what you see, in what you hear, in what you feel, that very understanding brings
about an action which you do not have to guide shape or control.
If  you  merely  remember,  you  will  always  be  comparing;  and  comparison
breeds  envy,  on  which  our  whole  acquisitive  society  is  based.  Comparison  will
never  bring  about  understanding.  In  understanding  there  is  love,  whereas   107
comparison  is  mere  intellectualization;  it  is  a  mental  process  of  imitating,
following, and in which there is always the danger of the leader and the led. Do
you see this?
In this world, the structure of society is based on the leader and the led, the
example and the one who follows the example, the hero and the worshipper of
the hero. If you go behind this process of leading and being led, you will find that
when you follow another, there is no initiative. There is no freedom either for you
or  for  the  leader;  because  you  create  the  leader,  and  the  leader  then  controls
you. As long as you are following an example of self-sacrifice, of greatness, of
wisdom,  of  love,  as  long  as  you  have  an  ideal  to  be  remembered  and  copied
there will inevitably be a gap, a division between the ideal and your action. A man
who  really  sees  the  truth  of  this,  has  no  ideal,  no  example;  he  is  not  following
anybody.  For  him  there  is  no  guru,  no  Mahatma,  no  heroic  leader.  He  is
constantly understanding what lies within himself and what he hears from others,
whether  it  be  from  his  father  or  mother,  from  a  teacher,  or  from  a  person  like
myself who occasionally comes into his life.
If  you  are  now  listening  and  understanding,  then  you  are  not  following  or
imitating; therefore there is no fear, and so there is love. It is very important to
see all this very clearly for yourself, so that you are not bewitched by heroes or
mesmerized  by  examples,  ideals.  Examples,  heroes,  ideals  have  to  be
remembered  and  are  easily  forgotten;  therefore  you  have  to  have  a  constant
reminder  in  the  form  of  a  picture,  an  idol,  a  slogan.  In  following  an  ideal,  an
example,  you  are  merely  remembering;  and  in  remembrance  there  is  no
understanding. You are comparing what you are with what you want to be, and
that very comparison breeds authority; it breeds envy and fear, in which there is
no love.
Please listen to all this very carefully and understand it, so that you have no
leaders to follow, no examples, no ideals to imitate or copy; for then you are a   108
free  individual  with  human  dignity.  You  cannot  be  free  if  you  are  everlastingly
comparing yourself with the ideal, with what you should be. To understand what
you actually are – however ugly or beautiful, or however frightened you may be –
is not a matter of remembrance, the mere recollection of an ideal. You have to
watch, to be aware of yourself from moment to moment in daily relationship. To
be conscious of what you actually are, is the process of understanding.
If you really understand what I am talking about, listen to it completely, you will
be free of all the utterly false things that past generations have created. You will
not  be  burdened  with  imitation,  the  mere  recollection  of  an  ideal,  which  only
cripples the mind and heart, breeding fear and envy. Unconsciously you may be
listening  to  all  this  very  deeply.  I  hope  you  are;  for  then  you  will  see  what  an
extraordinary  transformation  comes  with  deep  listening  and  freedom  from
imitation.
Questioner: Is beauty subjective or objective?
Krishnamurti: You see something beautiful, the river from the veranda; or you
see  a  child  in  tatters,  crying.  If  you  are  not  sensitive,  if  you  are  not  aware  of
everything  around  you,  then  you  just  pass  by  and  that  incident  is  of  very  little
value.  A  woman  comes  along  carrying  a  burden  on  her  head.  Her  clothes  are
dirty;  she  is  hungry  and  tired.  Are  you  aware  of  the  beauty  of  her  walk,  or
sensitive to her physical state? Do you see the colour of her sari, however soiled
it may be? There are these objective influences all about you; and if you have no
sensitivity, you will never appreciate them, will you?
To be sensitive is to be aware not only of the things which are called beautiful,
but also of that which is called ugly. The river, the green fields, the trees in the
distance, the clouds of an evening – these things we call beautiful. The dirty, half-
starved villagers, the people who live in squalor, or who have very little capacity
for thought, very little feeling – all this we call ugly. Now, if you observe you will
see that what most of us do is to cling to the beautiful and shut out the ugly. But is   109
it not important to be sensitive to what is called ugliness as well as to beauty? It is
the  lack  of  this  sensitivity  that  causes  us  to  divide  life  into  the  ugly  and  the
beautiful.  But  if  we  are  Open,  receptive,  sensitive  to  the  ugly  as  well  as  to  the
beautiful, then we shall see that they are both full of meaning, and this perception
gives enrichment to life.
So, is beauty subjective or objective? If you were blind, if you were deaf and
could not hear any music, would you be without beauty? Or is beauty something
inward? You may not see with your eyes, you may not hear with your ears; but if
there is the experiencing of this state of being really open, sensitive to everything,
if you are deeply aware of all that is happening inside you, of every thought, of
every feeling – is there not beauty also in that? But you see, we think beauty is
something outside of us. That is why we buy pictures and hang them on the wall.
We want to possess beautiful saris, suits, turbans, we want to surround ourselves
with beautiful things; for we are afraid that without an objective reminder we shall
lose something inwardly. But can you divide life, the whole process of existence,
into  the  subjective  and  the  objective?  Is  it  not  an  unitary  process?  Without  the
outer there is not the inner; without the inner there is not the outer.
Questioner: Why do the strong suppress the weak?
Krishnamurti: Do you suppress the weak? Let us find out. In an argument, or
in  matters  of  physical  strength,  don’t  you  push  away  your  younger  brother,  the
one smaller than yourself? Why? Because you want to assert yourself. You want
to show your strength, you want to show how much better or more powerful you
are,  so  you  dominate,  you  push  the  little  child  away;  you  throw  your  weight
around. It is the same with the older people. They are bigger than you are, they
know a little more from reading books, they have position, money, authority, so
they  suppress,  they  push  you  aside;  and  you  accept  being  pushed  aside;  and
then you in your turn suppress somebody below you. Each one wants to assert
himself, to dominate, to show that he has power over others. Most of us do not   110
want  to  be  as  nothing.  We  want  to  be  somebodies;  and  the  showing  of  power
over others gives us that satisfaction the feeling that we are somebodies.
Questioner: Is that why the bigger fish swallow the smaller fish?
Krishnamurti: In the animal world it may perhaps be natural for the big fish to
live on the small fish. It is something we cannot alter. But the big human being
need not live on the little human being. If we know how to use our intelligence, we
can  stop  living  on  each  other,  not  only  physically  but  also  in  the  psychological
sense. To see this problem and understand it, which is to have intelligence, is to
stop  living  on  another.  But  most  of  us  want  to  live  on  another,  so  we  take
advantage of somebody who is weaker than ourselves. Freedom does not mean
being free to do anything you like. There can be real freedom only when there is
intelligence;  and  intelligence  comes  through  the  understanding  of  relationship  –
the  relationship  between  you  and  me,  and  between  each  one  of  us  and
somebody else.
Questioner: Is it true that scientific discoveries make our lives easier to live?
Krishnamurti: Have they not made your life easier? You have electricity, have
you not? You snap a switch and you have light. There is a telephone in that room,
and  you  can  talk,  if  you  wish,  to  a  friend  in  Bombay  or  New  York.  Is  that  not
easy? Or you can take a plane and go very quickly to Delhi or to London. These
things  are  all  the  outcome  of  scientific  discoveries,  and  they  have  made  life
easier.  Science  has  helped  to  cure  diseases;  but  it  has  also  given  us  the
hydrogen-bomb  which  can  kill  thousands  of  human  beings.  So,  as  science  is
constantly  discovering  more  and  more,  if  we  do  not  begin  to  use  scientific
knowledge with intelligence, with love, we are going to destroy ourselves.
Questioner: What is death?
Krishnamurti: What is death? This question from a little girl!    111
You have seen dead bodies being carried to the river; you have seen dead
leaves, dead trees; you know that fruits wither and decay. The birds that are so
full of life in the morning, chattering away, calling to each other, by evening may
be  dead.  The  person  who  is  alive  today  may  be  struck  down  by  disaster
tomorrow. We see all this going on. Death is common to us all. We will all end
that way. You may live for thirty, fifty, or eighty years, enjoying, suffering, being
fearful; and at the end of it you are no more.
What is it that we call living, and what is it that we call death? It is really a
complex problem and I do not know if you want to go into it. If we can find out, if
we can understand what living is, then perhaps we shall understand what death
is. When we lose someone whom we love, we feel bereft, lonely; therefore we
say that death has nothing to do with living. We separate death from life. But is
death separate from life? Is not living a process of dying?
For  most  of  us,  living  means  what?  It  means  accumulating,  choosing,
suffering,  laughing.  And  in  the  background,  behind  all  the  pleasure  and  pain,
there is fear – the fear of coming to an end, the fear of what is going to happen
tomorrow,  the  fear  of  being  without  name  and  fame,  without  property  and
position,  all  of  which  we  want  to  continue.  But  death  is  inevitable;  so  we  say,
«What happens after death?»
Now, what is it that comes to an end in death? Is it life? What is life? Is life
merely  a  process  of  breathing  in  air  and  expelling  it?  Eating,  hating,  loving,
acquiring, possessing, comparing, being envious – this is what most of us know
as  life.  For  most  of  us  life  is  suffering,  a  constant  battle  of  pain  and  pleasure,
hope and frustration. And can that not come to an end? Should we not die? In the
autumn,  with  the  coming  of  cold  weather,  the  leaves  fall  from  the  trees,  and
reappear in the spring. Similarly, should we not die to everything of yesterday, to
all  our  accumulations  and  hopes,  to  all  the  successes  that  we  have  gathered?
Should we not die to all that and live again tomorrow, so that, like a new leaf, we   112
are fresh, tender, sensitive? To a man who is constantly dying, there is no death.
But the man who says, «I am somebody and I must continue» – to him there is
always death and the burning ghat; and that man knows no love.    113
Part One Chapter 14
There are various factors involved in human disintegration, and various ways
in  which  human  beings  disintegrate.  To  integrate  is  to  bring  together,  to  make
complete. If you are integrated, your thoughts, feelings and actions are entirely
one, moving in one direction; they are not in contradiction with each other. You
are a whole human being, without conflict. That is what is implied by integration.
To  disintegrate  is  the  opposite  of  that;  it  is  to  go  to  pieces,  to tear asunder, to
scatter  that  which  has  been  put  together.  And  there  are  many  ways  in  which
human beings disintegrate, go to pieces, destroy themselves. I think one of the
major factors is the feeling of envy, which is so subtle that it is regarded, under
different names, as being worth while, beneficial, a creditable element in human
endeavour.
Do you know what envy is? It begins when you are still very small – you feel
envious of a friend who looks better than you do, who has better things or a better
position. You are jealous if another boy or girl surpasses you in class, has richer
parents, or belongs to a more distinguished family. So, envy or jealousy begins at
a very tender age, and it gradually takes the form of competition. You want to do
something  to  distinguish  yourself  –  get  better  marks  be  a  better  athlete  than
someone else; you want to outdo, to outshine others.
As you grow older, envy gets stronger and stronger. The poor envy the rich,
and the rich envy the richer. There is the envy of those who have had experience
and  want  more  experience,  and  the  envy  of  the  writer  who  wants  to  write  still
better. The very desire to be better, to become something worth while, to have
more of this or more of that, is acquisitiveness, the process of gathering, holding.
If you observe you will notice that the instinct in most of us is to acquire, to get
more  and  more  saris,  clothes,  houses,  property.  If  it  is  not  that,  then  we  want
more  experience,  more  knowledge;  we  want  to  feel  that  we  know  more  than
anyone else, that we have read much more than another. We want to be nearer   114
than others to some big official high up in the government, or to feel that we are
spiritually, inwardly more evolved than another. We want to be conscious that we
are humble, that we are virtuous, that we can explain and others cannot.
So, the more we acquire, the greater is our disintegration. The more property,
the more fame, the more experience, the more knowledge we gather, the swifter
is  our  deterioration.  From  the  desire  to  be  or  to  acquire  more,  springs  the
universal disease of jealousy, envy. Have you not observed this in yourself, and
in the older people around you? Have you not noticed how the teacher wants to
be a professor, and the professor wants to be the principal? Or how your own
father or mother wants more property, a bigger name?
In the struggle to acquire we become cruel. In acquisition there is no love. The
acquisitive way of life is an endless battle with one’s neighbour, with society, in
which  there  is  constant  fear;  but  all  this  we  justify,  and  we  accept  jealousy  as
inevitable.  We  think  that  we  must  be  acquisitive – though we call it by a better
sounding word. We call it evolution growth, development, progress, and we say it
is essential.
You see, most of us are unconscious of all this; we are unaware that we are
greedy, acquisitive, that our hearts are being eaten away by envy, that our minds
are deteriorating. And when for a moment we do become aware of this, we justify
it, or merely say it is wrong; or we try to run away from it in various ways.
Envy  is  a  very  difficult  thing  to  uncover  or  discover  in  oneself,  because  the
mind is the centre of envy. The mind itself is envious. The very structure of the
mind is built on acquisition and envy. If you watch your own thoughts, observe the
way you think, you will see that what we call thinking is generally a process of
comparison:  «I  can  explain  better,  I  have  greater  knowledge,  more  wisdom».
Thinking in terms of `the more’ is the working of the acquisitive mind; it is its way
of existence. If you do not think in terms of `the more’, you will find it extremely
difficult to think at all. The pursuit of `the more’ is the comparative movement of   115
thought, which creates time – time in which to become, to be somebody; it is the
process of envy, of acquisition. Thinking comparatively, the mind says, «I am this,
and  someday  I  shall  be  that;  «I  am  ugly,  but  I  am  going  to  be  beautiful  in  the
future».  So  acquisitiveness,  envy,  comparative  thinking  produce  discontent,
restlessness; and our reaction to that is to say we must be satisfied with our lot,
we must be content with what we have. That is what the people say who are at
the top of the ladder. Religions universally preach contentment.
Real contentment is not a reaction, it is not the opposite of acquisitiveness; it
is something much vaster and far more significant. The man whose contentment
is the opposite of acquisitiveness, of envy, is like a vegetable; inwardly he is a
dead  entity,  as  most  people  are.  Most  people  are  very  quiet  because  inwardly
they  are  dead;  and  they  are  inwardly  dead  because  they  have  cultivated  the
opposite – the opposite of everything they actually are. Being envious, they say, «I
must not be envious». You may deny the everlasting struggle of envy by wearing
a  loincloth  and  saying  you  are  not  going  to  acquire;  but  this  very  desire  to  be
good to be non-acquisitive, which is the pursuit of the opposite, is still within the
field  of  time;  it  is  still  part  of  the  feeling  of  envy,  because  you  still  want  to  be
something. Real contentment is not like that; it is something much more creative
and  profound.  There  is  no  contentment  when  you  choose  to  be  content;
contentment does not come that way. Contentment comes when you understand
what you actually are and do not pursue what you should be.
You think you will be content when you have achieved all that you want. You
may  want  to  be  a  governor,  or  a  great  saint,  and  you  think  you  will  have
contentment by achieving that end. In other words, through the process of envy
you  hope  to  arrive  at  contentment.  Through  a  wrong  means  you  expect  to
achieve a right result. Contentment is not satisfaction. Contentment is something
very vital; it is a state of creativeness in which there is the understanding of what
actually  is.  If  you  begin  to  understand  what  you  actually  are  from  moment  to
moment, from day to day, you will find that out of this understanding there comes   116
an extraordinary feeling of vastness, of limitless comprehension. That is, if you
are greedy, what matters is to understand your greed and not try to become non-
greedy; because the very desire to become non-greedy is still a form of greed.
Our religious structure, our ways of thinking, our social life, everything we do is
based on acquisitiveness, on an envious outlook, and for centuries we have been
brought up like that. We are so conditioned to it that we cannot think apart from
`the better’, `the more; therefore we make envy desirable. We do not call it envy,
we call it by some euphemistic term; but if you go behind the word you will see
that  this  extraordinary  desire  for  `the  more’  is  egocentric,  self-enclosing.  It  is
limiting thought.
The  mind  that  is  limited  by  envy,  by  the  `me’  by  the  acquisitive  desire  for
things or for virtue, can never be a truly religious mind. The religious mind is not a
comparative mind. The religious mind sees and understands the full significance
of  what  is.  That  is  why  it  is  very  important  to  understand  yourself,  which  is  to
perceive the workings of your own mind: the motives, the intentions, the longings,
the  desires,  the  constant  pressure  of  pursuance  which  creates  envy,
acquisitiveness and comparison. When all these have  come  to  an  end  through
the understanding of what is, only then will you know true religion, what God is.
Questioner: Is truth relative or absolute?
Krishnamurti: First of all, let us look through the words at the significance of
the question. We want something absolute, don’t we? The human craving is for
something permanent, fixed, immovable, eternal, something that does not decay,
that has no death – an idea, a feeling, a state that is everlasting, so that the mind
can cling to it. We must understand this craving before we can understand the
question and answer it rightly.    117
The human mind wants permanency in everything – in relationship, in property,
in virtue. It wants something which cannot be destroyed. That is why we say God
is permanent, or truth is absolute.
But what is truth? Is truth some extraordinary mystery, something far away,
unimaginable, abstract? Or is truth something which you discover from moment
to  moment,  from  day  to  day?  If  it  can  be  accumulated,  gathered  through
experience,  then  it  is  not  truth;  for  behind  this  gathering  lies  the  same  spirit  of
acquisitiveness.  If  it  is  something  far  away  which  can  be  found  only  through  a
system of meditation, or through the practice of denial and sacrifice, again it is not
truth for that also is a process of acquisitiveness.
Truth is to be discovered and understood in every action, in every thought, in
every feeling, however trivial or transient; it is to be observed at each moment of
every day; it is to be listened to in what the husband and the wife say, in what the
gardener says, in what your friends say, and in the process of your own thinking.
Your thinking may be false, it may be conditioned, limited; and to discover that
your thinking is conditioned, limited, is truth. That very discovery sets your mind
free from limitation. If you discover that you are greedy – if you discover it, and are
not just told by somebody else – that discovery is truth, and that truth has its own
action upon your greed.
Truth is not something which you can gather, accumulate, store up and then
rely on as a guide. That is only another form of possession. And it is very difficult
for the mind not to acquire, not to store up. When you realize the significance of
this, you will find out what an extraordinary thing truth is. Truth is timeless, but the
moment you capture it – as when you say, «I have found truth, it is mine» – it is no
longer truth.
So,  whether  truth  is  `absolute’  or  timeless  depends  on  the  mind.  When  the
mind says, «I want the absolute, something which never decays, which knows no
death», what it really wants is something permanent to cling to; so it creates the   118
permanent. But in a mind that is aware of everything that is happening outwardly
and within itself, and sees the truth of it – such a mind is timeless; and only such a
mind  can  know  that  which  is  beyond  names,  beyond  the  permanent  and  the
impermanent.
Questioner: What is external awareness?
Krishnamurti: Are you not aware that you are sitting in this hall? Are you not
aware of the trees, of the sunshine? Are you not aware that the crow is cawing,
the dog is barking? Do you not see the colour of the flowers, the movement of the
leaves, the people walking by? That is external awareness.  When  you  see  the
sunset,  the  stars  at  night,  the  moonlight  on  the  water,  all  that  is  external
awareness,  is  it  not?  And  as  you  are  externally  aware,  so  also  you  can  be
inwardly aware of your thoughts and feelings, of your motives and urges, of your
prejudices, envies, greed and pride. If you are really aware outwardly, the inward
awareness also begins to awaken, and you become more and more conscious of
your  reaction  to  what  people  say,  to  what  you  read,  and  so  on.  The  external
reaction or response in your relationship with other people is the outcome of an
inward  state  of  wanting,  of  hope,  of  anxiety,  fear.  This  outward  and  inward
awareness is an unitary process which brings about a total integration of human
understanding.
Questioner: What is real and eternal happiness?
Krishnamurti: When you are completely healthy, you are not conscious of your
body, are you? It is only when there is disease, discomfort, pain, that you become
conscious of it. When you are free to think completely, without resistance, there is
no  consciousness  of  thinking.  It  is  only  when  there  is  friction,  a  blockage,  a
limitation,  that  you  begin  to  be  conscious  of  a  thinker.  Similarly,  is  happiness
something of which you are aware? In the moment of joy, are you aware that you
are joyous? It is only when you are unhappy that you want happiness; and then
this question arises, «What is real and eternal happiness?»    119
You  see  how  the  mind  plays  tricks  on  itself.  Because  you  are  unhappy,
miserable,  in  poor  circumstances,  and  so  on,  you  want  something  eternal,  a
permanent  happiness.  And  is  there  such  a  thing?  Instead  of  asking  about
permanent happiness, find out how to be free of the diseases which are gnawing
at  you  and  creating  pain,  both  physical  and  psychological.  When  you  are  free,
there is no problem, you don’t ask whether there is eternal happiness or what that
happiness is. It is a lazy, foolish man who, being in prison, wants to know what
freedom is; and lazy, foolish people will tell him. To the man in prison, freedom is
mere speculation. But if he gets out of that prison, he does not speculate about
freedom: it is there.
So, is it not important, instead of asking what happiness is, to find out why we
are unhappy? Why is the mind crippled? Why is it that our thoughts are limited,
small, petty? If we can understand the limitation of thought, see the truth of it, in
that discovery of the truth there is liberation.
Questioner: Why do people want things?
Krishnamurti:  Don’t  you  want  food  when  you  are  hungry?  Don’t  you  want
clothes  and  a  house  to  shelter  you?  These  are  normal  wants,  are  they  not?
Healthy  people  naturally  recognize  that  they  need  certain  things.  It  is  only  the
diseased  or  unbalanced  man  who  says,  «I  do  not  need  food».  It  is  a  perverted
mind that must either have many houses, or no house at all to live in.
Your body gets hungry because you are using energy, so it wants more food;
that is normal. But if you say, «I must have the tastiest food, I must have only the
food  that  my  tongue  takes  pleasure  in»,  then  perversion  begins.  All  of  us  –  not
only the rich, but everybody in the world – must have food, clothing and shelter;
but if these physical necessities are limited, controlled and made available only to
the few, then there is perversion; an unnatural process is set going. If you say, «I
must accumulate, I must have everything for myself», you are depriving others of
that which is essential for their daily needs.    120
You  see,  the  problem  is  not  simple,  because  we  want  other  things  besides
what is essential for our daily needs. I may be satisfied with a little food, a few
clothes and a small room to live in; but I want something else. I want to be a well-
known  person,  I  want  position,  power,  prestige,  I  want  to  be  nearest  to  God,  I
want my friends to think well of me, and so on. These inward wants pervert the
outward interests of every human being. The problem is a little difficult because
the  inward  desire  to  be  the  richest  or  most  powerful  man,  the  urge  to  be
somebody, is dependent for its fulfilment on the possession of things, including
food, clothing and shelter. I lean on these things in order to become inwardly rich;
but  as  long  as  I  am  in  this  state  of  dependence,  it  is  impossible  for  me  to  be
inwardly rich, which is to be utterly simple inwardly.    121
Part One Chapter 15
Perhaps some of you are interested in what I have been saying about envy. I
am  not  using  the  word  `remember’  because,  as  I  have  explained,  merely  to
remember words or phrases makes the mind dull, lethargic, heavy, uncreative. It
is very destructive merely to remember. What is important, especially while you
are  young,  is  to  understand  rather  than  to  cultivate  memory;  because
understanding frees the mind, it awakens the critical faculty of analysis. It enables
you to see the significance of the fact and not just rationalize it. When you merely
remember  certain  phrases,  sentences  or  ideas  about  envy  for  example,  that
remembrance prevents you from looking at the fact of envy. But if you see and
understand  the  envy  which  lurks  behind  the  facade  of  good  works,  of
philanthropy, of religion, and behind your own desire to be great to be saintly – if
you  really  see  and  understand  this  for  yourself,  then  you  will  discover  what  an
extraordinary freedom there is from envy, from jealousy.
So it is really important to understand, because remembrance is a dead thing;
and perhaps that is one of the major causes of human deterioration. We are very
inclined to imitate, to copy, to follow ideals, heroes; and what happens? Gradually
the flame of creativity is lost and only the picture, the symbol, the word remains,
without anything behind it. WE are taught to memorize, and this is obviously not
creative. There is no understanding in merely remembering things that you have
reed in a books, or that you have been taught; and when throughout life memory
alone is cultivated, real understanding is gradually destroyed.
Please  listen  carefully,  because  it  is  very  important  to  understand  this.  It  is
understanding that is creative, not memory, not remembrance. Understanding is
the  liberating  factor,  not  the  things  you  have  stored  up  in  your  mind.  And
understanding is not the future. The mere cultivation of memory brings about the
idea of the future; but if you understand directly, that is, if you see something very   122
clearly for yourself, then there is no problem. A problem exists only when you do
not see clearly.
What  is  important,  then,  is  not  what  you  know,  not  the  knowledge  or  the
experience you have gathered, but to see things as they are and to understand
them immediately, because comprehension is immediate, it is not in the future.
When experience and knowledge take the place of understanding, the become
deteriorating factors in life. For most of us, knowledge and experience are very
important;  but  if  you  go  behind  the  words  and  see  the  real  significance  of
knowledge and experience, you will find that they become major factors in human
deterioration. This does not mean that knowledge is not right about certain levels
of our existence. It is right and necessary to know how to plant a tree and what
kind of nourishment is should have, or how to feed the chickens, or how to raise a
family  properly,  or  how  to  build  a  bridge,  and  so  on.  THere  is  an  enormous
amount of scientific knowledge available, which can be used rightly. It is right, for
example, that we should know how to build a dynamo or a motor. But when there
no  understanding,  then  knowledge,  which  is  merely  memory,  becomes  very
destructive; and you will find that experience also becomes destructive, because
experience strengthens the background of memory.
I  wonder  if  you  have  noticed  how  many  grown-up  people  think
bureaucratically, as officials. If they are teachers, their thinking is limited to that
function; they are not human beings pulsating with life. They know the rules of
grammar,  or  mathematics,  or  a  little  history;  and  because  their  thinking  is
circumscribed  by  that  memory,  that  experience,  their  knowledge  is  destroying
them. Life is not a thing that you learn from somebody. Life is something that you
listen  to,  that  you  understand  from  moment  to  moment  without  accumulating
experience.  After  all,  what  have  you  got  when  you  have  accumulated
experience? When you say, «I have had an enormous amount of experience», or
«I know the meaning of the words», it is memory, is it not? You have had certain
experiences, you have learned how to run an office, how to put up a building or a   123
bridge,  and  according  to  that  background  you  get  further  experience.  You
cultivate experience, which is memory; and with that memory you meet life.
Like the river, life is running, swift, volatile, never still; and when you meet life
with the heavy burden of memory, naturally you are never in contact with life. You
are meeting life with your own knowledge, experience, which only increases the
burden of memory; so knowledge and experience gradually become destructive
factors in life.
I hope you are understanding this very deeply, because what I am saying is
very true; and if you understand it, you will use knowledge at its proper level. But
if you do not understand and merely accumulate knowledge and experience as a
means to get on in life, as a means to strengthen your position in the world, then
knowledge and experience will become most destructive, they will destroy your
initiative, your creativeness. Most of us are so burdened with authority, with what
other people have said, with the Bhagavad Gita, with ideas, that our lives have
become  very  dull.  These  are  all  memories,  remembrances;  they  are  not  things
that we have understood, they are not living. There is no new thing as long as we
are  burdened  with  memories;  and  life  being  everlastingly  new,  we  cannot
understand it. Therefore our living is very tedious; we become lethargic, we grow
mentally  and  physically  fat  and  ugly.  It  is  very  important  to  understand  this.
Simplicity is freedom of the mind from experience, from the burden of memory.
We think that simplicity is a matter of having but few clothes and a begging bowl;
we think that a simple life consists in possessing very little externally. That may
be  all  right.  But  real  simplicity  is  freedom  from  knowledge,  freedom  from
remembering or accumulating experience. Have you not noticed the people who
make a point of having very little and who think they are very simple? Have you
not listened to them? Though they may have only a loincloth and a staff, they are
full  of  ideals.  Inwardly  they  are  very  complex,  battling  against  themselves,
struggling to follow their own projections, their own beliefs. Inwardly they are not
simple;  they  are  full  of  what  they  have  gathered  from  books,  full  of  ideals,   124
dogmas, fears. Outwardly they may have only a staff and a few clothes. But real
simplicity  of  life  is  to  be  inwardly  empty,  innocent,  without  the  accumulation  of
knowledge, without beliefs, dogmas without the fear of authority; and that state of
inward  simplicity  can  come  into  being  only  when  you  really  understand  every
experience from moment to moment. If you have understood an experience, then
that experience is over, it leaves no residue. It is because we do not understand
experience,  because  we  remember  the  pleasure  or  the  pain  of  it,  that  we  are
never inwardly simple. Those who are religiously inclined pursue the things that
make  for  outward  simplicity;  but  inwardly  they  are  chaotic,  confused,  burdened
with  innumerable  longings,  desires,  knowledge;  they  are  frightened  of  living,  of
experiencing.
If you look at envy, you will see that it is a deep-rooted form of remembering
which is a very destructive, a very deteriorating factor in our lives; and so likewise
is experience. This does not mean that you must forget everyday facts, or avoid
experience. You can’t. But the man who is full of experience is not necessarily a
wise man. The man who has an experience and just clings to that experience is
not a wise man; he is like any schoolboy who reads and accumulates information
from books. A wise man is innocent, free of experience;  he  is  inwardly  simple,
though  outwardly  he  may  have  all  the  things  of  the  earth  –  or  very  little.
Questioner: Does intelligence build character?
Krishnamurti:  What  do  we  mean  by  `character’?  And  what  do  we  mean  by
`intelligence’? Every politician – whether the Delhi variety, or your own local tub-
thumper  –  continually  uses  such  words  as  `character’,  `ideal’,  `intelligence’,
`religion’, `God’. We listen to these words with rapt attention, because they seem
very  important.  Most  of  us  live  on  words;  and  the  more  elaborate,  the  more
exquisite the words, the more satisfied we feel. So, let us find out what we mean
by `intelligence’ and what we mean by `character’. Don’t say I am not answering
you definitely. To seek definitions, conclusions, is one of the tricks of the mind,   125
and it means that you don’t want to investigate and understand, you just want to
follow words.
What is intelligence? If a man is frightened, anxious, envious, greedy, if his
mind is copying, imitating, filled with other people’s experiences and knowledge; if
his  thinking  is  limited,  shaped  by  society,  by  environment  –  is  such  a  man
intelligent. He is not, is he? And can a man who is frightened, unintelligent, have
character  –  character  being  something  original,  not  the  mere  repeating  of
traditional do’s and don’ts? Is character respectability?
Do  you  understand  what  that  word  `respectability’  means?  You  are
respectable  when  you  are  looked  up  to,  respected  by  a  majority  of  the  people
around you. And what do the majority of people respect – the people of the family,
the people of the mass? They respect the things which they themselves want and
which they have projected as a goal or an ideal; they respect that which they see
to be in contrast with their own more lowly state. If you are rich and powerful, or
have a big name politically, or have written successful books, you are respected
by the majority. What you say may be utter nonsense, but when you talk, people
listen because they regard you as a great man. And when you have thus won the
respect  of  the  many,  the  following  of  the  multitude,  it  gives  you  a  sense  of
respectability a feeling of having arrived. But the so-called sinner is nearer to God
than the respectable man, because the respectable man is clothed in hypocrisy.
Is  character  the  outcome  of  imitation,  of  being  controlled  by  the  fear  of  what
people will say or won’t say? Is character the mere strengthening of one’s own
tendencies,  prejudices?  Is  it  an  upholding  of  the  tradition,  whether  of  India,  of
Europe  or  America?  That  is  generally  called  having  character  –  being  a  strong
person  who  supports  the  local  tradition  and  so  is  respected  by  the  many.  But
when  you  are  prejudiced,  imitative,  bound  by  tradition,  or  when  you  are
frightened,  is  there  intelligence,  is  there  character?  Imitating,  following,
worshipping,  having  ideas  –  that  way  leads  to  respectability,  but  not  to
understanding. A man of ideals is respectable; but he will never be near God, he   126
will never know what it is to love, because his ideals are a means of covering up
his fear, his imitation, his loneliness.
So, without understanding yourself, without being aware of all that is operating
in your own mind – how you think, whether you are copying, imitating, whether
you  are  frightened,  whether  you  are  seeking  power  –  ,  there  cannot  be
intelligence. And it is intelligence that creates character, not hero worship or the
pursuit  of  an  ideal.  The  understanding  of  oneself,  of  one’s  own  extraordinarily
complicated self, is the beginning of intelligence, which reveals character.
Questioner: Why does a man feel disturbed when another person looks at him
intently.
Krishnamurti:  Do  you  feel  nervous  when  someone  looks  at  you?  When  a
servant, a villager – someone whom you consider inferior – looks at you, you do
not even know he is there, you just pass him by; you have no regard for him. But
when your father, your mother, or your teacher looks at you, you feel somewhat
anxious  because  they  know  more  than  you  do,  and  they  may  find  out  things
about you. Going a little higher, if a government official or some other prominent
visitor takes notice of you, you are pleased, because you hope to get something
from him, a job or some kind of reward. And if a man looks at you from whom you
do not want anything, you are quite indifferent, are you not? So it is important to
find out what is operating in your own mind when people look at you, because
how you inwardly respond to a look or a smile means a great deal.
Unfortunately,  most  of  us  are  utterly  unaware  of  all  these  things.  We  never
notice the beggar, or the villager carrying his heavy burden, or the flying parrot.
We  are  so  occupied  with  our  own  sorrows,  longings,  fears,  with  our  pleasures
and rituals that we are unaware of many significant things in life.
Questioner: Can we not cultivate understanding? When we constantly try to
understand, does it not mean that we are practicing understanding?    127
Krishnamurti: Is understanding cultivable? Is it something to be practised as
you practice tennis, or the piano, or singing, or dancing? You can read a book
over and over again till you are thoroughly familiar with it. Is understanding like
that,  something  to  be  learned  through  constant  repetition,  which  is  really  the
cultivation  of  memory?  Is  not  understanding  from  moment  to  moment,  and
therefore something that cannot be practised?
When  do  you  understand?  What  is  the  state  of  your  mind  and  heart  when
there  is  understanding?  When  you  hear  me  say  something  very  true  about
jealousy  –  that  jealousy  is  destructive,  that  envy  is  a  major  factor  in  the
deterioration of human relationship – , how do you respond to it? Do you see the
truth of it immediately? Or do you begin to think about jealousy, to talk about it,
rationalize  it,  analyze  it?  Is  understanding  a  process  of  either  rationalization  or
slow analysis? Can understanding be cultivated as you cultivate your garden to
produce fruits or flowers? Surely, to understand is to see the truth of something
directly, without any barrier of words, prejudices or motives.
Questioner: Is the power of understanding the same in all persons?
Krishnamurti: Suppose something true is presented to you and you see the
truth  of  it  very  quickly;  your  understanding  is  immediate  because  you  have  no
barriers. You are not full of your own importance, you are eager to find out, so
you  perceive  immediately.  But  I  have  many  barriers,  many  prejudices.  I  am
jealous  torn  by  conflicts  based  upon  envy,  full  of  my  own  importance.  I  have
accumulated many things in life, and I really do not want to see; therefore I do not
see, I do not understand.
Questioner:  Can’t  one  remove  the  barriers  slowly  by  constantly  trying  to
understand?
Krishnamurti: No. I can remove the barriers, not by trying to understand, but
only when I really feel the importance of not having barriers – which means that I   128
must be willing to see the barriers. Suppose you and I hear someone say that
envy is destructive. You listen and understand the significance, the truth of it, and
you are free of that feeling of envy, of jealousy. But I do not want to see the truth
of it, because if I did it would destroy my whole structure of life.
Questioner: I feel the necessity of removing the barriers.
Krishnamurti:  Why  do  you  feel  that?  Do  you  want  to  remove  the  barriers
because of circumstances? Do you want to remove them because somebody has
told you that you should? Surely, the barriers are removed only when you see for
yourself  that  to  have  barriers of any kind creates a mind which is in a state of
slow  decay.  And  when  do  you  see  this?  When  you  suffer?  But  does  suffering
necessarily awaken you to the importance of removing all barriers? Or does it, on
the contrary, lead you to create more barriers?
You will find that all barriers drop away when you yourself are beginning to
listen, to observe, to find out. There is no reason for removing the barriers; and
the moment you bring in a reason, you are not removing them. The miracle, the
greatest blessing is to give your own inward perception an opportunity to remove
the  barriers.  But  when  you  say  that  the  barriers  must  be  removed  and  then
practice removing them, that is the work of the mind; and the mind cannot remove
the barriers. You must see that no attempt on your part can remove them. Then
the  mind  becomes  very  quiet,  very  still;  and  in  this  stillness  you  discover  that
which is true.    129
Part One Chapter 16
We have been talking about the deteriorating factors in human existence, and
we said that fear is one of the fundamental causes of this deterioration. We also
said  that  the  following  of  authority  in  any  form,  whether  self-imposed  or
established from outside, as well as any form of imitation, copying, is destructive
of incentive, of creativeness, and that it blocks the discovery of what is true.
Truth  is  not  something  that  can  be  followed;  it  has  to  be  discovered.  You
cannot find truth through any book or through any accumulation of experience. As
we  discussed  the  other  day,  when  experience  becomes  a  remembrance,  that
remembrance  destroys  creative  understanding.  Any  feeling  of  malice  or  envy,
however slight it may be, is also destructive of this creative understanding without
which  there  is  no  happiness.  Happiness  is  not  to  be  bought,  nor  does  it  come
when you go after it; but it is there when there is no conflict.
Now, is it not very important, especially while we are still in school, to begin to
understand  the  significance  of  words?  The  word,  the  symbol  has  become  an
extraordinarily destructive thing for most of us, and of this we are unaware. Do
you know what I mean by the symbol? The symbol is the shadow of truth. The
gramophone record, for example, is not the real voice; but the voice has been put
on the record, and to this we listen. The word, the symbol, the image, the idea is
not  the  truth;  but  we  worship  the  image,  we  revere  the  symbol,  we  give  great
significance to the word, and all this is very destructive; because then the word,
the  symbol,  the  image  becomes  all-important.  That  is  how  temples,  churches,
and  the  various  organized  religions  with  their  symbols,  beliefs  and  dogmas,
become factors which prevent the mind from going beyond and discovering the
truth. So do not be caught up in words, in symbols, which automatically cultivate
habit.  Habit  is  a  most  destructive  factor,  because  when  you  want  to  think
creatively, habit comes in the way.    130
Perhaps you do not understand the whole significance of what I am saying;
but you will, if you think about it. Go for a walk by yourself occasionally and think
out  these  things.  Find  out  what  is  meant  by  words  like  `life’,  `God’,  `duty’,
`cooperation’ – all those extraordinary words which we use so freely.
Have you ever asked yourself what `duty’ means? Duty to what? To the aged,
to what tradition says: that you must sacrifice yourself for your parents, for your
country, for your gods. That word `duty’ has become extraordinarily significant to
you, has it not? It is pregnant with a lot of meaning which is imposed upon you.
You  are  taught  that  you  have  a  duty  to  your  country,  to  your  gods,  to  your
neighbour; but what is much more important than the word `duty’ is to find out for
yourself  what  the  truth  is.  Your  parents  and  society  use  that  word  `duty’  as  a
means of moulding you, shaping you according to their particular idiosyncrasies,
their habits of thought, their likes and dislikes, hoping thereby to guarantee their
own  safety.  So  take  time,  be  patient,  analyze,  go  into  all  this  and  find  out  for
yourself  what  is  true.  Do  not  merely  accept  the  word  `duty’,  for  where  there  is
`duty’, there is no love.
Similarly, take the word `co-operation. The State wants you to co-operate with
it.  If  you  co-operate  with  something  without  understanding,  you  are  merely
imitating, copying. But if you understand,  if you find out the truth of something,
then in co-operating you are living with it, moving with it; it is part of you.
So it is very necessary to be aware of the words, the symbols, the images that
are crippling your thinking. To be aware of them and to find out whether you can
go beyond them is essential if you are to live creatively, without disintegrating.
You know, we allow the word `duty’ to kill us. The idea that you have a duty to
parents, to relations, to the country, sacrifices you. It makes you go out to fight, to
kill, and to be killed or maimed. The politician, the leader says it is necessary to
destroy others in order to protect the community, the country, the ideology or way
of  life;  so  killing  becomes  part  of  your  duty,  and  you  are  soon  drawn  into  the   131
military spirit. The military spirit makes you obedient, it makes you physically very
disciplined;  but  inwardly  your  mind  is  gradually  destroyed  because  you  are
imitating, following, copying. You become a mere tool of the older people, of the
politician, an instrument of propaganda. You come to accept killing to protect your
country as inevitable because somebody says it is necessary. But no matter who
says it is necessary, should you not think it out very clearly for yourself?
To kill is obviously the most destructive and corrupt action in life, especially to
kill another human being; because when you kill, you are full of hatred, however
much you may rationalize it, and you also create antagonism in others. You can
kill  with  a  word  as  well  as  with  an  action;  and  killing  other  human  beings  has
never solved any of our problems. War has never cured any of our economic or
social ills, nor has it brought about mutual understanding in human relationship;
and yet the whole world is everlastingly preparing for war. Many reasons are put
forward as to why it is necessary to kill people; and there are also many reasons
for not killing. But do not be swept away by any reasoning; because today you
may  have  a  good  reason  for  not  killing  and  tomorrow  you  may  have  a  much
stronger reason for killing.
First see the truth of it, feel how essential it is not to kill. Regardless of what
may  be  said  by  others,  from  the  highest  authority  to  the  lowest,  find  out  for
yourself the truth of the matter; and when you are inwardly clear about that, then
you  can  reason  out  the  details.  But  do  not  start  with  a  reason,  because  every
reason  can  be  met  by  a  counter-reason  and  you  will  be  caught  in  the  net  of
reasoning. The important thing is to see directly for yourself what the truth is; and
then you can begin to use reason. When you perceive for yourself what is true;
when you know that to kill another is not love; when you inwardly feel the truth
that there must be no enmity in your relationship with another, then no amount of
reasoning  can  destroy  that  truth.  Then  no  politician,  no  priest,  no  parent  can
sacrifice you for an idea or for his own safety.    132
The old have always sacrificed the young; and will you in your turn, as you
grow  older,  also  sacrifice  the  young?  Do  you  not  want  to  put  an  end  to  this
sacrifice? Because it is the most destructive way of living, it is one of the greatest
factors of human deterioration. To put an end to it, you as an individual have to
find out the truth for yourself. Without belonging to any group or organization, you
have to discover the truth of not killing of feeling love, of having no enmity. Then
no  amount  of  words,  no  cunning  reasons  can  ever  persuade  you  to  kill  or  to
sacrifice another.
So  it  is  very  important,  while  you  are  young,  to  think  out,  to  feel  out  these
things for yourself, and thereby lay the foundation for the discovery of truth.
Questioner: What is the purpose of creation?
Krishnamurti:  Are  you  really  interested  in  that?  What  do  you  mean  by
`creation’?  What  is  the  purpose  of  living?  Why  do  you  exist,  read,  study,  pass
examinations?  What  is  the  purpose  of  relationship  –  the  relationship  of  parents
and children, of husband and wife? What is life? Is that what you mean when you
ask this question, «What is the purpose of creation?» When do you ask such a
question?  When  inwardly  you  do  not  see  clearly,  when  you  are  confused,
miserable, in the dark, when you do not perceive or feel the truth of the matter for
yourself, then you want to know what is the purpose of life.
Now, there are many people who will tell you the purpose of life; they will tell
you  what  the  sacred  books  say.  Clever  people  will  go  on  inventing  various
purposes of life. The political group will have one purpose, the religious group will
have another, and so on and on. And how are you to find out what is the purpose
of life when you yourself are confused? Surely, as long as you are confused, you
can only receive an answer which is also confused. If your mind is disturbed, if it
is  not  really  quiet,  whatever  answer  you  receive  will  be  through  this  screen  of
confusion, anxiety, fear; therefore the answer will be perverted. So the important
thing is not to ask what is the purpose of life, but to clear away the confusion that   133
is within you. It is like a blind man asking, «What is light?» If I try to tell him what
light is, he will listen according to his blindness, according to his darkness; but
from the moment he is able to see, he will never ask what is light. It is there.
Similarly, if you can clarify the confusion within yourself, then you will find out
what the purpose of life is; you will not have to ask, you will not have to look for it.
To be free of confusion you have to see and understand the causes which bring
about confusion; and the causes of confusion are very clear. They are rooted in
the `me’ that is constantly wanting to expand itself through possessing, through
becoming,  through  success,  through  imitation;  and  the  symptoms  are  jealousy,
envy,  greed,  fear.  As  long  as  there  is  this  inward  confusion,  you  are  always
seeking outward answers; but when the inward confusion is cleared away, then
you will know the significance of life.
Questioner: What is karma.
Krishnamurti: Karma is one of the peculiar words we use, it is one of those
words in which our thought is caught. The poor man has to accept life in terms of
a theory. He has to accept misery, starvation, squalor, because he is underfed
and has not the energy to break away and create a revolution. He has to accept
what  life  gives  him,  and  so  he  says,  «It  is  my  karma  to  be  like  this;  and  the
politicians, the big ones, encourage him to accept his misery. You do not want
him  to  revolt  against  all  that  do  you?  But  when  you  pay  the  poor  man  so  little
while you have so much, that is very likely to happen; so you use that word karma
to encourage his passive acceptance of the misery in his life.
The educated man, the man who has achieved, who has inherited, who has
come to the top of things, the man who has power, position and the means of
corruption – he also says, «It is my karma. I have done well in a previous life and
now I am reaping the reward of my past action».    134
But  is  that  the  meaning  of  karma  –  to  accept  things  as  they  are?  Do  you
understand?  Does  karma  mean  accepting  things  as  they  are  without  question,
without a spark of revolt – which is the attitude many of us have? So you see how
easily certain words become a net in which we get caught, because we are not
really alive. The true significance of that word karma cannot be understood as a
theory; it cannot be understood if you say, «That is what the Bhagavad Gita says».
You  know,  the  comparative  mind  is  the  most  stupid  mind  of  all,  because  it
does not think; it merely says, «I have read such-and-such a book, and what you
say is like it». When you say this, you have stopped thinking; when you compare,
you are no longer investigating to find out what is true, irrespective of what any
particular book or guru has said. So what is important is to throw off all authorities
and  investigate,  find  out,  and  not  compare.  Comparison  is  the  worship  of
authority, it is imitation, thoughtlessness. To compare is the very nature of a mind
that is not awake to discover what is true. You say, «That is so, it is like what was
said by the Buddha», and you think you have thereby solved your problems. But
really to discover the truth of anything, you have to be extremely active, vigorous,
self-reliant;  and  you  cannot  have  self-reliance  as  long  as  you  are  thinking
comparatively. please listen to this. If there is no self-reliance, you lose all power
to investigate and find out what is true. Self-reliance brings a certain freedom in
which you discover; and that freedom is denied to you when you are comparing.
Questioner: Is there an element of fear in respect?
Krishnamurti: What do you say? When you show respect to your teacher, to
your parents, to your guru, and respect to your servant; when you kick the people
who are not important to you, and lick the boots of those who are above you, the
officials,  the  politicians,  the  big  ones  –  is  there  not  an  element  of  fear  in  this?
From  the  big  ones,  from  the  teacher,  the  examiner,  the  professor,  from  your
parents,  from  the  politician  or  the  bank  manager,  you  hope  to  get  something;
therefore you are respectful. But what can the poor people give you? So the poor   135
you  disregard,  you  treat  them  with  contempt,  you  do  not  even  know  they  are
there  when  they  pass  you  in  the  street.  You  do  not  look  at  them,  it  does  not
concern you that they shiver in the cold, that they are dirty and hungry. But you
will give to the big ones, to the great of the land, even when you have very little,
in order to receive more of their favours. In this there is definitely an element of
fear, is there not? There is no love. If you had love in your heart, you would show
respect to those who have nothing and also to those who have everything; you
would  neither  be  afraid  of  those  who  have,  nor  disregard  those  who  have  not.
Respect in the hope of reward is the outcome of fear. In love there is no fear.    136
Part One Chapter 17
We have been examining the various factors that bring about deteriorate in our
lives, in our activities, in our thoughts; and we have seen that conflict is one of the
major  factors  of  this  deterioration.  And  is  not  peace  also,  as  it  is  generally
understood, a destructive factor? Can peace be brought about by the mind? If we
have peace through the mind, does not that also lead to corruption, deterioration?
If we are not very alert and observant, that word `peace’ becomes like a narrow
window through which we look at the world and try to understand it. Through a
narrow window we can see only part of the sky, and not the whole vastness, the
magnificence  of  it.  There  is  no  possibility  of  having  peace  by  merely  pursuing
peace, which is inevitably a process of the mind.
It may be a little difficult to understand this, but I shall try to make it as simple
and  clear  as  I  can.  If  we  can  understand  what  it  means  to  be  peaceful,  then
perhaps we shall understand the real significance of love.
We think that peace is something to be achieved through the mind, through
reason; but is it? Can peace ever come about through any quieting through any
control or domination of thought? We all want peace; and for most of us, peace
means to be left alone, not to be disturbed or interfered with, so we build a wall
around our own mind, a wall of ideas.
It is very important for you to understand this, for as you grow older you will be
faced with the problems of war and peace. Is peace something to be pursued,
caught  and  tamed  by  the  mind?  What  most  of  us  call  peace  is  a  process  of
stagnation,  a  slow  decay.  We  think  we  shall  find  peace  by  clinging  to  a  set  of
ideas, by inwardly building a wall of security, safety, a wall of habits, beliefs; we
think  that  peace  is  a  matter  of  pursuing  a  principle,  of  cultivating  a  particular
tendency,  a  particular  fancy,  a  particular  wish.  We  want  to  live  without
disturbance,  so  we  find  some corner of the universe, or  of  our  own  being,  into   137
which we crawl, and we live in the darkness of self-enclosure. That is what most
of us seek in our relationship with the husband, with the wife, with parents, with
friends. Unconsciously we want peace at any price, and so we pursue it.
But  can  the  mind  ever  find  peace?  Is  not  the  mind  itself  a  source  of
disturbance?  The  mind  can  only  gather,  accumulate,  deny,  assert,  remember,
pursue.  Peace  is  absolutely  essential,  because  without  peace  we  cannot  live
creatively.  But  is  peace  something  to  be  realized  through  the  struggles,  the
denials, the sacrifices of the mind? Do you understand what I am talking about?
We may be discontented while we are young, but as we grow older, unless we
are very wise and watchful,  that discontent will be canalized into some form of
peaceful resignation to life. The mind is everlastingly seeking a secluded habit,
belief, desire, something in which it can live and be at peace with the world. But
the mind cannot find peace, because it can think only in terms of time, in terms of
the past, the present and the future: what it has been, what it is, and what it will
be. It is constantly condemning, judging, weighing, comparing, pursuing its own
vanities, its own habits, beliefs; and such a mind can never be peaceful. It can
delude itself into a state which it calls peace; but that is not peace. The mind can
mesmerize itself by the repetition of words and phrases, by following somebody,
or  by  accumulating  knowledge;  but  it  is  not  peaceful,  because  such  a  mind  is
itself the centre of disturbance, it is by its very nature the essence of time. So the
mind with which we think, with which we calculate, with which we contrive and
compare, is incapable of finding peace. Peace is not the outcome of reason; and
yet, as you will see if you observe them, the organized religions are caught up in
this pursuit of peace through the mind. Real peace is as creative and as pure as
war is destructive; and to find that peace, one must understand beauty. That is
why it is important, while we are very young, to have beauty about us – the beauty
of buildings that have proper proportions, the beauty of cleanliness, of quiet talk
among the elders. In understanding what beauty is, we shall know love, for the
understanding of beauty is the peace of the heart.    138
Peace is of the heart, not of the mind. To know peace you have to find out
what beauty is. The way you talk, the words you use, the gestures you make –
these things matter very much, for through them you will discover the refinement
of your own heart. Beauty cannot be defined, it cannot be explained in words. It
can be understood only when the mind is very quiet.
So,  while  you  are  young  and  sensitive,  it  is  essential  that  you  –  as  well  as
those who are responsible for you – should create an atmosphere of beauty. The
way you dress, the way you walk, the way you sit, the way you eat – all these
things,  and  the  things  about  you,  are  very  important.  As  you  grow  up  you  will
meet the ugly things of life – ugly buildings, ugly people with their malice, envy,
ambition,  cruelty;  and  if  in  your  heart  there  is  not  founded  and  established  the
perception of beauty, you will easily be swept away by the enormous current of
the world. Then you will get caught in the endless struggle to find peace through
the  mind.  The  mind  projects  an  idea  of  what  peace  is  and  tries  to  pursue  it,
thereby getting caught in the net of words in the net of fancies and illusions.
Peace can come only when there is love. If you have peace merely through
security,  financial  or  otherwise,  or  through  certain  dogmas,  rituals,  verbal
repetitions,  there  is  no  creativeness;  there  is  no  urgency  to  bring  about  a
fundamental revolution in the world. Such peace only leads to contentment and
resignation. But when in you there is the understanding of love and beauty, then
you will find the peace that is not a mere projection of the mind. It is this peace
that is creative, that removes confusion and brings order within oneself. But this
peace  does  not  come  through  any  effort  to  find  it.  It  comes  when  you  are
constantly watching, when you are sensitive to both the ugly and the beautiful, to
the good and the bad, to all the fluctuations of life. Peace is not something petty,
created  by  the  mind;  it  is  enormously  great,  infinitely  extensive,  and  it  can  be
understood only when the heart is full.
Questioner: Why do we feel inferior before our superiors?    139
Krishnamurti:  Whom  do  you  consider  your  superiors?  Those  who  know?
Those who have titles, degrees? Those from whom you want something, some
kind of reward or position. The moment you regard somebody as superior do you
not regard somebody else as inferior?
Why do we have this division of the superior and the inferior? It exists only
when we want something, does it not? I feel less intelligent than you are, I do not
have as much money or capacity as you have, I am not as happy as you seem to
be, or I want something from you; so I feel inferior to you. When I am envious of
you,  or  when  I  am  trying  to  imitate  you,  or  when  I want  something  from  you,  I
immediately become your inferior, because I have put you on a pedestal, I have
given  you  a  superior  value.  So,  psychologically,  inwardly,  I  create  both  the
superior  and  the  inferior;  I  create  this  sense  of  inequality  between  those  who
have and those who have not.
Among human beings there is enormous inequality of capacity, is there not?
There is the man who designs the jet plane, and the man who guides the plough.
These vast differences in capacity – intellectual, verbal, physical – are inevitable.
But you see we give tremendous significance to certain functions. We consider
the governor, the Prime minister, the inventor, the scientist, as being enormously
more important than the servant; so function assumes status. As long as we give
status to particular functions, there is bound to be a sense of inequality, and the
gap  between  those  who  are  capable  and  those  who  are  not  becomes
unbridgeable. If we can keep function stripped of status, then there is a possibility
of  bringing  about  a  real  feeling  of  equality.  But  for  this  there  must  be  love;
because it is love that destroys the sense of the inferior and the superior.
The world is divided into those who have – the rich, the powerful, the capable,
those who have everything – and those who have not. And is it possible to bring
about a world in which this division between the `haves’ and the `have-nots’ does
not exist? Actually, what is happening is this: seeing the breach, this gulf between   140
the rich and the poor, between the man of great capacity and the man of little or
no  capacity,  the  politicians  and  economists  are  trying  to  solve  the  problem
through  economic  and  social  reform.  That  may  be  all  right.  But  a  real
transformation can never take place as long as we do not understand the whole
process  of  antagonism,  envy,  malice;  for  it  is  only  when  this  process  is
understood and comes to an end that there can be love in our hearts.
Questioner: Is it possible to have peace in our lives when at every moment we
are struggling against our environment?
Krishnamurti:  What  is  our  environment?  Our  environment  is  society,  the
economic, religious, national and class environment of the country in which we
grow  up;  and  also  the  climate.  Most  of  us  are  struggling  to  fit  in,  to  adjust
ourselves  to  our  environment,  because  we  hope  to  get  a  job  from  that
environment, we hope to have the benefits of that particular society. But what is
that society made up of? Have you ever thought about it? Have you ever looked
closely at the society in which you are living and to which you are trying to adjust
yourself? That society is based on a set of beliefs and traditions which is called
religion, and on certain economic values, is it not? You are part of that society,
and you are struggling to adjust yourself to it. But that society is the outcome of
acquisitiveness, it is the outcome of envy, fear, greed, possessive pursuits, with
occasional  flashes  of  love.  And  if  you  want  to  be  intelligent,  fearless,  non-
acquisitive, can you adjust yourself to such a society? Can you?
Surely,  you  have  to  create  a  new  society,  which  means  that  you  as  an
individual have to be free of acquisitiveness of envy, of greed; you have to be free
of nationalism, of patriotism, and of all narrowing down of religious thought. Only
then is there a possibility of creating something new, a totally new society. But as
long as you thoughtlessly struggle to adjust yourself to the present society, you
are  merely  following  the  old  pattern  of  envy,  of  power  and  prestige,  of  beliefs
which are corruptive.    141
So  it  is  very  important,  while  you  are  young,  to  begin  to  understand  these
problems and bring about real freedom within yourself, for then you will create a
new world, a new society, a new relationship between man and man. And to help
you do this is surely the true function of education.
Questioner: Why do we suffer? Why can we not be free of disease and death?
Krishnamurti:  Through  sanitation,  through  proper  living  conditions  and
nutritious food, man is beginning to free himself from certain diseases. Through
surgery and various forms of treatment, medical science is trying to find a cure for
incurable diseases like cancer. A capable doctor does all he can to relieve and
eliminate disease.
And is death conquerable? It is a most extraordinary thing that, at your age,
you are so interested in death. Why are you so preoccupied with it? Is it because
you see so much of death about you – the burning ghats the body being carried to
the river? To you, death is a familiar sight, it is so constantly with you; and there
is the fear of death.
If you do not reflect and understand for yourself the implications of death, you
will go endlessly from one preacher to another, from one hope to another, from
one belief to another, trying to find a solution to this problem of death. Do you
understand? Don’t keep on asking somebody else, but try to find out for yourself
the truth of the matter. To ask innumerable questions without ever trying to find
out or discover, is characteristic of a petty mind.
You see, we fear death only when we cling to life. The understanding of the
whole  process  of  living  is  also  the  understanding  of  the  significance  of  dying.
Death is merely the extinction of continuity, and we are afraid of not being able to
continue;  but  what  continues  can  never  be  creative.  Think  it  out;  discover  for
yourself what is true. It is truth that liberates you from the fear of death, and not
your religious theories, nor your belief in reincarnation or in life hereafter.    142  143
Part One Chapter 18
While we are quite young, most of us are perhaps not greatly affected by the
conflicts of life, by the worries, the passing joys, the physical disasters the fear of
death and the mental twists that burden the older generation. Fortunately, while
we are young most of us are not yet on the battlefield of life. But as we grow older
the  problems,  the  miseries,  the  doubts,  the  economic  and  inward  struggles  all
begin to crowd in on us, and then we want to find out the significance of life, we
want to know what life is all about. We wonder about the conflicts, the pains, the
poverty, the disasters. We want to know why some people are well-placed and
others are not; why one human being is healthy, intelligent, gifted, capable, while
another  is  not.  And  if  we  are  easily  satisfied,  we  soon  get  caught  in  some
hypothesis, in some theory or belief; we find an answer, but it is never the true
answer. We realize that life is ugly, painful, sorrowful, and we start out with an
inquiry; but not having enough self-reliance, vigour, intelligence, innocence to go
on  inquiring,  we  are  soon  caught  in  theories,  in  beliefs,  in  some  kind  of
speculation or doctrine which satisfactorily explains all this. Gradually our beliefs
and dogmas become deep-rooted and unshakable, because behind them there is
a constant fear of the unknown. We never look at that fear; we turn away from it
and take refuge in our beliefs. And when we examine these beliefs – the Hindu
the Buddhist, the Christian – we find that they divide people. Each set of dogmas
and beliefs has a series of rituals, a series of compulsions which bind the mind
and separate man from man.
So we start with an inquiry to find out what is true, what is the significance of
all this misery, this struggle, this pain, and we end up with a set of beliefs, rituals,
theories. We have not the self-reliance, nor the vigour, nor the innocence to push
belief aside and inquire; therefore belief begins to act as a deteriorating factor in
our lives.    144
Belief  is  corruptive,  because  behind  belief  and  idealistic  morality  lurks  the
`me’,  the  self  –  the  self  which  is  constantly  growing  bigger,  more  powerful.  We
think that belief in God is religion. We consider that to believe is to be religious. If
you do not believe, you will be regarded as an atheist and condemned by society.
One  society  condemns  those  who  do  not  believe  in  God,  and  another  society
condemns those who do. They are both the same.
So religion becomes a matter of belief, and belief acts as a limitation on the
mind; and the mind then is never free. But it is only in freedom that you can find
out what is true, what is God, not through any belief; because your belief projects
what you think God ought to be, what you think ought to be true. If you believe
God is love, God is good, God is this or that, your very belief prevents you from
understanding what is God, what is true. But, you see, you want to forget yourself
in  a  belief;  you  want  to  sacrifice  yourself;  you  want  to  emulate  another,  to
abandon this constant struggle that is going on within you and pursue virtue.
Your life is a constant struggle in which there is sorrow, suffering, ambition,
transient pleasure, happiness that comes and goes, so the mind wants something
enormous to cling to, something beyond itself with which it can become identified.
That  something  the  mind  calls  God,  truth,  and  it  identifies  itself  with  it  through
belief,  through  conviction,  through  rationalization,  through  various  forms  of
discipline  and  idealistic  morality.  But  that  vast  something,  which  creates
speculation,  is  still  part  of  the  `me’,  it  is  projected  by  the  mind  in  its  desire  to
escape from the turmoils of life.
We  identify  ourselves  with  a  particular  country  –  India,  England,  Germany,
Russia,  America.  You  think  of  yourself  as  a  Hindu.  Why?  Why  do  you  identify
yourself with India? Have you ever looked at it, gone behind the words that have
captured your mind? Living in a city or a small town, leading a miserable life with
your struggles and family quarrels, being dissatisfied, discontented, unhappy, you
identify yourself with a country called India. This gives you a sense of vastness,   145
of importance, a psychological satisfaction, so you say, «I am an Indian; and for
this you are willing to kill, to die or be maimed.
In the same way, because you are very petty, in constant battle with yourself
and others, because you are confused, miserable, uncertain, because you know
there  is  death,  you  identify  yourself  with  something  beyond,  something  vast,
significant, full of meaning, which you call God. This identification with what you
call God, gives you a sense of enormous importance, and you feel happy. So the
identifying of yourself with something vast is a self-expansive process; it is still
the struggling of the `me’, the self.
Religion  as  we  generally  know  it,  is  a  series  of  beliefs,  dogmas,  rituals,
superstitions; it is the worship of idols, of charms and gurus, and we think all this
will lead us to some ultimate goal. The ultimate goal is our own projection; it is
what we want, what we think will make us happy, a guarantee of the deathless
state. Caught in this desire for certainty, the mind creates a religion of dogmas, of
priestcraft,  of  superstitions  and  idol  worship;  and  there  it  stagnates.  Is  that
religion? Is religion a matter of belief, a matter of accepting or having knowledge
of other people’s experiences and assertions? Is religion merely the practice of
morality? You know, it is comparatively easy to be moral – to do this and not to do
that.  You  can  just  imitate  a  moral  system.  But  behind  such  morality  lurks  the
aggressive self, growing, expanding, dominating. And is that religion?
You have to find out what truth is, because that is what really matters – not
whether  you  are  rich  or  poor,  or  whether  you  are  happily  married  and  have
children,  for  all  these  things  come  to  an  end;  and  there  is  always  death.  So,
without  any  form  of  belief,  you  must  have  the  vigour,  the  self-reliance,  the
initiative to find out for yourself what truth is, what God is. Belief will not free your
mind; belief only corrupts, binds, darkens. The mind can be free only through its
own vigour and self-reliance.    146
Surely it is one of the functions of education to create individuals who are not
bound by any form of belief, by any pattern of morality or respectability. It is the
`me’  that  merely  seeks  to  become  moral,  respectable.  The  truly  religious
individual is he who discovers, who directly experiences what God is, what truth
is. That direct experiencing is never possible through any form of belief, through
any  ritual,  through  any  following  or  worshipping  of  another.  The  truly  religious
mind is free of all gurus. You as an individual, as you grow and live your life, can
discover  the  truth  from  moment  to  moment,  and  therefore  you  are  capable  of
being free.
Most people think that to be free from the material things of the world is the
first step towards religion. It is not. That is one of the easiest things to do. The
first step is to be free to think fully, completely and independently, which means
not being bound by any belief or crushed by circumstances, by environment, so
that you are an integrated human being, capable, vigorous and self-reliant. Only
then can your mind, being free, unbiased, unconditioned, find out what God is.
Surely, that is the basic purpose for which any educational centre should exist: to
help each individual who comes there to be free to discover reality. This means
not following any system, not clinging to any belief or ritual, and not worshipping
any guru. The individual has to awaken his intelligence, not through any form of
discipline,  resistance,  compulsion,  coercion,  but  through  freedom.  It  is  only
through  the  intelligence  born  of  freedom  that  the  individual  can  discover  that
which is beyond the mind. That immensity – the unnameable, the limitless, that
which is not measurable by words and in which there is the love that is not of the
mind – must be directly experienced. The mind cannot conceive of it; therefore the
mind must be very quiet, astonishingly still, without any demand or any desire.
Only then is it possible for that which may be called God or reality to come into
being.
Questioner:  What  is  obedience?  Should  we  obey  an  order  even  without
understanding it?    147
Krishnamurti:  Is  that  not  what  most  of  us  do?  parents,  teachers,  the  older
people say, «Do this». They say it politely, or with a stick, and because we are
afraid, we obey. That is also what governments, what the military people do to us.
We are trained from childhood to obey, not knowing what it is all about. The more
authoritarian our parents and the more tyrannical the government, the more we
are  compelled,  shaped  from  our  earliest  years;  and  without  understanding  why
we should do what we are told to do, we obey. We are also told what to think. Our
minds are purged of any thought which is not approved by the State, by the local
authorities. We are never taught or helped to think, to find out, but are required to
obey. The priest tells us what is so, the religious book tells us what is so, and our
own  inward  fear  compels  us  to  obey;  because  if  we  do  not  obey  we  shall  be
confused, we shall feel lost.
So we obey because we are very thoughtless. We don’t want to think because
to think is disturbing; to think, we have to question, to inquire, we have to find out
for ourselves. And the older people don’t want us to inquire, they have not the
patience to listen to our questions. They are too busy with their own quarrels, with
their  ambitions  and  prejudices,  with  their  do’s  and  don’ts  of  morality  and
respectability; and we who are young are afraid to go wrong, because we also
want to be respectable. Don’t we all want to wear the same kind of clothes, to
look  alike?  We  don’t  want  to  do  anything  different,  we  don’t  want  to  think
independently,  to  stand  apart,  because  that  is  very  disturbing;  so  we  join  the
gang.
Whatever  our  age,  most  of  us  obey,  follow,  copy,  because  we  are  inwardly
frightened of being uncertain. We want to be certain, both financially and morally;
we want to be approved of. We want to be in a safe position, to be enclosed and
never  to  be  confronted  with  trouble,  pain,  suffering.  It  is  fear,  conscious  or
unconscious,  that  makes  us  obey  the  master,  the  leader,  the  priest,  the
government. It is fear of being punished that prevents us from doing something
harmful to others. So, behind all our actions, our greeds and pursuits, lurks the   148
desire  for  certainty,  this  desire  to  be  safe,  assured.  Without  being  free  of  fear,
merely to obey has little significance. What has significance is to be aware of this
fear from day to day, to observe how it shows itself in different ways. Only when
there is freedom from fear can there be that inward quality of understanding, that
aloneness in which there is no accumulation of knowledge or experience.    149
Part One Chapter 19
When we grow older and leave school after receiving a so-called education,
we have to face many problems. What profession are we to choose, so that in it
we can fulfil ourselves and be happy? In what vocation or job will we feel that we
are  not  exploiting  or  being  cruel  to  others?  We  have  to  face  the  problems  of
suffering, disaster, death. We have to understand starvation, overpopulation, sex,
pain, pleasure. We have to deal with the many confusing and contradictory things
in  life:  the  wrangles  between  man  and  man,  between  man  and  woman;  the
conflicts within and the struggles without. We have to understand ambition, war,
the military spirit – and that extraordinary thing called peace, which is much more
vital than we realize. We have to comprehend the significance of religion, which is
not mere speculation or the worship of images, and also that very strange and
complex thing called love. We have to be sensitive to the beauty of life, to a bird
in  flight  –  and  also  to  the  beggar,  to  the  squalor  of  the  poor,  to  the  hideous
buildings that people put up, to the foul road and the still fouler temple. We have
to face all these problems. We have to face the question of whom to follow or not
to follow, and whether we should follow anyone at all.
Most of us are concerned with bringing about a little change here and there,
and with that we are satisfied. The older we grow, the less we want any deep,
fundamental  change,  because  we  are  afraid.  We  do  not  think  in  terms  of  total
transformation, we think only in terms of superficial change; and if you look into it
you  will  find  that  superficial  change  is  no  change  at  all.  It  is  not  a  radical
revolution, but merely a modified continuity of what has been. All these things you
have to face, from your own happiness and misery to the happiness and misery
of the many; from your own ambitions and self-seeking pursuits to the ambitions,
motivations and pursuits of others. You have to face competition, the corruption in
yourself and in others, the deterioration of the mind, the emptiness of the heart.   150
You have to know all this, you have to face and understand it for yourself. But
unfortunately you are not prepared for it.
What have we understood when we leave school? We may have gathered a
little  knowledge,  but  we  are  as  dull,  empty,  shallow  as  when  we  came.  Our
studies, our attending school, our contacts with our teachers have not helped us
to understand these very complex problems of life. The teachers are dull, and we
become as dull as they are. They are afraid, and we are afraid. So it is our own
problem. It is our responsibility as well as the teachers to see that we go out into
the world with maturity, with deep thought, without fear, and are therefore able to
face life intelligently.
Now,  it  appears  very  important  to  find  an  answer  to  all  these  complex
problems; but there is no answer. All that you can do is to meet these problems
intelligently  as  they  arise.  please  understand  this.  Instinctively  you  want  an
answer, do you not? You think that by reading books, by following somebody, you
will find answers to all the very complex and subtle problems of life. You will find
beliefs,  theories,  but  they  will  not  be  answers,  because  these  problems  have
been  created  by  human  beings  like  you.  The  appalling  callousness,  the
starvation, the cruelty, the hideousness, the squalor – all this has been created by
human  beings,  and  to  bring  about  a  fundamental  transformation  you  have  to
understand the human mind and heart, which is yourself. Merely to look for an
answer in a book, or to identify yourself with some political or economic system,
however  much  it  may  promise,  or  to  practice  some  religious  absurdity  with  its
superstitions, or to follow a guru – none of this will help you to understand these
human  problems,  because  they  are  created  by  you  and  others  like  you.  To
understand them you must understand yourself – understand yourself as you live
from moment to moment, from day to day, year in and year out; and for this you
need intelligence, a great deal of insight, love, patience.    151
So you must find out what is intelligence, must you not? You all use that word
very freely; but by merely talking about intelligence you do not become intelligent.
The  politicians  keep  on  repeating  words  like  `intelligence’,  `integration’,  `a  new
culture’, `an united world’, but they are mere words with very little meaning. So do
not use words without really understanding all that they imply.
We are trying to find out what intelligence is – not merely the definition of it,
which can be found in any dictionary, but the knowing of it, the feeling of it, the
understanding of it; for if we have that intelligence, it will help each one of us, as
we  grow  to  deal  with  the  enormous  problems  in  our  life.  And  without  that
intelligence, however much we may read, study, accumulate knowledge, reform,
bring about little changes here and there in the pattern of society, there can be no
real transformation, no lasting happiness.
Now,  what  does  intelligence  mean?  I  am  going  to  find  out  what  it  means.
Perhaps for some of you this is going to be difficult; but do not bother too much
with trying to follow the words; try instead to feel the content of what I am talking
about. Try to feel the thing, the quality of intelligence. If you feel it now, then you
will, as you grow older, see more and more clearly the significance of what I have
been saying.
Most  of  us  think  that  intelligence  is  the  outcome  of  acquiring  knowledge,
information, experience. By having a great deal of knowledge and experience we
think we shall be able to meet  life  with  intelligence.  But  life  is  an  extraordinary
thing, it is never stationary; like the river, it is constantly flowing, never still. We
think  that  by  gathering  more  experience,  more  knowledge,  more  virtue,  more
wealth,  more  possessions,  we  shall  be  intelligent.  That  is  why  we  respect  the
people who have accumulated knowledge, the scholars, and also the people who
are  rich  and  full  of  experience.  But  is  intelligence  the  outcome  of  the  `more’?
What is behind this process of having more, wanting more? In wanting more we
are concerned with accumulating, are we not?    152
Now,  what  happens  when  you  have  accumulated  knowledge,  experience?
Whatever further experience you may have is immediately translated in terms of
the `more’, and you are never really experiencing, you are always gathering; and
this gathering is the process of the mind, which is the centre of the `more’. The
`more’ is the `me’, the ego, the self-enclosed entity who is only concerned with
accumulating, either negatively or positively. So, with its accumulated experience,
the mind meets life. In meeting life with this accumulation of experience, the mind
is again seeking the `more’, so it never experiences, it only gathers. As long as
the mind is merely an instrument of gathering, there is no real experiencing. How
can  you  be  open  to  experience  when  you  are  always  thinking  of  getting
something out of that experience, acquiring something more?
So the man who is accumulating, gathering, the man who is desiring more is
never freshly experiencing life. It is only when the mind is not concerned with the
`more’, with accumulating, that there is a possibility for that mind to be intelligent.
When  the  mind  is  concerned  with  the  `more’,  every  further  experience
strengthens the wall of the self-enclosing `me’, the egocentric process which is
the centre of all conflict, please follow this. You think that experience frees the
mind, but it does not. As long as your mind is concerned with accumulation, with
the `more’, every experience you have only strengthens you in your egotism, in
your selfishness, in your self-enclosing process of thought.
Intelligence is possible only when there is real freedom from the self, from the
`me’, that is, when the mind is no longer the centre of the demand for the `more’,
no longer caught up in the desire for greater, wider, more expansive experience.
Intelligence  is  freedom  from  the  pressure  of  time  is  it  not?  Because  the  `more’
implies time, and as long as the mind is the centre of the demand for the `more’, it
is  the  result  of  time.  So  the  cultivation  of  the  `more’  is  not  intelligence.  The
understanding of this whole process is self-knowledge. When one knows oneself
as  one  is,  without  an  accumulating  centre,  out  of  that  self-knowing  comes  the
intelligence which can meet life; and that intelligence is creative.    153
Look at your own life. How dull, how stupid, how narrow it is, because you are
not  creative.  When  you  grow  up  you  may  have  children,  but  that  is  not  being
creative. You may be a bureaucrat, but in that there is no vitality, is there? It is
dead routine, utter boredom. Your life is hedged about by fear, and so there is
authority and imitation. You do not know what it is to be creative. By creativeness
I do not mean painting pictures, writing poems, or being able to sing. I mean the
deeper nature of creativeness which, when once discovered, is an eternal source,
an undying current; and it can be found only through intelligence. That source is
the timeless; but the mind cannot find the timeless as long as it is the centre of
the `me’, of the self, of the entity that is everlastingly asking for the `more’.
When you understand all this, not just verbally, but deep down, then you will
find that with awakened intelligence there comes a creativeness which is reality,
which is God, which is not to be speculated about or meditated upon. You will
never  get  it  through  your  practice  of  meditation,  through  your  prayers  for  the
`more’  or  your  escapes  from  the  `more’.  That  reality  can  come  into  being  only
when  you  understand  the  state  of  your  own  mind,  the  malice,  the  envy,  the
complex  reactions  as  they  arise  from  moment  to  moment  every  day.  In
understanding these things there comes a state which may be called love. That
love is intelligence, and it brings a creativeness which is timeless.
Questioner:  Society  is  based  upon  our  interdependence.  The  doctor  has  to
depend  on  the  farmer,  and  the  farmer  on  the  doctor.  How  then  can  a  man  be
completely independent?
Krishnamurti: Life is relationship. Even the sannyasi has relationship; he may
renounce the world, but he is still related to the world. We cannot escape from
relationship.  For  most  of  us,  relationship  is  a  source  of  conflict;  in  relationship
there  is  fear,  because  we  psychologically  depend  on  another,  either  on  the
husband, on the wife, on the parent, or on a friend. Relationship exists not only
between oneself and the parent, between oneself and the child, but also between   154
oneself  and  the  teacher,  the  cook,  the  servant,  the  governor,  the  commander,
and the whole of society; and as long as we do not understand this relationship,
there is no freedom from the psychological dependence which brings about fear
and exploitation. Freedom comes only through intelligence. Without intelligence,
merely  to  seek  independence  or  freedom  from  relationship  is  to  pursue  an
illusion.
So  what  is  important  is  to  understand  our  psychological  dependence  in
relationship.  It  is  in  uncovering  the  hidden  things  of  the  heart  and  mind,  in
understanding  our  of  loneliness,  emptiness,  that  there  is  freedom,  not  from
relationship,  but  from  the  psychological  dependence  which  causes  conflict,
misery, pain, fear.
Questioner: Why is truth unpalatable?
Krishnamurti: If I think I am very beautiful and you tell me I am not, which may
be a fact, do I like it? If I think I am very intelligent, very clever, and you point out
that  I  am  actually  a  rather  silly  person,  it  is  very  unpalatable  to  me.  And  your
pointing  out  my  stupidity  gives  you  a  sense  of  pleasure,  does  it  not?  It  flatters
your vanity, it shows how clever you are. But you do not want to look at your own
stupidity; you want to run away from what you are, you want to hide from yourself,
you want to cover up your own emptiness, your own loneliness. So you seek out
friends who never tell you what you are. You want to show others what they are;
but when others show you what you are, you do not like it. You avoid that which
exposes your own inner nature.
Questioner: Up to now our teachers have been very certain and have taught
us in the usual way, but after listening to what has been said here and after taking
part in the discussions, they have become very uncertain. An intelligent student
will know how to conduct himself under these circumstances; but what will those
do who are not intelligent?    155
Krishnamurti:  What  are  the  teachers  uncertain  about?  Not  about  what  to
teach,  because  they  can  carry  on  with  mathematics,  geography,  the  usual
curriculum. That is not what they are uncertain about. They are uncertain about
how to deal with the student, are they not? They are uncertain in their relationship
with the student. Until recently they were never particularly concerned about their
relationship with the student; they just came to the class, taught, and went out.
But now they are concerned as to whether they are creating fear by exercising
their authority to make the student obey. They are concerned as to whether they
are  repressing  the  student,  or  are  encouraging his initiative and helping him to
find his true vocation. Naturally all this has made them uncertain. But surely the
teacher  as  well  as  the  student  has  to  be  uncertain;  he  too  has  to  inquire,  to
search. That is the whole process of life from the beginning to the end, is it not? –
never to stop in a certain place and say, «I know».
An  intelligent  man  is  never  static,  he  never  says,  «I  know».  He  is  always
inquiring, always uncertain, always looking, searching, finding out. The moment
he says, «I know», he is already dead. And whether we are young or old, most of
us  –  because  of  tradition,  compulsion,  fear,  because  of  bureaucracy  and  the
absurdities  of  our  religion  –  are  all  but  dead,  without  vitality,  without  vigour,
without self-reliance. So the teacher has also to find out. He has to discover for
himself  his  own  bureaucratic  tendencies  and  cease  to  deaden  the  minds  of
others;  and  that  is  a  very  difficult  process.  It  requires  a  great  deal  of  patient
understanding.
So the intelligent student has to help the teacher, and the teacher has to help
the student; and both have to help the dull boy or girl who is not very intelligent.
That is relationship. Surely, when the teacher himself is uncertain, inquiring, he is
more tolerant, more hesitant, more patient and affectionate with the dull student,
whose intelligence may thereby be awakened.    156
Questioner: The farmer has to rely on the doctor for the cure of physical pain.
Is this also a dependent relationship?
Krishnamurti:  As  we  have  seen,  if  psychologically  I  defend  on  you,  my
relationship  with  you  is  based  on  fear;  and  as  long  as  fear  exists,  there  is  no
independence in relationship. The problem of freeing the mind from fear is quite
complex.
You  see,  what  is  important  is  not  what  one  says  in  answer  to  all  these
questions, but for you to find out for yourself the truth of the matter by constant
inquiry – which means not being caught in any belief or system of thought. It is
constant inquiry that creates initiative and brings about intelligence. Merely to be
satisfied with an answer dulls the mind. So it is very important for you not just to
accept,  but  to  inquire  constantly  and  begin  to  discover  freely  for  yourself  the
whole meaning of life.    157
Part 2
Part Two Chapter 1
I wonder why you are being educated? Do you know? As soon as you are old
enough your parents send you to school. They perhaps know why they send you
to school, but do you know why you go to school? All that you and your parents
know is that you must go to school and be educated.
Now,  what  does  it  mean  to  be  educated?  Have  you  ever  thought  about  it?
Does  it  mean  merely  passing  examinations  so  that  afterwards  you  can  get
married and have some sort of job which you may or may not like, and continue
in that job for the rest of your life? Is that education?
You  are  in  various  schools  and  you  are  being  educated,  that  is,  you  are
learning mathematics, history, geography, science, and so on. Why? Have you
ever  wondered?  Is  it  merely  in  order  to  earn  a  living  afterwards?  Is  that  the
purpose of education? Is education merely a matter of passing examinations and
putting a few letters after your name, or is it something entirely different?
If you look around, you will see what an awful mess the world is in. Do you see
the poor who have very little to eat, who have no holidays and must work day
after  day  from  morning  till  night,  while  your  parents  go  to  the  club  in  luxurious
cars and enjoy themselves there? That is life, is it not? There are the poor and
the rich, those who are ill and those who have good health, and throughout the
world  there  are  wars,  there  are  miseries,  there  is  every  kind  of  trouble.  And
should you not begin to think about these things while you are young? But you
see,  you  are  not  helped  in  your  schools  to  prepare  yourself  to  meet  that  vast
expanse of life with its extraordinary struggles, miseries, suffering, wars; nobody
talks to you about all this. They just tell you the bare facts, but that is not enough,
is it?    158
Surely, education is not just to enable you to get a job; it is something which
should help you to prepare for life. You may become a clerk, or a governor, or a
scientist, but that is not the whole of life.
There are all kinds of things in life. Life is like the ocean. The ocean is not just
what  you  see  on  the  surface,  is  it?  It  is  tremendously  deep,  it  has  enormous
currents and is teeming with all kinds of life, with many varieties of fish, the big
living on the small. All that is the sea; and so it is with life, in which there are all
kinds  of  enjoyments,  pleasures,  pains,  extraordinary  inventions,  innumerable
systems of meditation, and the mass search for happiness. The whole of that is
life, but you are not prepared for it. At school nobody talks to you about all those
things. There are too many boys and girls in each class, and the teacher is only
concerned with helping you to pass the examinations, he is not interested in the
clarification of your minds. But education is surely not a process of stuffing the
mind with information. If you know how to read you can pick up any encyclopedia
and get whatever information you want. So I think education is something entirely
different from merely learning certain facts and passing a few examinations.
You see, as long as we are afraid, we are not educated. Do you know what
fear is? You know you are afraid. The children are afraid, the grown-up people
are afraid, you are all afraid; and as long as we are afraid, we are not educated,
we have no intelligence. So education is not merely the stuffing of the mind with
information, but the helping of the student to understand without fear this great
complexity of life.
You are afraid of your teachers, of your parents, of your elder brother, of your
aunt,  or  of  somebody  else,  are  you  not?  The  older  people  have  the  power  to
punish you, to push you away or ask you to stay in your own room; and so in the
school  as  well  as  in  the  home  we  are  continually  trained  in  fear.  Our  life  is
moulded by fear, and from childhood till we die we are afraid. And do you know
what fear does? Have you ever watched yourself when you are afraid, how your   159
tummy tightens up, how you perspire, how you get nightmares? You don’t like to
be with the people of whom you are frightened, do you? You want to run away
like  an  animal  that  is  threatened.  You  see,  with  that  fear  we  go  to  school  and
college, and with that fear we leave college to meet this extraordinary thing, this
vast stream with its enormous depth which we call life. So it seems to me that the
thing of first importance in education is to see to it that we are educated to be free
from fear; because fear dulls our minds, fear cripples our thinking, fear makes for
darkness, and as long as we are frightened we shall not create a new world. Do
you  understand  what  I  am  talking  about,  or  is  it  something  of  which  you  have
never heard before?
You know, in the world outside of your of family, outside of your home, in the
world  beyond  Bombay,  in  Europe,  America  and  Russia,  they  are  preparing
instruments of enormous destruction. The world is going through an awful phase,
and all the politicians all the leaders are very confused, though they say they are
not, for they are always having wars, there is always some kind of trouble. So the
world at present is not a beautiful thing, it is not a happy place to live in; and if
you  who  are  very  young  are  not  rightly  educated,  you  will  obviously  create  a
world  which  is  equally  unhappy,  equally  miserable,  equally  confused.  Is  it  not
therefore very important to find out how you should be educated so that you can
create a totally different kind of world? – a world in which we can all live happily
together, in which there are not the rich and the poor, neither the big politicians
who  have  all  the  power,  position,  glamour,  nor  the  underprivileged  who  have
nothing in life and must work without ceasing till they die.
It is you who will have to create a new world, not the old people, because the
old people are making an awful mess of it. But if you are rightly educated you can
create a new world. It is in your hands, not in the hands of the politicians or the
priests. If you are rightly educated you will create a marvellous world – not a world
of  India  or  Europe,  but  a  world  which  will  be  ours,  yours  and  mine,  a  world  in
which we shall all live happily together. And I assure you, the creation of such a   160
world depends on you, not on anybody else, and that is why it is very important
how  you  are  educated  and  what  kind  of  teachers  you  have.  If  the  teacher  is
afraid, he will have students who are also afraid. If the teacher is narrow, petty,
small, merely passing on information to you, then you too will have minds which
are very small and you will grow up without understanding what life is.
So it is really very important to be educated rightly, which means growing up in
freedom;  and  you  cannot  be  free  if  you  are  frightened  of  your  parents,  of  your
teachers,  of  public  opinion,  or  of  what  your  grandmother  would  say.  If  you  are
frightened  you  can  never  be  free.  And  you  may  notice  in  the  schools  that  the
teachers  have  not  thought  out  this  problem  of  fear;  because  the  moment  you
have any kind of compulsion to make you do something, either through so-called
kindness or through a system of discipline, it does create fear. If I am the teacher,
and in order to make you study I compare you with another student, saying that
you are not as intelligent as some other boy or girl, I am destroying you, am I not?
In  our  present  schools  we  have  examinations,  which  breed  fear,  and  we  also
have  systems  of  grading,  which  means  that  the  student  is  always  being
compared  with  somebody  else;  therefore  it  is  the  clever  boy  or  girl  who  is
considered  important,  and  not  the  individual  student.  The  student  who  is  very
smart at his studies, who has a peculiar capacity to pass examinations, may be
stupid in other directions, and probably he is.
Giving marks, grading, comparing, and any form of compulsion, either through
kindness or through threats, breeds fear; and it is because we are caught in this
fear while we are young that we struggle in fear for the rest of our life. The older
people, by their attitude towards life, create a form of education which is merely a
repetition of the old, so there is no new way of living. That is why it seems to me
very important to think about all these matters while you are still very young. Even
if you don’t understand what I am saying you should ask your teachers about this,
if they will permit it, and see if you can really be free from fear. When there is no
fear, you study much better. When you feel that you are not being compelled to   161
do anything, you will find out what you are interested in, and then for the rest of
your life you will do something which you really love to do – which is much more
important than becoming a miserable clerk because you must have a job. To do
something  because  your  parents  say  that  you  must  do  it,  or  because  society
demands it, is all non- sense;  whereas,  if  you  really love  to  do  something  with
your  hands  and  with  your  mind,  then  through  that  love  you  will  create  a  new
world.  But  you  cannot  create  a  new  world  if  you  are  frightened,  and  therefore
while you are young there must be a spirit of revolt.
Do you understand what revolt is? As you grow from childhood to adulthood,
life presses in upon you in the form of parents, teachers, tradition, neighbours,
the culture or society in which you are brought up, and so on; all this encloses
you like a prison and compels you to do what it wants, so you are never yourself.
And is it not very important that education should help you to be free so that you
can think and live without fear and thereby know for yourself what love is? If your
parents really love you they will bring about this kind of education, they will see to
it that you are free – free to live and grow without fear, free to be happy. But there
are very few such parents in the world, because most parents say that the child
must do this and not that, he must be like his father: a lawyer, a policeman, a
merchant, or whatever it is.
It is really very difficult to understand all these complex problems, and as we
grow  up  we  can  understand  them  only  when  there  is  intelligence.  Intelligence
should come while we are young, which means that the teacher himself must first
understand all this. But there are very few teachers who understand it, because
to most of them teaching is merely a job. They cannot get another job where they
would make more money, so they say, «Teaching is a good job», which means
that they are interested neither in educating you nor in education itself.
So, as a boy or a girl you have to find out the truth of all this, you cannot just
be  tame,  like  a  domesticated  animal.  I  hope  you  are  understanding  what  I  am   162
talking about, because all this is really very difficult and requires a great deal of
thinking on your part. The world is disintegrating, going to pieces, there are wars,
starvation and misery; and the creation of a new world is in your hands. But you
cannot create a new world if in you there is no spirit of revolt; and you cannot
have  this  spirit  of  revolt  as  long  as  there  is  fear  which  cripples  intelligence.
Questioner: I have everything to make me happy, while others have not. Why is
this so?
Krishnamurti: Why do you think it is like that? You may have good health, kind
parents,  a  good  brain,  and  therefore  think  you  are  happy;  whereas,  somebody
who is ill, whose parents are unkind, and who has not too good a brain, feel that
he is unhappy. Now, why is this so? Why are you happy while somebody else is
unhappy?  Does  happiness  consist  in  having  riches,  cars,  good  houses,  clean
food,  kind  parents?  Is  that  what  you  call  happiness?  And  is  a  person  unhappy
who  has  none  of  these  things?  So,  what  do  you  mean  by  happiness?  This  is
important to find out, is it not? Does happiness consist in comparing? When you
say,  «I  am  happy»,  is  your  happiness  born  of  comparison?  Do  you  understand
what I am talking about, or is this too difficult?
Have  you  not  heard  your  parents  say,  «So-and-so  is  not  as  well  off  as  we
are»? Comparison makes us feel that we have something, it gives us a sense of
satisfaction, does it not? If one is clever and compares oneself with somebody
who  is  not  so  clever,  one  feels  very  happy.  That  is,  we  think  we  are  happy
through pride, comparison; but the man who feels happy by comparing himself
with  another  who  has  a  little  less,  is  a  most  miserable  human  being,  because
there is always somebody above him who has more; and so it goes on and on.
Surely,  comparison  is  not  happiness.  Happiness  is  entirely  different;  it  is  not  a
thing  to  be  sought  after.  Happiness  comes  when  you  are  doing  something
because you really love to do it, and not because it gives you riches or makes
you a prominent person.    163
Questioner: What is the way to get rid of the fear that we have?
Krishnamurti: First you must know what you are afraid of, must you not? You
may be afraid of your parents, of the teachers, of not passing an examination, of
what your sister, your brother, or your neighbour might say; or you may be afraid
of not being as good or as clever as your father, who has a big name. There are
many kinds of fear, and one must know what one is afraid of. Now, do you know
what you are afraid of? If you do, then don’t run away from that fear, but find out
why  you  are  afraid.  If  you  want  to  know  how  to  get  rid  of  fear,  you  must  not
escape from it, you must face it; and the very facing of it helps you to be free of it.
As long as we are running away from fear, we do not look at it; but the moment
we  stop  and  look  at  fear,  it  begins  to  dissolve.  The  very  running  away  is  the
cause of fear.
You must be teeming with questions, but perhaps you are shy. May I ask you
a  question?  What  do  you  want  to  be  when  you  grow  up?  Do  you  know?  Of
course, for the girls it is simple, they want to get married, that is understood; but
even  if  you  get  married,  what  do  you  want  to  do?  Are  you  ambitious?  Do  you
know what ambition is? It is the desire to become somebody, is it not? The man
who has an ideal and says, «I am going to be like Rama, Sita, or Gandhiji», is still
ambitious. Are you ambitious in some way?
Now,  what  does  that  mean?  Why  are  you  ambitious?  This  may  be  a  little
difficult, but it is one of the problems of life and you ought to be thinking about it. I
will tell you why. We are all ambitious; everyone is ambitious in his own way. And
do  you  know  what  that  does?  It  causes  us  to  be  against  one  another.  We  are
always struggling to be rich, to have fame, to be more clever; I want to be greater
than you, and you want to be greater than I. So ambition really means trying to be
something we are not. And which is important? To try to be something we are
not, or to understand what we are? Surely, we must first look at ourselves and
begin to understand what we are.    164
You see, most of us are idealists; and idealists are hypocrites, because they
are always trying to become something which they are not. If I am stupid and I
strive to become clever, everybody  thinks  it  is a marvellous thing. But a stupid
person,  however  well  he  may  learn  the  tricks  of  cleverness,  does  not  thereby
become intelligent. Whereas, if I know that I am stupid, then that very knowledge
is the beginning of intelligence – which is much better than merely being clever.
Do you understand?
If I am not very quick-witted, what generally happens? In school I am put at
the end of the class – which is a disgraceful thing for the teacher to do, because I
am as important as anybody else. It is stupid of the teacher to keep me at the end
of the class by comparing me with the clever students, because by comparing he
is destroying me.
But  comparison  is  the  basis  of  our  so-called  education,  and  of  our  whole
culture. The teacher is always saying that you,must do as well as such and such
a boy or girl, so you struggle to be as clever as they are. And what happens to
you? You get more and more worried, physically ill, mentally worn out. Whereas,
if the teacher does not compare you with anyone, but says, «Look here, old boy,
be yourself. Let us find out what you are interested in, what your capacities are.
Don’t imitate, don’t try to become like Rama, Sita, or Gandhiji, but be what you
are  and  begin  from  there»  –  if  the  teacher  says  that,  then  it  is  you  who  are
important,  not  somebody  else.  It  is  the  individual  who  is  important,  and  by
comparing a student with somebody who is cleverer, the teacher is belittling him,
making him smaller, more stupid. It is the function of the teacher to help you to
find out what you are, and he cannot help you to do that if he is comparing you
with  somebody  else.  Comparison  destroys  you,  so  don’t  compare  yourself  with
another. You are as good as anybody. Understand what you are, and from there
begin to find out how to be more fully, more freely, more expansively what you
are.    165
Questioner: You said that if the parents really love their child they will not stop
him  from  doing  anything.  But  if  the  child  does  not  want  to  be  clean  or  eats
something which is bad for his health, must we not stop him?
Krishnamurti: I do not think I have ever said that if the parents love their child
they will let him do exactly as he likes. Sir, this is a very difficult question, is it
not? After all, if I love my son I shall see to it that he has no cause for fear – which
is an extraordinarily difficult thing to do. As I said, to be free of fear, the child must
not be compared with anyone else, nor must he be subjected to examinations. If I
love the child I shall give him freedom, not to do what he likes – because merely
to do what one likes is stupid – , but freedom in which to cultivate intelligence; and
that intelligence will then tell him what to do.
To have intelligence there must be freedom, and you cannot be free if you are
constantly being urged to become like some hero, for then the hero is important
and not you. Don’t you have tummy-aches when you have examinations? Don’t
you  feel  nervous,  anxious?  When  year  after  year  you  have  to  face  this  terrible
ordeal called examinations, do you know what it does to you throughout the rest
of your life? The older people say that you must grow without fear; but it doesn’t
mean a thing, it is only a lot of words, because they are cultivating fear through
subjecting you to examinations and by comparing you with somebody else.
Another thing we should really discuss is what we call discipline. Do you know
what I mean by discipline? From childhood you are told what to do, and you have
jolly well got to do it. No one takes the trouble to explain why you should get up
early, why you should be clean. parents and teachers do not explain these things
to you because they have neither the love, the time, nor the patience; they merely
say, «Do it or I shall punish you». So education as we know it, is the instilling of
fear. And how can your mind be intelligent when there is fear? How can you have
love or feel respect for people when you are afraid? You may `respect’ the people
who have big names, expensive cars; but you don’t respect your servant, you just   166
kick him. When a big man comes around you all salute him and touch his feet,
and that is called respect; but it is not respect, it is fear that is making you touch
his  feet.  You  don’t  touch  the  feet  of  the  poor  coolie,  do  you?  You  are  not
respectful to him, because he cannot give you anything. So all our education is
nothing but the cultivation or strengthening of  fear.  That  is  a  terrible  thing,  is  it
not? And as long as there is fear, how can we create a new world? We cannot.
That is why it is very important to understand this problem of fear while you are
young, and for all of us to see to it that we are really educated without fear.
Questioner: Is it not important to have ideals in life?
Krishnamurti: This is a good question, because you all have ideals. You have
the  ideal  of  non-violence,  the  ideal  of  peace,  or  the  ideal  of  a  person  such  as
Rama,  Sita,  or  Gandhiji,  have  you  not?  Which  means  what?  You  are  not
important, but the ideal is very important. Rama is awfully important, but not poor
old you, so you imitate him. All that you are concerned with is to copy either a
person  or  an  idea.  As  I  said,  an  idealist  is  a  hypocrite,  because  he  is  always
trying to become what he is not, instead of being and understanding what he is.
You  see,  the  problem  of  idealism  is  really  a  complex  one,  and  you  don’t
understand it because you have never been encouraged to think about it; no one
has  ever  talked  it  over  with  you.  All  your  books,  all  your  teachers,  all  the
newspapers and magazines say you must have ideals, you must be like this hero
or  that,  which  only  makes  the  mind  like  a  monkey  who  imitates,  or  like  a
gramophone  record  which  repeats a lot of words. So you must not accept, but
begin  to  question  everything  and  find  out;  and  you  cannot  question  if  you  are
inwardly afraid. To question everything means being in revolt, which is to create a
new  world.  But  you  see,  your  teachers  and  parents  do  not  want  you  to  be  in
revolt, because they want to control you, they want to shape and mould you into
their patterns; and so life continues to be an ugly thing.
Questioner: If we are small, how can we create a new world?    167
Krishnamurti: You cannot create a new world if you are small. But you are not
going to be small for the rest of your life, are you? You are small if you are afraid.
You may have a big body, a big car, a high position, but if you are afraid inside
you will never create a new world. That is why it is very important to grow with
intelligence,  without  fear,  to  grow  in  freedom.  But  to  grow  in  freedom  does  not
mean disciplining oneself to be free.
Questioner:  What  should  be  the  system  of  education  to  make  the  child
fearless?
Krishnamurti: A system or a method implies being told what to do and how to
do  it;  and  will  that  make  you  fearless?  Can  you  be  educated  with  intelligence,
without fear, through any kind of system? When you are young, you should be
free to grow; but there is no system to make you free. A system implies making
the  mind  conform  to  a  pattern,  does  it  not?  It  means  locking  you  up  in  a
framework, not giving you freedom. The moment you rely on a system you dare
not step out of it, and then the very thought of stepping out of it breeds fear. So,
there is really no system of education. What is important is the teacher and the
student, not the system. After all, if I want to help you to be free of fear, I myself
must be free of fear. Then I must study you; I must take the trouble to explain
everything to you and tell you what the world is like; and to do all this I must love
you. As a teacher I must have the feeling that when you leave school or college
you should be without fear. If I really have that feeling, I can help you to be free of
fear.
Questioner:  Is  it  possible  to  know  the  quality  of  gold  without  testing  it  in  a
special way? Similarly, can the capacity of each child be known without some sort
of examination?
Krishnamurti:  Do  you  really  know  the  capacity  of  the  child  through
examination?  One  child  may  fail  because  he  is  nervous,  fearful  of  the
examination,  while  another  may  slip  through  because  he  is  less  affected  by  it.   168
Whereas, if you watch each child week after week, if you observe his character,
the  way  he  plays  games,  the  way  he  talks,  the  interests  he  shows,  how  he
studies, the food he eats, then you will begin to know the child without requiring
examinations to tell you what he is capable of. But we have never thought about
all these things.
Questioner: Sir, what is your idea of a new world?
Krishnamurti: I have no idea about the new world. The `new’ world cannot be
new if I have an idea about it. This is not just a clever statement, it is a fact. If I
have an idea about it, the idea is born of my study and experience, is it not? It is
born of what I have learnt, of what I have read, of what other people have said
the new world should be. So, the `new’ world can never be new if it is a creation
of the mind, because the mind is the old. You don’t know what is going to happen
tomorrow, do you? You may know that there will be no school tomorrow because
it is Sunday, and that on Monday you will be going to school again; but what is
going to happen outside the school, what kind of feelings you are going to have,
what  kind  of  things  you  are  going  to  see  –  all  that  you  don’t  know,  do  you?
Because you don’t know what is going to happen tomorrow, or the next morning,
when it happens it will be new; and to be able to meet the new is what matters.
Questioner: How can we create anything new if we don’t know what it is we
want to create?
Krishnamurti: It is a sad thing not to know what it means to create, is it not?
When  you  have  a  feeling,  you  may  put  what  you  feel  into  words.  If  you  see  a
beautiful tree, you may write a poem describing, not the tree, but what the tree
has  awakened  in  you.  That  feeling  is  the  new,  it  is  the  creative  thing;  but  you
cannot bring it about, it must happen to you.
Questioner: Must the children take all these matters seriously. And if they do,
will they ever be free to enjoy themselves?    169
Krishnamurti: Are you not serious now? But you cannot be serious all the time,
can you? You cannot play all the time, or sleep all the time, or study all the time.
There is a time to play and a time to be serious, and this meeting is meant to be
serious; but if you do not want to be serious, it is all right, no body is going to
compel you.    170
Part Two Chapter 2
We  have  been  talking  about  fear;  and  do  you  not  think  that  what  we  call
religion is really the outcome of fear? You must have noticed how your parents,
your  grandparents,  or  your  relatives  go  to  the  temple,  worship  an  idol,  repeat
sentences  from  the  Gita  or  some  other  sacred  book,  or  perform  some  ritual.
Doing these things and believing in something, is what they call religion. But do
you think it is so? Going to the temple, putting flowers at the foot of an idol made
by the hand, doing some ritual day after day, year in and year out till you die – is
that religion?
And if religion is not the worship of a thing made by the hand, then is it the
worship of something made by the mind? When you enter a temple you see there
an idol which some sculptor has carved out of stone. People put flowers before
this image, they pour water on it, they clothe it; that is what they call religion, and
they think it is irreligious not to do these things.
We also have an idea of what God is, and that idea is created by the mind, is it
not? The idol is made by the mind through the hand, and the idea of God is made
and held in the mind as something marvellous, something to be worshipped like
the sacred idol. Both the idea and the idol are made by the mind, are they not?
Obviously they are not God, because the mind has invented them. In Europe you
will see the sculptured figure of a human being stripped and nailed on a cross,
and that figure they worship. Here in India we do the same thing in a different
way. Whether in India, in Europe or America, we pray to an image, we worship an
idea,  and  gradually  we  build  up  a  thing  called  religion  –  a  religion  which  is
invented by the mind.
You see, we are afraid to be alone, we want somebody to help us. At your age
we want to be helped by our mother, by our father, by our grandfather, and as we
grow  older  we  still  want  somebody  to  help  us,  because  life  is  very  difficult;  we   171
want a glorified father to protect us, to tell us what to do. So, out of the fear of
being lonely, of not being helped, we believe in a God who is going to help us; but
it is still an invention of the mind, is it not? Because we are afraid and want to be
guided  and  told  what  is  right  and  what  is  wrong,  as  we  grow  up  we  create  a
religion which is not religion at all. Religion, I think, is something totally different,
and  to  find  the  real  thing  we  must  obviously  be  free  of  the  thing  which  man
invents.  Do  you  follow?  To  find  out  what  God  is,  to  discover  something  that  is
real, one must be free of all the pseudo-religious trappings that man has imposed
upon himself. You can discover the real thing only if you are completely free of
fear, which means that as you grow up and go out into the world you must have
the intelligence to find out what you are afraid of – to take it out of the cupboard of
your mind, look at it and not run away from it.
Most of us are afraid to be alone. Do we ever go out for a walk alone? Very
rarely. We always want somebody to go with us because we want to chatter, we
want to tell somebody a story, we are all the time talking, talking, talking; so we
are never alone, are we? When one grows older and can go for a walk alone, one
discovers a great many things. One discovers one’s own ways of thinking, and
then one begins to observe all the things about one – the beggar, the stupid man,
the clever man, the rich and the poor; one becomes aware of the trees, the birds,
the light on a leaf. You will see all this when you go out alone. In being alone you
will soon find out that you are afraid. And it is because we are afraid that we have
invented this thing called religion.
Volumes have been written about God and what you should do to approach
him;  but  the  basis  of  it  all  is  fear.  As  long  as  one  is  afraid,  one  cannot  find
anything real. If you are afraid of the dark, you dare not go out, so you pull up the
sheet and go to sleep. To go out and look, to find out what is real, there must be
freedom  from  fear,  must  there  not?  But  you  see,  to  be  free  from  fear  is  very
difficult. Most grown-up people say that you can be free only when you are older,
when  you  have  gathered  knowledge  and  have  learned  to  discipline  your  mind.   172
They think freedom is something very far away, at the end, not at the beginning.
But  surely  there  must  be  freedom  right  from  childhood  up,  otherwise  you  are
never free.
You see, being themselves frightened, the older people discipline you, they tell
you what is right and what is wrong; they say you must do that and not this, that
you must think of what people will say, and so on. There is every form of control
to  make  you  fit  into  the  groove,  into  a  frame,  a  pattern,  and  this  is  called
discipline. Being very young, and out of your own fear, you fit in; but that does not
help you, because when you just fit in you do not understand.
Now,  look  at  it  the  other  way.  If  you  were  not  disciplined,  if  you  were  not
controlled, held down, would you do what you like? Would you do as you please if
there  were  nobody  to  tell  you  what  you  should  do?  You  probably  would  now,
because you are used to being forced, held down, put in a framework, and as a
reaction you would do something contrary to it. But suppose that from childhood
up, right from the beginning as you go through school, the teacher talked things
over  with  you  and  did  not  tell  you  what  you  should  do  –  how  then  would  you
respond?  If,  right  from  the  beginning  as  you  go  through  school,  the  teacher
pointed out that to be free is the first thing, not the last thing when you are about
to die, then what would happen?
The difficulty is that to be free demands a great deal of intelligence; and as
you don’t yet know what it is to be free – free to do something which you really
love to do – , it is the function of the teacher to help you to discover the ways of
intelligence.  It  is  intelligence which brings about freedom  from  fear.  As  long  as
there  is  fear,  you  are  constantly  imposing  upon  yourself  a  kind  of  discipline:  I
must do this and not that, I must believe, I must conform, I must do puja, and so
on.  This  self-discipline  is  all  born  of  fear,  and  where  there  is  fear  there  is  no
intelligence.    173
So education, rightly speaking, is not just a matter of reading books, passing
examinations and getting a job. Education is quite a different process; it extends
from  the  moment  you  are  born  to  the  moment  you  die.  You  may  read
innumerable books and be very clever, but I do not think mere cleverness is a
mark  of  education.  If  you  are  merely  clever  you  miss  a  great  deal  in  life.  The
important thing is first to find out what you are afraid of, to understand it and not
run  away  from  it.  When  your  mind  is  really  free  from  demands  of  every  kind,
when it is no longer envious, acquisitive, only then can you find out what God is.
God  is  not  what  people  say  God  is.  God  is  something  entirely  different  –
something that comes into being when you under. stand, when you have no fear.
So, religion is really a process of education, is it not? Religion is not a matter
of what to believe and what not to believe, of doing rituals or clinging to some
superstitions; it is a process of educating ourselves in the ways of understanding
so  that  our  life  becomes  extraordinarily  rich  and  we  are  no  longer  frightened,
mediocre human beings. Only then can we create a new world.
Politicians and religious leaders say that the creation of a new world is in the
hands of the young people. Haven’t you heard that? Hundreds of times, probably.
But they don’t educate you to be free; and there must be freedom to create a new
world. The grown-ups educate you in the pattern of their own ideas – and they
have made an awful mess of things. They say it is you, the younger generation,
who must create a new world; but at the same time they put you into a cage, do
they not? They tell you that you must be an Indian, a Parsi, this or that – and if
you follow their ideas, you are obviously going to create a world exactly like the
present one. A new world can be created only when you create out of freedom,
not  out  of  fear,  not  out  of  superstition,  nor  on  the  basis  of  what  certain  people
have said the new world should be.
You who are young, the coming generation, can bring about a totally different
world  only  if  you  are  educated  to  be  free,  and  are  not  forced  to  do  something   174
which you do not love or understand. That is why it is very important, while you
are young, to be real revolutionaries – which means not accepting anything, but
inquiring into all these things to find out what is true. Only then can you create a
new  world.  Otherwise,  though  you  may  call  it  by  a  deferent  name,  you  will
perpetuate  the  same  old  world  of  misery  and  destruction  which  has  always
existed until now.
But generally what happens to us when we are young? The girls get married,
have children, and gradually wither away. The boys, when they grow up, have to
earn a livelihood, so they get jobs and are required to conform, forced to follow a
profession whether they like it or not; being married and having children, they are
dragged along by their responsibilities and must therefore do what they are told.
So the spirit of revolt, the spirit of inquiry, the spirit of inward search comes to an
end;  all  their  revolutionary  ideas  of  creating  a  new  world  are  crushed  out,
because life is too much for them. They have to go to the office, they have a boss
there for whom they must do this or that, and gradually the sense of inquiry, the
feeling  of  revolt,  the  eagerness  to  create  an  altogether  different  way  of  life,  is
completely destroyed. That is why it is very important to have this spirit of revolt
right from the beginning, from childhood up.
You see, religion, the real thing, means a revolt in order to find God, which is
to discover for oneself what is true. It is not a mere acceptance of the so-called
sacred books, however ancient and venerated they may be.
Questioner: In your book on education you suggest that modern education is a
complete failure. I would like you to explain this.
Krishnamurti: Is it not a failure, sir? When you go out on the street you see the
poor man and the rich man; and when you look around you, you see all the so-
called educated people throughout the world wrangling, fighting, killing each other
in wars. There is now scientific knowledge enough to enable us to provide food,
clothing and shelter for all human beings, yet it is not done. The politicians and   175
other  leaders  throughout  the  world  are  educated  people,  they  have  titles,
degrees, caps and gowns, they are doctors and scientists; and yet they have not
created a world in which man can live happily. So modern education has failed,
has it not? And if you are satisfied to be educated in the same old way, you will
make another howling mess of life.
Questioner: May I know why we should not fit into our parents’ plans, since
they want us to be good?
Krishnamurti:  Why  should  you  fit  into  your  parents’  plans,  however  worthy,
however noble they may be? You are not just putty, you are not jelly to be fitted
into a mould. And if you do fit in, what happens to you? You become a so-called
good girl, or good boy and then what? Do you know what it means to be good?
Goodness  is  not  just  doing  what  society  says,  or  what  your  parents  say.
Goodness is something entirely different, is it not? Goodness comes into being
only when you have intelligence, when you have love, when you have no fear.
You cannot be good if you are afraid. You can become respectable by doing what
society  demands  –  and  then  society  gives  you  a  garland,  it  says  what  a  good
person you are; but merely being respectable is not being good.
You see, when we are young we do not want to fit in, and at the same time we
want to be good. We want to be nice, to be sweet, we want to be considerate and
do kind things; but we do not know what it all means, and we are `good’ because
we are afraid. Our parents say, «Be good», and most of us are good, but such
`goodness’ is merely living according to their plans for us.
Questioner: You say that modern education is a failure. But if the politicians
had not been educated, do you think they could have created a better world?
Krishnamurti: I am not at all sure that they couldn’t have created a better world
if they had never received this kind of education. What does it mean to govern the
people?  After  all,  that  is  what  politicians  are  supposed  to  do  –  to  govern  the   176
people.  But  they  are  ambitious,  they  want  power,  position,  they  want  to  be
restricted,  they  want  to  be  the  leaders,  to  have  the  first  place;  they  are  not
thinking of the people, they are thinking of themselves or their parties, which are
an extension of themselves. Human beings are human beings, whether they live
in India, in Germany, in Russia, in America, or in China; but you see, by dividing
human beings according to countries, more politicians can have big jobs, so they
are not interested in thinking of the world as a whole. They are `educated’, they
know  how  to  read,  how  to  argue,  and  they  talk  everlastingly  about  being  good
citizens – but they must have the first place. To divide up the world and create
wars – is that what we call education? The politicians are not alone in doing this;
we all do it. Some people want war because it gives them profit. So it is not only
the politicians who must have the right kind of education. Questioner: Then what
is your idea of the right kind of education?
Krishnamurti: I have just told you. Look, I will show you again. After all, the
religious person is not one who worships a god, an image made by the hand or
by the mind, but one who is really inquiring into what truth is, what God is; and
such a person is really educated. He may not go to a school, he may have no
books, he may not even know how to read; but he is freeing himself from fear,
from  his  egotism,  from  his  selfishness,  ambition.  So  education  is  not  merely  a
process of learning how to read, how to calculate, how to build bridges, how to do
scientific research in order to find new ways of utilizing atomic power, and all the
rest of it. The function of education is primarily to help man to free himself from
his  own  pettiness  and  from  his  stupid  ambitions.  All  ambition  is  stupid,  petty  –
there is no great ambition. And education also implies helping the student to grow
in freedom without fear, does it not?
Questioner: How can every man be educated like that?
Krishnamurti: Don’t you want to be educated like that?
Questioner: But how?    177
Krishnamurti: First, do you want to be educated like that? Don’t ask how, but
have the feeling that you want to be educated in that way. If you have this intense
reeling, as you grow up you will help to create it in others, will you not? Sir, look: if
you are very keen on playing a certain game, you soon find other people to play it
with you. Similarly, if you are really keen to be educated in the way we have been
discussing, then you will help to create a school with the right kind of teachers
who will provide that kind of education. But most of us don’t really want that kind
of  education,  and  so  we  ask,  «How  can  it  be  brought  about?»  We  look  to
somebody else for the answer. But if all of you – every student who is listening,
and I hope the teachers too – want that kind of education, then you will demand it
and bring it into being.
Take a simple example. You know what chewing gum is, don’t you? If you all
want  chewing  gum,  the  manufacturer  produces  it,  but  if  you  don’t  want  it  the
manufacturer goes broke. Similarly on quite a different level, if you all say, «We
want the right kind of education, not this phoney education which only leads to
organized murder» – if you say that and really mean it you will bring into being the
right kind of education. But you see, you are still too young, too frightened, and
that is why it is important to help you to create this thing.
Questioner: If I want the right kind of education, do I need teachers?
Krishnamurti: Of course you do. You need teachers to help you, do you not?
But what is help? You are not living in the world alone, are you? There are your
fellow students, your parents, your teachers, the postman,  the man who brings
the milk – everybody is needed, we all help each other to live in this world. But if
you say, «The teacher is sacred, he is at one level and I am at another», then that
kind of help is no help at all. The teacher is helpful only if he is not using teaching
to  feed  his  vanity  or  as  a  means  of  his  own  security.  If  he  is  teaching,  not
because he is unable to do anything else, but because he really loves to teach,
then he will help the student to grow without fear. This means no examinations,   178
no grading, no marks. If you are to create the right kind of education, you need
such  teachers  to  help  you  to  create  it;  so  it  is  very  important  for  the  teachers
themselves to be rightly educated.
Questioner: If all ambitions are stupid, then how can man progress?
Krishnamurti: Do you know what progress is? Now, have patience and let us
go into it slowly. What is progress? Have you ever thought about it? Is it progress
when  you  can  get  to  Europe  in  a  few  hours  by  airplane  instead  of  taking  a
fortnight to get there by boat? The invention of faster means of transportation and
communication,  the  development  of  bigger  guns,  bigger  and  better  ways  of
destroying each other, wiping out thousands of people with a single atomic bomb
instead of shooting them down one by one with arrows – this we call progress, do
we  not?  So  there  has  been  progress  in  the  technological  sense;  but  have  we
progressed in any other direction? Have we stopped wars? Are people more kind,
more loving, more generous, more thoughtful, less cruel? You don’t have to say
yes or no, but just look at the facts. Scientifically and physically we have made
tremendous progress; but inwardly we are at a standstill, are we not? For most of
us education has been like lengthening only one leg of a tripod so we have no
balance; and yet we talk about progress, all the newspapers are full of it!
Questioner:  I  have  a  friend  who  hates  her  parents  because  they  have
separated her from a person she loves. How can I help her?
Krishnamurti: This is a very complicated question, is it not? You know, life is
not very easy, some parts of it are very cruel. There are thoughtless parents who
are not concerned with their children at all; or if they are concerned, they want the
children  to  obey,  to  imitate,  to  do  everything  exactly  as  the  parents  wish.  So
resistance is gradually built up in the children, is it not? If the father happens to be
intelligent, and the mother stupidly insistent when the father is not there, or vice
versa,  the  children  have  resistance,  antagonism  to  one  parent  or  the  other.
Perhaps  you  can  help  your  friend  by  being  more  understanding,  more   179
affectionate, and explaining in a kindly manner some of the things which you and
I have talked about and which you understand for yourself.
You see, the moment you have a grudge, the moment you hate somebody, it
harms  you  far  more  than  the  person  you  dislike,  because  that  feeling  is  like  a
wound  inside  you  that  is  festering,  but  it  is  very  difficult  for  children,  for  young
people to understand all this. After all, children are full of mischief, full of happy
play – as they should be; and if parents force their child into a particular pattern or
mould, it creates in the child a tremendous resistance, a blind antagonism which
he  is  going  to  take  out  on  somebody  as  he  grows  up.  If  you  have  begun  to
understand this, you can talk it over with your friend and perhaps help her not to
build  up  this  hatred,  this  antagonism  within  herself.  Questioner:  What  is  the
definition of a student?
Krishnamurti: It is very easy to find a definition, is it not? All you have to do is
to open a dictionary at the right place and it will give you the answer. But that is
not the kind of definition you want, is it? You want to talk about it, you want to find
out what a true student is. Is he a true student who passes examinations, gets a
job,  and  then  closes  all  books?  Being  a  student  implies  studying  life,  not  just
reading  the  few  books  required  by  your  curriculum;  it  implies  the  capacity  to
observe everything throughout life, not just a few things at a particular period. A
student, surely, is not only one who reads, but one who is capable of observing
all the movements of life, outward and inward, without saying, «This is right, that
is wrong». If you condemn something, you don’t observe it, do you? To observe
you have to study without condemning, without comparing. If I compare you with
somebody else I am not studying you, am I? If I compare you with your younger
brother  or  your  elder  sister,  it  is  the  sister  or  the  brother  who  is  important;
therefore I am not studying you.
But  our  whole  education  is  to  compare.  You  are  everlastingly  comparing
yourself  or  another  with  somebody  –  with  your  guru,  with  your  ideal,  with  your   180
father who is so clever, a great politician, and so on. This process of comparison
and  condemnation  prevents  you  from  observing,  studying.  So  a  real  student  is
one  who  observes  everything  in  life,  outwardly  as  well  as  inwardly,  without
comparing,  approving  or  condemning.  He  is  not  only  capable  of  research  into
scientific matters, but is also able to observe the workings of his own mind, his
own  feelings  –  which  is  much  more  difficult  than  observing  a  scientific  fact.  To
understand  the  whole  operation  of  one’s  own  mind  requires  a  great  deal  of
insight, a great deal of inquiry without condemnation.
Questioner:  You  say  that  all  idealists  are  hypocrites.  Whom  do  you  call  an
idealist?
Krishnamurti: Don’t you know what an idealist is? If I am violent, I may say that
my ideal is to be non-violent; but the fact remains that I am violent. The ideal is
what I hope to be eventually. It will take years for me to become non-violent, and
meanwhile I am violent – that is the real thing. Being violent, I am trying all the
time  to  be  non-violent,  which  is  unreal;  and  is  that  not  hypocrisy?  Instead  of
understanding and dissolving my violence, I am trying to be something else. The
man who is trying to be something other than he is, is obviously a hypocrite. It is
like my putting on a mask and saying I am different, but behind the mask I am just
the same old man. Whereas, if I can go into the whole process of violence and
understand it, then there is a possibility of being free from violence.    181
Part Two Chapter 3
When you are young you are curious to know all about everything, why the
sun shines, what the stars are, all about the moon and the world around us; but
as we grow older, knowledge becomes a mere collection of information without
any  feeling.  We  become  specialists,  we  know  much  about  this  or  that  subject,
and we take very little interest in the things around us, the beggar in the street,
the rich man passing by in his car. If we want to know why there are riches and
poverty  in  the  world,  we  can  find  an  explanation.  There  is  an  explanation  for
everything, and explanation seems to satisfy most of us. The same holds true of
religion. We are satisfied with explanations; and explaining everything away we
call knowledge. And is this what we mean by education? Are we learning to find
out, or are we merely asking for explanations, definitions, conclusions, in order to
put our minds at rest so that we need not inquire further?
Our elders may have explained everything to us, but our interest has generally
been deadened thereby. As we grow older life becomes more complex and very
difficult.  There  are  so  many  things  to  know,  there  is  so  much  misery  and
suffering;  and  seeing  all  this  complexity,  we  think  we  have  resolved  it  all  by
explaining  it  away.  Someone  dies,  and  it  is  explained  away;  so  suffering  is
deadened through explanation. Perhaps we revolt against the idea of war when
we are young, but as we grow older we accept the explanation of war, and our
minds become dull.
When we are young what is important is not to be satisfied with explanations,
but to find out how to be intelligent and thereby discover the truth of things; and
we  cannot  be  intelligent  if  we  are  not  free.  It  is  said  that  freedom  comes  only
when we are old and wise, but surely there must be freedom while we are still
very  young  –  not  freedom  to  do  what  we  like,  but  freedom  to  understand  very
deeply our own instincts and urges. There must be a freedom in which there is no
fear, but one cannot be free from fear through an explanation. We are aware of   182
death and the fear of death. By explaining death, can we know what dying is, or
be free from the fear of death?
As we grow older it is important to have the capacity to think very simply. What
is simplicity? Who is a simple person? A man who lives a hermit’s life, who has
very  few  belongings  –  is  he  really  simple?  Is  not  simplicity  something  entirely
different? Simplicity is of the mind and heart. Most of us are very complex, we
have many wants and desires. For example, you want to pass your examinations,
you  want  to  get  a  good  job,  you  have  ideals  and  want  to  develop  a  good
character, and so on. The mind has so many demands; and does that make for
simplicity? Is it not very important to find out?
A complex mind cannot find out the truth of anything, it cannot find out what is
real – and that is our difficulty. From childhood we are trained to conform, and we
do not know how to reduce complexity to simplicity. It is only the very simple and
direct  mind  that  can  find  the  real,  the  true.  We  know  more  and  more,  but  our
minds are never simple; and it is only the simple mind that is creative.
When you paint a picture of a tree, what is it you are painting? Are you just
painting a picture of the tree as it looks, with its leaves, its branches, its trunk,
complete in every detail, or are you painting from the feeling which the tree has
awakened in you? If the tree tells you something and you paint from that inner
experience, though your feeling may be very complex, the picture that you paint
will be the outcome of a great simplicity. It is necessary when you are young to
keep  your  mind  very  simple,  uncontaminated,  although  you  may  have  all  the
information you want.
Questioner: If all of us were educated rightly, would we be free of fear?
Krishnamurti: It is very important to be free of fear, is it not? And you cannot
be  free  of  fear  except  through  intelligence.  So  let  us  first  find  out  how  to  be
intelligent,  not  how  to  get  rid  of  fear.  If  we  can  experience  what  it  is  to  be   183
intelligent, then we shall know how to get rid of fear. Fear is always with regard to
something, it does not exist by itself. There is the fear of death, the fear of illness
the fear of loss, the fear of one’s parents, the fear of what people will say, and so
on;  and  the  question  is,  not  how  to  get  rid  of  fear,  but  how  to  awaken  the
intelligence with which to face and to understand and go beyond fear.
Now, how can education help us to be intelligent? What is intelligence? Is it a
matter  of  passing  examinations,  or  being  clever?  You  may  read  many  books,
meet  prominent  people,  have  a  lot  of  capacity,  but  does  all  that  make  you
intelligent?  Or  is  intelligence  something  which  comes  into  being  only  as  you
become integrated? We are made up of many parts; sometimes we are resentful,
jealous,  violent,  at  other  times  we  are  humble,  thoughtful,  calm.  At  different
moments we are deferent beings; we are never whole, never totally integrated,
are  we?  When  a  human  being  has  many  wants,  he  is  inwardly  broken  up  into
many beings.
One must approach the problem simply. The question is how to be intelligent
so that you can be rid of fear. If from your earliest childhood whatever difficulty
you may have had has been talked over with you so that your understanding of it
is not just verbal, but enables you to see the whole of life, then such education
can awaken intelligence and thereby free the mind of fear. Questioner: You have
said that to be ambitious is to be stupid and cruel. Is it then stupid and cruel to
have the ambition to get the right kind of education?
Krishnamurti:  Are  you  ambitious?  What  is  ambition?  When  you  want  to  be
better than another, to get higher marks than someone else – surely that is what
we  call  ambition.  A  little  politician  is  ambitious  in  wanting  to  become  a  big
politician;  but  is  it  ambitious  to  want  to  have  the  right  kind  of  education?  Is  it
ambition when you do something because you love to do it? When you write or
paint – not because you want prestige, but because you love to write or paint – ,   184
that is not ambition, surely. Ambition comes in when you compare yourself with
other writers or artists, when you want to get ahead.
So, it is not ambition when you do something because you really love to do it.
Questioner: When one wants to find truth or peace, one becomes a sannyasi.
So a sannyasi has simplicity.
Krishnamurti:  Does  one  know  simplicity  when  one  wants  peace?  Is  it  by
becoming a sannyasi or a sadhu that one is simple? Surely, peace is something
which is not of the mind. If I want peace, and I try to remove from my mind all
thoughts of violence, will that bring me peace? Of if I have many desires and I
say  that  I  must  have  no  desire,  will  I  be  peaceful?  The  moment  you  want
something you are in conflict struggle, and  what brings about simplicity is your
own understanding of the whole process of wanting.
Questioner: If we are educated in the right way we are free of fear, and if we
are educated wrongly we are fearful. Is that true?
Krishnamurti:  It  is  obviously  true,  is  it  not?  And  are  we  not  all  afraid  of
something  or  other?  Everyone  is  frightened  of  something  –  of  public  opinion,
death, disease. That is an obvious fact. Questioner: If, as you say, everyone is
afraid, then no one is a saint or a hero. Are there no great men then in this world?
Krishnamurti: That is mere logical reasoning, is it not? Why should we bother
about great men, saints, heroes? What matters is what you are. If you are afraid,
you are going to create an ugly world. That is the question, not whether there are
great men.
Questioner:  You  said  explanation  is  a  bad  thing.  We  have  come  here  for
explanation. Is that bad?    185
Krishnamurti:  I  did  not  say  explanation  is  bad;  I  said  don’t  be  satisfied  with
explanations.
Questioner: What is your idea about the future of India?
Krishnamurti: I have no idea, no idea at all. I don’t think India as India matters
very  much.  What  matters  is  the  world.  Whether  we  live  in  China  or  Japan,  in
England,  India  or  America,  we  all  say,  «My  country  matters  very  much»,  and
nobody  thinks  of  the  world  as  a  whole;  history  books  are  full  of  the  constant
repetition  of  wars.  If  we  can  begin  to  understand  ourselves  as  human  beings,
then perhaps we shall stop killing each other and put an end to wars; but as long
as we are nationalistic and think only of our own country, we shall go on creating
a terrible world. If once we see that this is our earth where we can all live happily
and  at  peace,  then  together  we  shall  build  anew;  but  if  we  go  on  thinking  of
ourselves  as  Indians,  Germans,  or  Russians,  and  regard  everybody  else  as
foreigners, then there will be no peace and no new world can be created.
Questioner: You say there are very few people in this world who are great.
Then what are you?
Krishnamurti: It does not matter what I am. What matters is to find out the truth
or  the  falseness  of  what  is  being  said.  If  you  think  such-and-such  a  thing  is
important  because  so-and-so  is  saying  it, then you are not really listening, you
are not trying to find out for yourself what is true and what is false.
But you see most of us are afraid to find out for ourselves what is true and
what is false, and that is why we merely accept what somebody else says. The
important thing is to question, to observe, never to accept. Unfortunately, most of
us  only  listen  to  those  whom  we  regard  as  great  people,  to  an  established
authority, to the Upanishads, the Gita, or whatever it is. We never listen to the
birds, to the sound of the sea, or to the beggar. So we miss what the beggar is   186
saying – and there may be truth in what the beggar is saying, and none at all in
what is said by the rich man or the man in authority.
Questioner: We read books out of inquisitiveness. When you were young were
you not inquisitive?
Krishnamurti:  Do  you  think  that  merely  by  reading  books  you  find  out  for
yourself what is true? Do you discover anything by repeating what others have
said? Or do you discover only by searching, doubting, never accepting? Many of
us  read  lots  of  books  about  philosophy,  and  this  reading  shapes  our  minds  –
which  makes  it  very  difficult  to  find  out  for  ourselves  what  is  true  and  what  is
false. When the mind is already moulded, shaped, it can discover the truth only
with the greatest difficulty.
Questioner: Should we not be concerned about the future?
Krishnamurti: What do you mean by the future? Twenty or fifty years hence –
is that what you mean by the future? The future that is many years away is very
uncertain, is it not? You do not know what is going to happen, so what is the good
of  being  troubled  or  disturbed  about  it?  There  may  be  a  war,  an  epidemic;
anything may happen, so the future is uncertain, it is unknown. What matters is
how you are living now, what you are thinking, feeling now. The present, which is
today matters very much, not tomorrow or what is going to happen twenty years
hence; and to understand the present requires a great deal of intelligence.
Questioner: When we are young we are very playful, and do not always know
what is good for us. If a father advises his son for the good of the son, should not
the son follow his father’s advice?
Krishnamurti: What do you think? If I am a parent, I must first find out what my
son really wants to do in life, must I not? Does the parent know enough about the
child to advise him? Has the parent studied the child? How can a parent who has
very little time to observe his child offer him advice? It sounds nice to say that the   187
father should guide his son; but if the father does not know his son, then what is
to be done? A child has his own propensities and capacities which have to be
studied,  not  just  for  a  certain  time  or  at  a  particular  place,  but  throughout  the
period of his childhood.
Questioner:  You  said  last  time  that the idealist is a hypocrite. If we want to
construct a building, we must first have an idea of it. Similarly, must we not first
have an ideal if we are to bring about a new world?
Krishnamurti: To have an idea of a building which you want to construct is not
the  same  as  being  idealistic  about  something.  Surely  they  are  two  different
things.
Questioner: By aiming at the well-being of our own country, do we not also
aim at the well-being of humanity? Is it within the reach of the common man to
aim directly at the well-being of humanity?
Krishnamurti: When we seek the well-being of one country at the expense of
other  countries,  it  leads  to  exploitation  and  imperialism.  As  long  as  we  think
exclusively of our own country, it is bound to create conflict and war.
When  you  ask  whether  it  is  within  the  reach  of  the  common  man  to  aim
directly at the well-being of humanity, what do you mean by the common man?
Are not you and I the common man? Are we different from the common man?
What is there so uncommon about us? We are all ordinary human beings, are we
not? Just because we possess clean clothes, wear shoes, or have a car, do you
think we are different from others who have not these things? We are all ordinary
– and if we really understand this, we can bring about a revolution. It is one of the
faults of our present education that it makes us feel so exclusive, so much on a
pedestal above the so-called man in the street.    188
Part Two Chapter 4
I think it is a very rare thing, after leaving school, to find happiness in the latter
part  of  one’s  life.  When  you  leave  here,  you  will  be  facing;  extraordinary
problems,  the  problem  of  war,  the  problems  of  personal  relationship,  the
problems  as  citizens,  the  problem  of  religion,  and  the  constant  conflict  within
society;  and  it  seems  to  me  that  it  would  be  a  false  education  which  did  not
prepare  you  to  face  these  problems  and bring  about  a  true  and  happier  world.
Surely it is the function of education, especially in a school where you have the
opportunity of creative expression, to help the students not to be caught in those
social and environmental influences which will narrow their minds and therefore
limit  their  outlook  and  their  happiness;  and  it  seems  to  me  that  those  who  are
about  to  enter  college  should  know  for  themselves  the  many  problems  that
confront us all. it is very important, especially in the world that you are going to
face,  to  have  an  extraordinarily  clear  intelligence,  and  that  intelligence  is  not
brought about by any outside influence, or through books. It comes, I think, when
one is aware of these problems and is able to meet them, not in any personal or
limited sense, not as an American, or a Hindu, or a Communist, but as a human
being capable of bearing the responsibility of seeing the worth of things as they
are and not interpreting them according to any particular ideology or pattern of
thought.  Is  it  not  important  that  education  should  prepare  each  one  of  us  to
understand and face our human problems, and not merely give us knowledge or
technological training? Because, you see, life is not so very easy. You may have
had a happy time, a creative time, a time in which you have ripened; but when
you leave the school, things will begin to happen and enclose you; you will be
limited, not only by personal relationships, but by social influences, by your own
fears, and by the inevitable ambition to succeed.
I think it is a curse to be ambitious. Ambition is a form of self-interest, self-
enclosure, and therefore it breeds mediocrity of mind. To live in a world that is full of  ambition  without  being  ambitious  means,  really,  to  love  something  for  itself
without seeking a reward, a result; and that is very difficult, because the whole
world, all your friends, your relations, everyone is struggling to succeed, to fulfil,
to  become  somebody.  But  to  understand  and  be  free  of  all  this,  and  to  do
something  which  you  really  love  –  no  matter  what  it  is,  or  however  lowly  and
unrecognized – , that I think, awakens the spirit of greatness which never seeks
approbation, recompense, which does things for their own sake and therefore has
the strength and the capacity not to be caught in the influence of mediocrity.
I  think  it  is  very  important  to  see  this  while  you  are  young.  because
magazines, newspapers, television and radio constantly emphasize the worship
of  success,  thereby  encouraging  ambition  and  competitiveness  which  breed
mediocrity  of  mind.  When  you  are  ambitious  you  are  merely  adjusting  to  a
particular pattern of society, whether in America, Russia, or India, and therefore
you are living on a very superficial level.
When you leave school and enter college, and later face the world, it seems to
me that what is important is not to succumb, not to bow your heads to various
influences,  but  to  meet  and  understand  these  as  they  are  and  see  their  true
significance and their worth, in a gentle spirit with great inward strength which will
not create further discord in the world.
So, I think that a real school through its students should bring a blessing to the
world. For the world needs a blessing it is in a terrible state; and the blessing can
come only when we as individuals are not seeking power, when we are not trying
to  fulfil  our  personal  ambitions,  but  have  a  clear  understanding  of  the  vast
problems with which we are confronted. This demands great intelligence, which
means, really, a mind that does not think according to any particular pattern, but
is free in itself and is therefore capable of seeing what is true and putting aside
that which is false.

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