The First And Last Freedom
THE FIRST AND LAST FREEDOMCHAPTER 1
FOREWORD BY ALDOUS HUXLEY
MAN IS AN amphibian who lives simultaneously in two worlds – the given and the homemade, the
world of matter, life and consciousness and the world of symbols. In our thinking we make use of
a great variety of symbol-systems – linguistic, mathematical, pictorial, musical, ritualistic. Without
such symbol-systems we should have no art, no science, no law, no philosophy, not so much as the
rudiments of civilization: in other words, we should be animals.
Symbols, then, are indispensable. But symbols – as the history of our own and every other age
makes so abundantly clear – can also be fatal. Consider, for example, the domain of science on
the one hand, the domain of politics and religion on the other. Thinking in terms of, and acting
in response to, one set of symbols, we have come, in some small measure, to understand and
control the elementary forces of nature. Thinking in terms of and acting in response to, another
set of symbols, we use these forces as instruments of mass murder and collective suicide. In the
ﬁrst case the explanatory symbols were well chosen, carefully analysed and progressively adapted
to the emergent facts of physical existence. in the second case symbols originally ill-chosen were
never subjected to thoroughgoing analysis and never re-formulated so as to harmonize with the
emergent facts of human existence. Worse still, these misleading symbols were everywhere treated
with a wholly unwarranted respect, as though, in some mysterious way, they were more real than
the realities to which they referred. In the contexts of religion and politics, words are not regarded as
standing, rather inadequately, for things and events; on the contrary, things and events are regarded
as particular illustrations of words. Up to the present symbols have been used realistically only
in those ﬁelds which we do not feel to be supremely important. In every situation involving our
deeper impulses we have insisted on using symbols, not merely unrealistically, but idolatrously, even
insanely. The result is that we have been able to commit, in cold blood and over long periods of time,
acts of which the brutes are capable only for brief moments and at the frantic height of rage, desire
or fear. Because they use and worship symbols, men can become idealists; and, being idealists,
2CHAPTER 1. FOREWORD BY ALDOUS HUXLEY
they can transform the animal’s intermittent greed into the grandiose imperialisms of a Rhodes or a
J. P. Morgan; the animal’s intermittent love of bullying into Stalinism or the Spanish Inquisition; the
animal’s intermittent attachment to its territory into the calculated frenzies of nationalism. Happily,
they can also transform the animal’s intermittent kindliness into the lifelong charity of an Elizabeth Fry
or a Vincent de Paul; the animal’s intermittent devotion to its mate and its young into that reasoned
and persistent co-operation which, up to the present, has proved strong enough to save the world
from the consequences of the other, the disastrous kind of idealism. Will it go on being able to
save the world? The question cannot be answered. All we can say is that, with the idealists of
nationalism holding the A-bomb, the odds in favour of the idealists of co-operation and charity have
Even the best cookery book is no substitute for even the worst dinner. The fact seems sufﬁciently
obvious. And yet, throughout the ages, the most profound philosophers, the most learned and acute
theologians have constantly fallen into the error of identifying their purely verbal constructions with
facts, or into the yet more enormous error of imagining that symbols are somehow more real than
what they stand for. Their word-worship did not go without protest. ”Only the spirit,” said St. Paul,
”gives life; the letter kills.” ”And why,” asks Eckhart, ”why do you prate of God? Whatever you say
of God is untrue.” At the other end of the world the author of one of the Mahayana sutras afﬁrmed
that ”the truth was never preached by the Buddha, seeing that you have to realize it within yourself”.
Such utterances were felt to be profoundly subversive, and respectable people ignored them. The
strange idolatrous over-estimation of words and emblems continued unchecked. Religions declined;
but the old habit of formulating creeds and imposing belief in dogmas persisted even among the
In recent years logicians and semanticists have carried out a very thorough analysis of the symbols,
in terms of which men do their thinking. Linguistics has become a science, and one may even study
a subject to which the late Benjamin Whorf gave the name of meta-linguistics. All this is greatly
to the good; but it is not enough. Logic and semantics, linguistics and meta-linguistics – these are
purely intellectual disciplines. They analyse the various ways, correct and incorrect, meaningful
and meaningless, in which words can be related to things, processes and events. But they offer
no guidance, in regard to the much more fundamental problem of the relationship of man in his
psychophysical totality, on the one hand, and his two worlds, of data and of symbols, on the other.
In every region and at every period of history, the problem has been repeatedly solved by individual
men and women. Even when they spoke or wrote, these individuals created no systems – for they
knew that every system is a standing temptation to take symbols too seriously, to pay more attention
to words than to the realities for which the words are supposed to stand. Their aim was never to
offer ready-made explanations and panaceas; it was to induce people to diagnose and cure their
own ills, to get them to go to the place where man’s problem and its solution present themselves
directly to experience.
In this volume of selections from the writings and recorded talks of Krishnamurti, the reader will ﬁnd
a clear contemporary statement of the fundamental human problem, together with an invitation to
solve it in the only way in which it can be solved – for and by himself. The collective solutions, to
which so many so desperately pin their faith, are never adequate. ”To understand the misery and
confusion that exist within ourselves, and so in the world, we must ﬁrst ﬁnd clarity within ourselves,
and that clarity comes about through right thinking. This clarity is not to be organized, for it cannot
The First And Last Freedom 3 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 1. FOREWORD BY ALDOUS HUXLEY
be exchanged with another. Organized group thought is merely repetitive. Clarity is not the result of
verbal assertion, but of intense self-awareness and right thinking. Right thinking is not the outcome
of or mere cultivation of the intellect, nor is it conformity to pattern, however worthy and noble. Right
thinking comes with self-knowledge. Without understanding yourself you have no basis for thought;
without self-knowledge, what you think is not true.”
This fundamental theme is developed by Krishnamurti in passage after passage. ‘’There is hope in
men, not in society, not in systems, organized religious systems, but in you and in me.” Organized
religions, with their mediators, their sacred books, their dogmas, their hierarchies and rituals, offer
only a false solution to the basic problem. ”When you quote the Bhagavad Gita, or the Bible, or some
Chinese Sacred Book, surely you are merely repeating, are you not? And what you are repeating
is not the truth. It is a lie, for truth cannot be repeated.” A lie can be extended, propounded and
repeated, but not truth; and when you repeat truth, it ceases to be truth, and therefore sacred books
are unimportant. It is through self-knowledge, not through belief in somebody else’s symbols, that a
man comes to the eternal reality, in which his being is grounded. Belief in the complete adequacy
and superlative value of any given symbol system leads not to liberation, but to history, to more of
the same old disasters. ”Belief inevitably separates. If you have a belief, or when you seek security
in your particular belief, you become separated from those who seek security in some other form
of belief. All organized beliefs are based on separation, though they may preach brotherhood.”
The man who has successfully solved the problem of his relations with the two worlds of data and
symbols, is a man who has no beliefs. With regard to the problems of practical life he entertains
a series of working hypotheses, which serve his purposes, but are taken no more seriously than
any other kind of tool or instrument. With regard to his fellow beings and to the reality in which
they are grounded, he has the direct experiences of love and insight. It is to protect himself from
beliefs that Krishnamurti has ”not read any sacred literature, neither the Bhagavad Gita nor the
Upanishads”. The rest of us do not even read sacred literature; we read our favourite newspapers,
magazines and detective stories. This means that we approach the crisis of our times, not with love
and insight, but ”with formulas, with systems” – and pretty poor formulas and systems at that. But
”men of good will should not have formulas; for formulas lead, inevitably, only to ”blind thinking”.
Addiction to formulas is almost universal. Inevitably so; for ”our system of upbringing is based upon
what to think, not on how to think”. We are brought up as believing and practising members of some
organization – the Communist or the Christian, the Moslem, the Hindu, the Buddhist, the Freudian.
Consequently ”you respond to the challenge, which is always new, according to an old pattern; and
therefore your response has no corresponding validity, newness, freshness. If you respond as a
Catholic or a Communist, you are responding – are you not? – according to a patterned thought.
Therefore your response has no signiﬁcance. And has not the Hindu, the Mussulman, the Buddhist,
the Christian created this problem? As the new religion is the worship of the State, so the old religion
was the worship of an idea.” If you respond to a challenge according to the old conditioning, your
response will not enable you to understand the new challenge. Therefore what ”one has to do,
in order to meet the new challenge, is to strip oneself completely, denude oneself entirely of the
background and meet the challenge anew”. In other words symbols should never be raised to the
rank of dogmas, nor should any system be regarded as more than a provisional convenience. Belief
in formulas and action in accordance with these beliefs cannot bring us to a solution of our problem.
”It is only through creative understanding of ourselves that there can be a creative world, a happy
world, a world in which ideas do not exist.” A world in which ideas do not exist would be a happy
world, because it would be a world without the powerful conditioning forces which compel men to
undertake inappropriate action, a world without the hallowed dogmas in terms of which the worst
The First And Last Freedom 4 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 1. FOREWORD BY ALDOUS HUXLEY
crimes are justiﬁed, the greatest follies elaborately rationalized.
An education that teaches us not how but what to think is an education that calls for a governing
class of pastors and masters. But ”the very idea of leading somebody is antisocial and anti-spiritual”.
To the man who exercises it, leadership brings gratiﬁcation of the craving for power; to those who
are led, it brings the gratiﬁcation of the desire for certainty and security. The guru provides a kind
of dope. But, it may be asked, ”What are you doing? Are you not acting as our guru?” ”Surely,”
Krishnamurti answers, ”I am not acting as your guru, because, ﬁrst of all, I am not giving you any
gratiﬁcation. I am not telling you what you should do from moment to moment, or from day to day,
but I am just pointing out something to you; you can take it or leave it, depending on you, not on me.
I do not demand a thing from you, neither your worship, nor your ﬂattery, nor your insults, nor your
gods. I say,” This is a fact; take it or leave it. And most of you will leave it, for the obvious reason that
you do not ﬁnd gratiﬁcation in it.”
What is it precisely that Krishnamurti offers? What is it that we can take if we wish, but in all
probability shall prefer to leave? It is not, as we have seen, a system of belief, a catalogue of
dogmas, a set of ready-made notions and ideals. It is not leadership, not mediation, not spiritual
direction, not even example. It is not ritual, not a church, not a code, not uplift or any form of
Is it, perhaps, self-discipline? No; for self-discipline is not, as a matter of brute fact, the way in
which our problem can be solved. In order to ﬁnd the solution, the mind must open itself to reality,
must confront the givenness of the outer and inner worlds without preconceptions or restrictions.
(God’s service is perfect freedom. Conversely, perfect freedom is the service of God.) In becoming
disciplined, the mind undergoes no radical change; it is the old self, but ”tethered, held in control”.
Self-discipline joins the list of things which Krishnamurti does not offer. Can it be, then, that what
he offers is prayer? Again, the reply is in the negative. ”Prayer may bring you the answer you seek;
but that answer may come from your unconscious, or from the general reservoir, the storehouse of
all your demands. The answer is not the still voice of God.” Consider, Krishnamurti goes on, ”what
happens when you pray. By constant repetition of certain phrases, and by controlling your thoughts,
the mind becomes quiet, doesn’t it? At least, the conscious mind becomes quiet. You kneel as the
Christians do, or you sit as the Hindus do, and you repeat and repeat, and through that repetition
the mind becomes quiet. In that quietness there is the intimation of something. That intimation of
something, for which you have prayed, may be from the unconscious, or it may be the response of
your memories. But, surely, it is not the voice of reality; for the voice of reality must come to you;
it cannot be appealed to, you cannot pray to it. You cannot entice it into your little cage by doing
puja, bhajan and all the rest of it, by offering it ﬂowers, by placating it, by suppressing yourself or
emulating others. Once you have learned the trick of quietening the mind, through the repetition of
words, and of receiving hints in that quietness, the danger is – unless you are fully alert as to whence
those hints come – that you will be caught, and then prayer becomes a substitute for the search for
Truth. That which you ask for you get; but it is not the truth. If you want, and if you petition, you will
receive, but you will pay for it in the end.”
From prayer we pass to yoga, and yoga, we ﬁnd, is another of the things which Krishnamurti does
not offer. For yoga is concentration, and concentration is exclusion. ”You build a wall of resistance
by concentration on a thought which you have chosen, and you try to ward off all the others.” What
The First And Last Freedom 5 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 1. FOREWORD BY ALDOUS HUXLEY
is commonly called meditation is merely ”the cultivation of resistance, of exclusive concentration on
an idea of our choice”. But what makes you choose? ”What makes you say this is good, true, noble,
and the rest is not? Obviously the choice is based on pleasure, reward or achievement; or it is
merely a reaction of one’s conditioning or tradition. Why do you choose at all? Why not examine
every thought? When you are interested in the many, why choose one? Why not examine every
interest? Instead of creating resistance, why not go into each interest as it arises, and not merely
concentrate on one idea, one interest? After all, you are made up of many interests, you have many
masks, consciously and unconsciously. Why choose one and discard all the others, in combating
which you spend all your energies, thereby creating resistance, conﬂict and friction. Whereas if
you consider every thought as it arises – every thought, not just a few thoughts – then there is no
exclusion. But it is an arduous thing to examine every thought. Because, as you are looking at one
thought, another slips in. But if you are aware without domination or justiﬁcation, you will see that,
by merely looking at that thought, no other thought intrudes. It is only when you condemn, compare,
approximate, that other thoughts enter in.”
”Judge not that ye be not judged.” The gospel precept applies to our dealings with ourselves no
less than to our dealings with others. Where there is judgement, where there is comparison and
condemnation, openness of mind is absent; there can be no freedom from the tyranny of symbols
and systems, no escape from the past and the environment. Introspection with a predetermined
purpose, self-examination within the framework of some traditional code, some set of hallowed
postulates – these do not, these cannot help us. There is a transcendent spontaneity of life, a
‘creative Reality’, as Krishnamurti calls it, which reveals itself as immanent only when the perceiver’s
mind is in a state of ‘alert passivity’, of ‘choiceless awareness’. Judgement and comparison commit
us irrevocably to duality. Only choiceless awareness can lead to non-duality, to the reconciliation of
opposites in a total understanding and a total love. Ama et fac quod vis. If you love, you may do
what you will. But if you start by doing what you will, or by doing what you don’t will in obedience
to some traditional system or notions, ideals and prohibitions, you will never love. The liberating
process must begin with the choiceless awareness of what you will and of your reactions to the
symbol-system which tells you that you ought, or ought not, to will it. Through this choiceless
awareness, as it penetrates the successive layers of the ego and its associated subconscious, will
come love and understanding, but of another order than that with which we are ordinarily familiar.
This choiceless awareness – at every moment and in all the circumstances of life – is the only effective
meditation. All other forms of yoga lead either to the blind thinking which results from self-discipline,
or to some kind of self-induced rapture, some form of false samadhi. The true liberation is ”an inner
freedom of creative Reality”. This ”is not a gift; it is to be discovered and experienced. It is not an
acquisition to be gathered to yourself to glorify yourself. It is a state of being, as silence, in which
there is no becoming, in which there is completeness. This creativeness may not necessarily seek
expression; it is not a talent that demands outward manifestation. You need not be a great artist or
have an audience; if you seek these, you will miss the inward Reality. It is neither a gift, nor is it
the outcome of talent; it is to be found, this imperishable treasure, where thought frees itself from
lust, ill will and ignorance, where thought frees itself from worldliness and personal craving to be.
It is to be experienced through right thinking and meditation.” Choiceless self-awareness will bring
us to the creative Reality which underlies all our destructive make-believes, to the tranquil wisdom
which is always there, in spite of ignorance, in spite of the knowledge which is merely ignorance in
another form. Knowledge is an affair of symbols and is, all too often, a hindrance to wisdom, to the
uncovering of the self from moment to moment. A mind that has come to the stillness of wisdom
”shall know being, shall know what it is to love. Love is neither personal nor impersonal. Love is
The First And Last Freedom 6 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 1. FOREWORD BY ALDOUS HUXLEY
love, not to be deﬁned or described by the mind as exclusive or inclusive. Love is its own eternity; it
is the real, the supreme, the immeasurable.”
The First And Last Freedom 7 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
TO COMMUNICATE with one another, even if we know each other very well, is extremely difﬁcult.
I may use words that may have to you a signiﬁcance different from mine. Understanding comes
when we, you and I, meet on the same level at the same time. That happens only when there is
real affection between people, between husband and wife, between intimate ﬁends. That is real
communion. Instantaneous understanding comes when we meet on the same level at the same
It is very difﬁcult to commune with one another easily, effectively and with deﬁnitive action. I am
using words which are simple, which are not technical, because I do not think that any technical
type of expression is going to help us solve our difﬁcult problems; so I am not going to use any
technical terms, either of psychology or of science. I have not read any books on psychology or any
religious books, fortunately. I would like to convey, by the very simple words which we use in our
daily life, a deeper signiﬁcance; but that is very difﬁcult if you do not know how to listen.
There is an art of listening. To be able really to listen, one should abandon or put aside all prejudices,
preformulations and daily activities. When you are in a receptive state of mind, things can be easily
understood; you are listening when your real attention is given to something. But unfortunately most
of us listen through a screen of resistance. We are screened with prejudices, whether religious or
spiritual, psychological or scientiﬁc; or with our daily worries, desires and fears. And with these for a
screen, we listen. Therefore, we listen really to our own noise, to our own sound, not to what is being
said. It is extremely difﬁcult to put aside our training, our prejudices, our inclination, our resistance,
and, reaching beyond the verbal expression, to listen so that we understand instantaneously. That
is going to be one of our difﬁculties.
If during this discourse, anything is said which is opposed to your way of thinking and belief just
listen; do not resist. You may be right, and I may be wrong; but by listening and considering together
8CHAPTER 2. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
we are going to ﬁnd out what is the truth. Truth cannot be given to you by somebody. You have to
discover it; and to discover, there must be a state of mind in which there is direct perception. There
is no direct perception when there is a resistance, a safeguard, a protection. Understanding comes
through being aware of what is. To know exactly what is, the real, the actual, without interpreting
it, without condemning or justifying it, is, surely, the beginning of wisdom. It is only when we begin
to interpret, to translate according to our conditioning, according to our prejudice, that we miss the
truth. After all, it is like research. To know what something is, what it is exactly, requires research –
you cannot translate it according to your moods. Similarly, if we can look, observe, listen, be aware
of what is, exactly, then the problem is solved. And that is what we are going to do in all these
discourses. I am going to point out to you what is, and not translate it according to my fancy; nor
should you translate it or interpret it according to your background or training.
Is it not possible, then, to be aware of everything as it is? Starting from there, surely, there can be an
understanding. To acknowledge, to be aware of to get at that which is, puts an end to struggle. If I
know that I am a liar, and it is a fact which I recognize, then the struggle is over. To acknowledge, to
be aware of what one is, is already the beginning of wisdom, the beginning of understanding, which
releases you from time. To bring in the quality of time – time, not in the chronological sense, but
as the medium, as the psychological process, the process of the mind – is destructive, and creates
confusion. So, we can have understanding of what is when we recognize it without condemnation,
without justiﬁcation, without identiﬁcation. To know that one is in a certain condition, in a certain
state, is already a process of liberation; but a man who is not aware of his condition, of his struggle,
tries to be something other than he is, which brings about habit. So, then, let us keep in mind that we
want to examine what is, to observe and be aware of exactly what is the actual, without giving it any
slant, without giving it an interpretation. It needs an extraordinarily astute mind, an extraordinarily
pliable heart, to be aware of and to follow what is; because what is is constantly moving, constantly
undergoing a transformation, and if the mind is tethered to belief, to knowledge, it ceases to pursue,
it ceases to follow the swift movement of what is. What is is not static, surely – it is constantly moving,
as you will see if you observe it very closely. To follow it, you need a very swift mind and a pliable
heart – which are denied when the mind is static, ﬁxed in a belief, in a prejudice, in an identiﬁcation;
and a mind and heart that are dry cannot follow easily, swiftly, that which is.
One is aware, I think, without too much discussion, too much verbal expression, that there is
individual as well as collective chaos, confusion and misery. It is not only in India, but right throughout
the world; in China, America, England, Germany, all over the world, there is confusion, mounting
sorrow. It is not only national, it is not particularly here, it is all over the world. There is extraordinarily
acute suffering, and it is not individual only but collective. So it is a world catastrophe, and to limit it
merely to a geographical area, a coloured section of the map, is absurd; because then we shall not
understand the full signiﬁcance of this worldwide as well as individual suffering. Being aware of this
confusion, what is our response today? How do we react?
There is suffering, political, social, religious; our whole psychological being is confused, and all the
leaders, political and religious, have failed us; all the books have lost their signiﬁcance. You may go
to the Bhagavad Gita or the Bible or the latest treatise on politics or psychology, and you will ﬁnd
that they have lost that ring, that quality of truth; they have become mere words. You yourself who
are the repeater of those words, are confused and uncertain, and mere repetition of words conveys
nothing. Therefore the words and the books have lost their value; that is, if you quote the Bible, or
Marx, or the Bhagavad Gita, as you who quote it are yourself uncertain, confused, your repetition
The First And Last Freedom 9 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 2. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
becomes a lie; because what is written there becomes mere propaganda, and propaganda is not
truth. So when you repeat, you have ceased to understand your own state of being. You are merely
covering with words of authority your own confusion. But what we are trying to do is to understand
this confusion and not cover it up with quotations; so what is your response to it? How do you
respond to this extraordinary chaos, this confusion, this uncertainty of existence? Be aware of it, as
I discuss it: follow, not my words, but the thought which is active in you. Most of us are accustomed
to be spectators and not to partake in the game. We read books but we never write books. It has
become our tradition, our national and universal habit, to be the spectators, to look on at a football
game, to watch the public politicians and orators. We are merely the outsiders, looking on, and we
have lost the creative capacity. Therefore we want to absorb and partake.
But if you are merely observing, if you are merely spectators, you will lose entirely the signiﬁcance
of this discourse, because this is not a lecture which you are to listen to from force of habit. I am
not going to give you information which you can pick up in an encyclopaedia. What we are trying
to do is to follow each other’s thoughts, to pursue as far as we can, as profoundly as we can, the
intimations, the responses of our own feelings. So please ﬁnd out what your response is to this
cause, to this suffering; not what somebody else’s words are, but how you yourself respond. Your
response is one of indifference if you beneﬁt by the suffering, by the chaos, if you derive proﬁt from it,
either economic, social, political or psychological. Therefore you do not mind if this chaos continues.
Surely, the more trouble there is in the world, the more chaos, the more one seeks security. Haven’t
you noticed it? When there is confusion in the world, psychologically and in every way, you enclose
yourself in some kind of security, either that of a bank account or that of an ideology; or else you
turn to prayer, you go to the temple – which is really escaping from what is happening in the world.
More and more sects are being formed, more and more ‘isms’ are springing up all over the world.
Because the more confusion there is, the more you want a leader, somebody who will guide you out
of this mess, so you turn to the religious books, or to one of the latest teachers; or else you act and
respond according to a system which appears to solve the problem, a system either of the left or of
the right. That is exactly what is happening.
The moment you are aware of confusion, of exactly what is, you try to escape from it. Those sects
which offer you a system for the solution of suffering, economic, social or religious, are the worst;
because then system becomes important and not man – whether it be a religious system, or a system
of the left or of the right. System becomes important, the philosophy, the idea, becomes important,
and not man; and for the sake of the idea, of the ideology, you are willing to sacriﬁce all mankind,
which is exactly what is happening in the world. This is not merely my interpretation; if you observe,
you will ﬁnd that is exactly what is happening. The system has become important. Therefore, as the
system has become important, men, you and I, lose signiﬁcance; and the controllers of the system,
whether religious or social, whether of the left or of the right, assume authority, assume power, and
therefore sacriﬁce you, the individual. That is exactly what is happening.
Now what is the cause of this confusion, this misery? How did this misery come about, this suffering,
not only inwardly but outwardly, this fear and expectation of war, the third world war that is breaking
out? What is the cause of it? Surely it indicates the collapse of all moral, spiritual values, and the
gloriﬁcation of all sensual values, of the value of things made by the hand or by the mind. What
happens when we have no other values except the value of the things of the senses, the value of
the products of the mind, of the hand or of the machine? The more signiﬁcance we give to the
sensual value of things, the greater the confusion, is it not? Again, this is not my theory. You do not
The First And Last Freedom 10 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 2. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
have to quote books to ﬁnd out that your values, your riches, your economic and social existence
are based on things made by the hand or by the mind. So we live and function and have our being
steeped in sensual values, which means that things, the things of the mind, the things of the hand
and of the machine, have become important; and when things become important, belief becomes
predominantly signiﬁcant – which is exactly what is happening in the world, is it not?
Thus, giving more and more signiﬁcance to the values of the senses brings about confusion; and,
being in confusion, we try to escape from it through various forms, whether religious, economic or
social, or through ambition, through power, through the search for reality. But the real is near, you
do not have to seek it; and a man who seeks truth will never ﬁnd it. Truth is in what is – and that
is the beauty of it. But the moment you conceive it, the moment you seek it, you begin to struggle;
and a man who struggles cannot understand. That is why we have to be still, observant, passively
aware. We see that our living, our action, is always within the ﬁeld of destruction, within the ﬁeld of
sorrow; like a wave, confusion and chaos always overtake us. There is no interval in the confusion
Whatever we do at present seems to lead to chaos, seems to lead to sorrow and unhappiness.
Look at your own life and you will see that our living is always on the border of sorrow. Our work,
our social activity, our politics, the various gatherings of nations to stop war, all produce further war.
Destruction follows in the wake of living; whatever we do leads to death. That is what is actually
taking place. Can we stop this misery at once, and not go on always being caught by the wave of
confusion and sorrow? That is, great teachers, whether the Buddha or the Christ, have come; they
have accepted faith, making themselves, perhaps, free from confusion and sorrow. But they have
never prevented sorrow, they have never stopped confusion. Confusion goes on, sorrow goes on. If
you, seeing this social and economic confusion, this chaos, this misery, withdraw into what is called
the religious life and abandon the world, you may feel that you are joining these great teachers; but
the world goes on with its chaos, its misery and destruction, the everlasting suffering of its rich and
poor. So, our problem, yours and mine, is whether we can step out of this misery instantaneously.
If, living in the world, you refuse to be a part of it, you will help others out of this chaos – not in the
future, not tomorrow, but now. Surely that is our problem. War is probably coming, more destructive,
more appalling in its form. Surely we cannot prevent it, because the issues are much too strong
and too close. But you and I can perceive the confusion and misery immediately, can we not? We
must perceive them, and then we shall be in a position to awaken the same understanding of truth
in another. In other words, can you be instantaneously free? – because that is the only way out of
this misery. Perception can take place only in the present; but if you say, ”I will do it tomorrow the
wave of confusion overtakes you, and you are then always involved in confusion.
Now is it possible to come to that state when you yourself perceive the truth instantaneously and
therefore put an end to confusion? I say that it is, and that it is the only possible way. I say it can
be done and must be done, not based on supposition or belief. To bring about this extraordinary
revolution – which is not the revolution to get rid of the capitalists and install another group – to
bring about this wonderful transformation, which is the only true revolution, is the problem. What
is generally called revolution is merely the modiﬁcation or the continuance of the right according
to the ideas of the left. The left, after all, is the continuation of the right in a modiﬁed form. If
the right is based on sensual values, the left is but a continuance of the same sensual values,
different only in degree or expression. Therefore true revolution can take place only when you, the
individual, become aware in your relationship to another. Surely what you are in your relationship
The First And Last Freedom 11 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 2. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
to another, to your wife, your child, your boss, your neighbour, is society. Society by itself is non-
existent. Society is what you and I, in our relationship, have created; it is the outward projection
of all our own inward psychological states. So if you and I do not understand ourselves, merely
transforming the outer, which is the projection of the inner, has no signiﬁcance whatsoever; that is
there can be no signiﬁcant alteration or modiﬁcation in society so long as I do not understand myself
in relationship to you. Being confused in my relationship, I create a society which is the replica, the
outward expression of what I am. This is an obvious fact, which we can discuss. We can discuss
whether society, the outward expression, has produced me, or whether I have produced society.
Is it not, therefore, an obvious fact that what I am in my relationship to another creates society and
that, without radically transforming myself, there can be no transformation of the essential function
of society? When we look to a system for the transformation of society, we are merely evading
the question, because a system cannot transform man; man always transforms the system, which
history shows. Until I, in my relationship to you, understand myself I am the cause of chaos, misery,
destruction, fear, brutality. Understanding myself is not a matter of time; I can understand myself
at this very moment. If I say, ”I shall understand myself to-morrow”, I am bringing in chaos and
misery, my action is destructive. The moment I say that I ”shall” understand, I bring in the time
element and so am already caught up in the wave of confusion and destruction. Understanding is
now, not tomorrow. To-morrow is for the lazy mind, the sluggish mind, the mind that is not interested.
When you are interested in something, you do it instantaneously, there is immediate understanding,
immediate transformation. If you do not change now, you will never change, because the change
that takes place tomorrow is merely a modiﬁcation, it is not transformation. Transformation can only
take place immediately; the revolution is now, not tomorrow.
When that happens, you are completely without a problem, for then the self is not worried about
itself; then you are beyond the wave of destruction.
The First And Last Freedom 12 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 2 ’WHAT ARE WE SEEKING?’
WHAT IS IT THAT most of us are seeking? What is it that each one of us wants? Especially in this
restless world, where everybody is trying to ﬁnd some kind of peace, some kind of happiness, a
refuge, surely it is important to ﬁnd out, isn’t it?, what it is that we are trying to seek, what it is that
we are trying to discover. Probably most of us are seeking some kind of happiness, some kind of
peace; in a world that is ridden with turmoil, wars, contention, strife, we want a refuge where there
can be some peace. I think that is what most of us want. So we pursue, go from one leader to
another, from one religious organization to another, from one teacher to another.
Now, is it that we are seeking happiness or is it that we are seeking gratiﬁcation of some kind from
which we hope to derive happiness? There is a difference between happiness and gratiﬁcation.
Can you seek happiness? Perhaps you can ﬁnd gratiﬁcation but surely you cannot ﬁnd happiness.
Happiness is derivative; it is a by-product of something else. So, before we give our minds and
hearts to something which demands a great deal of earnestness, attention, thought, care, we must
ﬁnd out, must we not?, what it is that we are seeking; whether it is happiness, or gratiﬁcation. I
am afraid most of us are seeking gratiﬁcation. We want to be gratiﬁed, we want to ﬁnd a sense of
fullness at the end of our search.
After all, if one is seeking peace one can ﬁnd it very easily. One can devote oneself blindly to some
kind of cause, to an idea, and take shelter there. Surely that does not solve the problem. Mere
isolation in an enclosing idea is not a release from conﬂict. So we must ﬁnd, must we not?, what
it is, inwardly, as well as outwardly, that each one of us wants. If we are clear on that matter, then
we don’t have to go anywhere, to any teacher, to any church, to any organization. Therefore our
difﬁculty is, to be clear in ourselves regarding our intention, is it not? Can we be clear? And does
that clarity come through searching, through trying to ﬁnd out what others say, from the highest
teacher to the ordinary preacher in a church round the corner? Have you got to go to somebody
13CHAPTER 3. CHAPTER 2 ’WHAT ARE WE SEEKING?’
to ﬁnd out? Yet that is what we are doing, is it not? We read innumerable books, we attend many
meetings and discuss, we join various organizations – trying thereby to ﬁnd a remedy to the conﬂict,
to the miseries in our lives. Or, if we don’t do all that, we think we have found; that is we say that a
particular organization, a particular teacher, a particular book satisﬁes us; we have found everything
we want in that; and we remain in that, crystallized and enclosed.
Do we not seek, through all this confusion, something permanent, something lasting, something
which we call real, God, truth, what you like – the name doesn’t matter, the word is not the thing,
surely. So don’t let us be caught in words. Leave that to the professional lecturers. There is a search
for something permanent, is there not?,in most of us – something we can cling to, something which
will give us assurance, a hope, a lasting enthusiasm, a lasting certainty, because in ourselves we
are so uncertain. We do not know ourselves. We know a lot about facts, what the books have said;
but we do not know for ourselves, we do not have a direct experience.
And what is it that we call permanent? What is it that we are seeking, which will, or which we hope will
give us permanency? Are we not seeking lasting happiness, lasting gratiﬁcation, lasting certainty?
We want something that will endure everlastingly, which will gratify us. If we strip ourselves of all
the words and phrases, and actually look at it, this is what we want. We want permanent pleasure,
permanent gratiﬁcation – which we call truth, God or what you will.
Very well, we want pleasure. Perhaps that may be putting it very crudely, but that is actually what we
want – knowledge that will give us pleasure, experience that will give us pleasure, a gratiﬁcation that
will not wither away by tomorrow. And we have experimented with various gratiﬁcations, and they
have all faded away; and we hope now to ﬁnd permanent gratiﬁcation in reality, in God. Surely, that
is what we are all seeking – the clever ones and the stupid ones, the theorist and the factual person
who is striving after something. And is there permanent gratiﬁcation? Is there something which will
Now, if you seek permanent gratiﬁcation, calling it God, or truth, or what you will – the name does
not matter – surely you must understand, must you not?, the thing you are seeking. When you say, ”I
am seeking permanent happiness” – God, or truth, or what you like – must you not also understand
the thing that is searching, the searcher, the seeker? Because there may be no such thing as
permanent security, permanent happiness. Truth may be something entirely different; and I think it
is utterly different from what you can see, conceive, formulate. Therefore, before we seek something
permanent, is it not obviously necessary to understand the seeker? Is the seeker different from the
thing he seeks? When you say, ‘’I am seeking happiness”, is the seeker different from the object of
his search? Is the thinker different from the thought? Are they not a joint phenomenon, rather than
separate processes? Therefore it is essential, is it not?, to understand the seeker, before you try to
ﬁnd out what it is he is seeking.
So we have to come to the point when we ask ourselves, really earnestly and profoundly, if peace,
happiness, reality, God, or what you will, can be given to us by someone else. Can this incessant
search, this longing, give us that extraordinary sense of reality, that creative being, which comes
when we really understand ourselves? Does self-knowledge come through search, through following
someone else, through belonging to any particular organization, through reading books, and so on?
After all, that is the main issue, is it not?, that so long as I do not understand myself, I have no
basis for thought, and all my search will be in vain. I can escape into illusions, I can run away from
The First And Last Freedom 14 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 3. CHAPTER 2 ’WHAT ARE WE SEEKING?’
contention, strife, struggle; I can worship another; I can look for my salvation through somebody
else. But so long as I am ignorant of myself, so long as I am unaware of the total process of myself
I have no basis for thought, for affection, for action.
But that is the last thing we want: to know ourselves. Surely that is the only foundation on which we
can build. But, before we can build, before we can transform, before we can condemn or destroy,
we must know that which we are. To go out seeking, changing teachers, gurus, practicing yoga,
breathing, performing rituals, following Masters and all the rest of it, is utterly useless, is it not? It
has no meaning, even though the very people whom we follow may say: ”Study yourself”, because
what we are, the world is. If we are petty, jealous, vain, greedy – that is what we create about us,
that is the society in which we live.
It seems to me that before we set out on a journey to ﬁnd reality, to ﬁnd God, before we can act,
before we can have any relationship with another, which is society, it is essential that we begin to
understand ourselves ﬁrst. I consider the earnest person to be one who is completely concerned
with this, ﬁrst, and not with how to arrive at a particular goal, because, if you and I do not understand
ourselves, how can we, in action, bring about a transformation in society, in relationship, in anything
that we do? And it does not mean, obviously, that self-knowledge is opposed to, or isolated from,
relationship. It does not mean, obviously, emphasis on the individual, the me, as opposed to the
mass, as opposed to another.
Now without knowing yourself, without knowing your own way of thinking and why you think certain
things, without knowing the background of your conditioning and why you have certain beliefs about
art and religion, about your country and your neighbour and about yourself how can you think truly
about anything? Without knowing your background, without knowing the substance of your thought
and whence it comes – surely your search is utterly futile, your action has no meaning, has it?
Whether you are an American or a Hindu or whatever your religion is has no meaning either.
Before we can ﬁnd out what the end purpose of life is, what it all means – wars, national antagonisms,
conﬂicts, the whole mess – we must begin with ourselves, must we not? It sounds so simple, but it is
extremely difﬁcult. To follow oneself to see how one’s thought operates, one has to be extraordinarily
alert, so that as one begins to be more and more alert to the intricacies of one’s own thinking and
responses and feelings, one begins to have a greater awareness, not only of oneself but of another
with whom one is in relationship. To know oneself is to study oneself in action, which is relationship.
The difﬁculty is that we are so impatient; we want to get on, we want to reach an end, and so we have
neither the time nor the occasion to give ourselves the opportunity to study, to observe. Alternatively
we have committed ourselves to various activities – to earning a livelihood, to rearing children – or
have taken on certain responsibilities of various organizations; we have so committed ourselves in
different ways that we have hardly any time for self-reﬂection, to observe, to study. So really the
responsibility of the reaction depends on oneself not on another. The pursuit, all the world over, of
gurus and their systems, reading the latest book on this and that, and so on, seems to me so utterly
empty, so utterly futile, for you may wander all over the earth but you have to come back to yourself.
And, as most of us are totally unaware of ourselves, it is extremely difﬁcult to begin to see clearly
the process of our thinking and feeling and acting.
The more you know yourself the more clarity there is. Self-knowledge has no end – you don’t come
to an achievement, you don’t come to a conclusion. It is an endless river. As one studies it, as
The First And Last Freedom 15 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 3. CHAPTER 2 ’WHAT ARE WE SEEKING?’
one goes into it more and more, one ﬁnds peace. Only when the mind is tranquil – through self-
knowledge and not through imposed self-discipline – only then, in that tranquillity, in that silence,
can reality come into being. It is only then that there can be bliss, that there can be creative action.
And it seems to me that without this understanding, without this experience, merely to read books, to
attend talks, to do propaganda, is so infantile – just an activity without much meaning; whereas if one
is able to understand oneself, and thereby bring about that creative happiness, that experiencing of
something that is not of the mind, then perhaps there can be a transformation in the immediate
relationship about us and so in the world in which we live.
The First And Last Freedom 16 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 3 ’INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY’
THE PROBLEM THAT confronts most of us is whether the individual is merely the instrument of
society or the end of society. Are you and I as individuals to be used, directed, educated, controlled,
shaped to a certain pattern by society and government; or does society, the State, exist for the
individual? Is the individual the end of society; or is he merely a puppet to be taught, exploited,
butchered as an instrument of war? That is the problem that is confronting most of us. That is the
problem of the world; whether the individual is a mere instrument of society, a plaything of inﬂuences
to be moulded; or whether society exists for the individual.
How are you going to ﬁnd this out? It is a serious problem, isn’t it? If the individual is merely an
instrument of society, then society is much more important than the individual. If that is true, then
we must give up individuality and work for society; our whole educational system must be entirely
revolutionized and the individual turned into an instrument to be used and destroyed, liquidated, got
rid of but if society exists for the individual, then the function of society is not to make him conform
to any pattern but to give him the feel, the urge of freedom. So we have to ﬁnd out which is false.
How would you inquire into this problem? It is a vital problem, isn’t it? It is not dependent on any
ideology, either of the left or of the right; and if it is dependent on an ideology, then it is merely a
matter of opinion. Ideas always breed enmity, confusion, conﬂict. If you depend on books of the left
or of the right or on sacred books, then you depend on mere opinion, whether of Buddha, of Christ,
of capitalism, communism or what you will. They are ideas, not truth. A fact can never be denied.
Opinion about fact can be denied. If we can discover what the truth of the matter is, we shall be able
to act independently of opinion. Is it not, therefore, necessary to discard what others have said?
The opinion of the leftist or other leaders is the outcome of their conditioning, so if you depend for
your discovery on what is found in books, you are merely bound by opinion. It is not a matter of
17CHAPTER 4. CHAPTER 3 ’INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY’
How is one to discover the truth of this? On that we will act. To ﬁnd the truth of this, there must be
freedom from all propaganda, which means you are capable of looking at the problem independently
of opinion. The whole task of education is to awaken the individual. To see the truth of this, you will
have to be very clear, which means you cannot depend on a leader. When you choose a leader you
do so out of confusion, and so your leaders are also confused, and that is what is happening in the
world. Therefore you cannot look to your leader for guidance or help.
A mind that wishes to understand a problem must not only understand the problem completely,
wholly, but must be able to follow it swiftly, because the problem is never static. The problem is
always new, whether it is a problem of starvation, a psychological problem, or any problem. Any
crisis is always new; therefore, to understand it, a mind must always be fresh, clear, swift in its
pursuit. I think most of us realize the urgency of an inward revolution, which alone can bring
about a radical transformation of the outer, of society. This is the problem with which I myself
and all seriously-intentioned people are occupied. How to bring about a fundamental, a radical
transformation in society, is our problem; and this transformation of the outer cannot take place
without inner revolution. Since society is always static, any action, any reform which is accomplished
without this inward revolution becomes equally static; so there is no hope without this constant
inward revolution, because, without it, outer action becomes repetitive, habitual. The action of
relationship between you and another, between you and me, is society; and that society becomes
static, it has no life-giving quality, so long as there is not this constant inward revolution, a creative,
psychological transformation; and it is because there is not this constant inward revolution that
society is always becoming static, crystallized, and has therefore constantly to be broken up.
What is the relationship between yourself and the misery, the confusion, in and around you? Surely
this confusion, this misery, did not come into being by itself. You and I have created it, not a capitalist
nor a communist nor a fascist society, but you and I have created it in our relationship with each
other. What you are within has been projected without, on to the world; what you are, what you
think and what you feel, what you do in your everyday existence, is projected outwardly, and that
constitutes the world. If we are miserable, confused, chaotic within, by projection that becomes the
world, that becomes society, because the relationship between yourself and myself between myself
and another is society – society is the product of our relationship – and if our relationship is confused,
egocentric, narrow, limited, national, we project that and bring chaos into the world.
What you are, the world is. So your problem is the world’s problem. Surely, this is a simple and
basic fact, is it not? In our relationship with the one or the many we seem somehow to overlook
this point all the time. We want to bring about alteration through a system or through a revolution
in ideas or values based on a system, forgetting that it is you and I who create society, who bring
about confusion or order by the way in which we live. So we must begin near, that is we must
concern ourselves with our daily existence, with our daily thoughts and feelings and actions which
are revealed in the manner of earning our livelihood and in our relationship with ideas or beliefs.
This is our daily existence, is it not? We are concerned with livelihood, getting jobs, earning money;
we are concerned with the relationship with our family or with our neighbours, and we are concerned
with ideas and with beliefs. Now, if you examine our occupation, it is fundamentally based on envy,
it is not just a means of earning a livelihood. Society is so constructed that it is a process of constant
conﬂict, constant becoming; it is based on greed, on envy, envy of your superior; the clerk wanting
to become the manager, which shows that he is not just concerned with earning a livelihood, a
means of subsistence, but with acquiring position and prestige. This attitude naturally creates havoc
The First And Last Freedom 18 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 4. CHAPTER 3 ’INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY’
in society, in relationship, but if you and I were only concerned with livelihood we should ﬁnd out the
right means of earning it, a means not based on envy. Envy is one of the most destructive factors
in relationship because envy indicates the desire for power, for position, and it ultimately leads to
politics; both are closely related. The clerk, when he seeks to become a manager, becomes a factor
in the creation of power-politics which produce war; so he is directly responsible for war.
What is our relationship based on ? The relationship between yourself and myself, between yourself
and another – which is society – what is it based on? Surely not on love, though we talk about it. It is
not based on love, because if there were love there would be order, there would be peace, happiness
between you and me. But in that relationship between you and me there is a great deal of ill will
which assumes the form of respect. If we were both equal in thought, in feeling, there would be no
respect, there would be no ill will, because we would be two individuals meeting, not as disciple and
teacher, nor as the husband dominating the wife, nor as the wife dominating the husband. When
there is ill will there is a desire to dominate which arouses jealousy, anger, passion, all of which
in our relationship creates constant conﬂict from which we try to escape, and this produces further
chaos, further misery.
Now as regards ideas which are part of our daily existence, beliefs and formulations, are they not
distorting our minds? For what is stupidity? Stupidity is the giving of wrong values to those things
which the mind creates, or to those things which the hands produce. Most of our thoughts spring
from the self-protective instinct, do they not? Our ideas, oh, so many of them, do they not receive
the wrong signiﬁcance, one which they have not in themselves? Therefore when we believe in any
form, whether religious, economic or social, when we believe in God, in ideas, in a social system
which separates man from man, in nationalism and so on, surely we are giving a wrong signiﬁcance
to belief which indicates stupidity, for belief divides people, doesn’t unite people. So we see that by
the way we live we can produce order or chaos, peace or conﬂict, happiness or misery.
So our problem, is it not?, is whether there can be a society which is static, and at the same time
an individual in whom this constant revolution is taking place. That is, revolution in society must
begin with the inner, psychological transformation of the individual. Most of us want to see a radical
transformation in the social structure. That is the whole battle that is going on in the world – to bring
about a social revolution through communistic or any other means. Now if there is a social revolution,
that is an action with regard to the outer structure of man, however radical that social revolution
may be its very nature is static if there is no inward revolution of the individual, no psychological
transformation. Therefore to bring about a society that is not repetitive, nor static, not disintegrating,
a society that is constantly alive, it is imperative that there should be a revolution in the psychological
structure of the individual, for without inward, psychological revolution, mere transformation of the
outer has very little signiﬁcance. That is society is always becoming crystallized, static, and is
therefore always disintegrating. However much and however wisely legislation may be promulgated,
society is always in the process of decay because revolution must take place within, not merely
outwardly. I think it is important to understand this and not slur over it. Outward action, when
accomplished, is over, is static; if the relationship between individuals, which is society, is not the
outcome of inward revolution, then the social structure, being static, absorbs the individual and
therefore makes him equally static, repetitive. Realizing this, realizing the extraordinary signiﬁcance
of this fact, there can be no question of agreement or disagreement. It is a fact that society is always
crystallizing and absorbing the individual and that constant, creative revolution can only be in the
individual, not in society, not in the outer. That is creative revolution can take place only in individual
The First And Last Freedom 19 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 4. CHAPTER 3 ’INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY’
relationship, which is society. We see how the structure of the present society in India, in Europe, in
America, in every part of the world, is rapidly disintegrating; and we know it within our own lives. We
can observe it as we go down the streets. We do not need great historians to tell us the fact that our
society is crumbling; and there must be new architects, new builders, to create a new society. The
structure must be built on a new foundation, on newly discovered facts and values. Such architects
do not yet exist. There are no builders, none who, observing, becoming aware of the fact that the
structure is collapsing, are transforming themselves into architects. That is our problem. We see
society crumbling, disintegrating; and it is we, you and I, who have to be the architects. You and I
have to rediscover the values and build on a more fundamental, lasting foundation; because if we
look to the professional architects, the political and religious builders, we shall be precisely in the
same position as before.
Because you and I are not creative, we have reduced society to this chaos, so you and I have
to be creative because the problem is urgent; you and I must be aware of the causes of the
collapse of society and create a new structure based not on mere imitation but on our creative
understanding. Now this implies, does it not?, negative thinking. Negative thinking is the highest
form of understanding. That is in order to understand what is creative thinking, we must approach
the problem negatively, because a positive approach to the problem – which is that you and I must
become creative in order to build a new structure of society – will be imitative. To understand that
which is crumbling, we must investigate it, examine it negatively – not with a positive system, a
positive formula, a positive conclusion.
Why is society crumbling, collapsing, as it surely is ? One of the fundamental reasons is that the
individual, you, has ceased to be creative. I will explain what I mean. You and I have become
imitative, we are copying, outwardly and inwardly. Outwardly, when learning a technique, when
communicating with each other on the verbal level, naturally there must be some imitation, copy. I
copy words. To become an engineer, I must ﬁrst learn the technique, then use the technique to build
a bridge. There must be a certain amount of imitation, copying, in outward technique, but when
there is inward, psychological imitation surely we cease to be creative. Our education, our social
structure, our so-called religious life, are all based on imitation; that is I ﬁt into a particular social
or religious formula. I have ceased to be a real individual; psychologically, I have become a mere
repetitive machine with certain conditioned responses, whether those of the Hindu, the Christian, the
Buddhist, the German or the Englishman. Our responses are conditioned according to the pattern
of society, whether it is eastern or western, religious or materialistic. So one of the fundamental
causes of the disintegration of society is imitation, and one of the disintegrating factors is the leader,
whose very essence is imitation.
In order to understand the nature of disintegrating society is it not important to inquire whether
you and I, the individual, can be creative? We can see that when there is imitation there must
be disintegration; when there is authority there must be copying. And since our whole mental,
psychological make-up is based on authority, there must be freedom from authority, to be creative.
Have you not noticed that in moments of creativeness, those rather happy moments of vital interest,
there is no sense of repetition, no sense of copying? Such moments are always new, fresh, creative,
happy. So we see that one of the fundamental causes of the disintegration of society is copying,
which is the worship of authority.
The First And Last Freedom 20 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 4 ’SELF-KNOWLEDGE’
THE PROBLEMS OF the world are so colossal, so very complex, that to understand and so
to resolve them one must approach them in a very simple and direct manner; and simplicity,
directness, do not depend on outward circumstances nor on our particular prejudices and moods.
As I was pointing out, the solution is not to be found through conferences, blueprints, or through
the substitution of new leaders for old, and so on, The solution obviously lies in the creator of that
problem, in the creator of the mischief, of the hate and of the enormous misunderstanding that exists
between human beings, The creator of this mischief, the creator of these problems, is the individual,
you and I, not the world as we think of it. The world is your relationship with another. The world is
not something separate from you and me; the world, society, is the relationship that we establish or
seek to establish between each other.
So you and I are the problem, and not the world, because the world is the projection of ourselves
and to understand the world we must understand ourselves. That world is not separate from us;
we are the world, and our problems are the world’s problems. This cannot be repeated too often,
because we are so sluggish in our mentality that we think the world’s problems are not our business,
that they have to be resolved by the United Nations or by substituting new leaders for the old. It
is a very dull mentality that thinks like that, because we are responsible for this frightful misery
and confusion in the world, this ever-impending war. To transform the world, we must begin with
ourselves; and what is important in beginning with ourselves is the intention. The intention must
be to understand ourselves and not to leave it to others to transform themselves or to bring about
a modiﬁed change through revolution, either of the left or of the right. It is important to understand
that this is our responsibility, yours and mine; because, however small may be the world we live in,
if we can transform ourselves, bring about a radically different point of view in our daily existence,
then perhaps we shall affect the world at large, the extended relationship with others.
21CHAPTER 5. CHAPTER 4 ’SELF-KNOWLEDGE’
As I said, we are going to try and ﬁnd out the process of understanding ourselves, which is not an
isolating process. It is not withdrawal from the world, because you cannot live in isolation. To be is
to be related, and there is no such thing as living in isolation. It is the lack of right relationship that
brings about conﬂicts, misery and strife; however small our world may be, if we can transform our
relationship in that narrow world, it will be like a wave extending outward all the time. I think it is
important to see that point, that the world is our relationship, however narrow; and if we can bring
a transformation there, not a superﬁcial but a radical transformation, then we shall begin actively
to transform the world. Real revolution is not according to any particular pattern, either of the
left or of the right, but it is a revolution of values, a revolution from sensate values to the values
that are not sensate or created by environmental inﬂuences. To ﬁnd these true values which will
bring about a radical revolution, a transformation or a regeneration, it is essential to understand
oneself. Self-knowledge is the beginning of wisdom, and therefore the beginning of transformation
or regeneration. To understand oneself there must be the intention to understand – and that is where
our difﬁculty comes in. Although most of us are discontented, we desire to bring about a sudden
change, our discontent is canalized merely to achieve a certain result; being discontented, we either
seek a different job or merely succumb to environment. Discontent, instead of setting us aﬂame,
causing us to question life, the whole process of existence, is canalized, and thereby we become
mediocre, losing that drive, that intensity to ﬁnd out the whole signiﬁcance of existence. Therefore it
is important to discover these things for ourselves, because self-knowledge cannot be given to us by
another, it is not to be found through any book. We must discover, and to discover there must be the
intention, the search, the inquiry. So long as that intention to ﬁnd out, to inquire deeply, is weak or
does not exist, mere assertion or a casual wish to ﬁnd out about oneself is of very little signiﬁcance.
Thus the transformation of the world is brought about by the transformation of oneself, because the
self is the product and a part of the total process of human existence. To transform oneself, self-
knowledge is essential; without knowing what you are, there is no basis for right thought, and without
knowing yourself there cannot be transformation, One must know oneself as one is, not as one
wishes to be which is merely an ideal and therefore ﬁctitious, unreal; it is only that which is that can
be transformed, not that which you wish to be. To know oneself as one is requires an extraordinary
alertness of mind, because what is is constantly undergoing transformation, change, and to follow
it swiftly the mind must not be tethered to any particular dogma or belief, to any particular pattern
of action. If you would follow anything it is no good being tethered. To know yourself, there must be
the awareness, the alertness of mind in which there is freedom from all beliefs, from all idealization
because beliefs and ideals only give you a colour, perverting true perception. If you want to know
what you are you cannot imagine or have belief in something which you are not. If I am greedy,
envious, violent, merely having an ideal of non-violence, of non-greed, is of little value. But to know
that one is greedy or violent, to know and understand it, requires an extraordinary perception, does
it not? It demands honesty, clarity of thought, whereas to pursue an ideal away from what is is an
escape; it prevents you from discovering and acting directly upon what you are.
The understanding of what you are, whatever it be – ugly or beautiful, wicked or mischievous – the
understanding of what you are, without distortion, is the beginning of virtue. Virtue is essential, for
it gives freedom. It is only in virtue that you can discover, that you can live – not in the cultivation
of a virtue, which merely brings about respectability, not understanding and freedom. There is
a difference between being virtuous and becoming virtuous. Being virtuous comes through the
understanding of what is, whereas becoming virtuous is postponement, the covering up of what is
with what you would like to be. Therefore in becoming virtuous you are avoiding action directly upon
The First And Last Freedom 22 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 5. CHAPTER 4 ’SELF-KNOWLEDGE’
what is. This process of avoiding what is through the cultivation of the ideal is considered virtuous;
but if you look at it closely and directly you will see that it is nothing of the kind. It is merely a
postponement of coming face to face with what is. Virtue is not the becoming of what is not; virtue is
the understanding of what is and therefore the freedom from what is. Virtue is essential in a society
that is rapidly disintegrating. In order to create a new world, a new structure away from the old,
there must be freedom to discover; and to be free, there must be virtue, for without virtue there is
no freedom. Can the immoral man who is striving to become virtuous ever know virtue? The man
who is not moral can never be free, and therefore he can never ﬁnd out what reality is. Reality can
be found only in understanding what is; and to understand what is, there must be freedom, freedom
from the fear of what is.
To understand that process there must be the intention to know what is, to follow every thought,
feeling and action; and to understand what is is extremely difﬁcult, because what is is never still,
never static, it is always in movement. The what is is what you are, not what you would like to
be; it is not the ideal, because the ideal is ﬁctitious, but it is actually what you are doing, thinking
and feeling from moment to moment. What is is the actual, and to understand the actual requires
awareness, a very alert, swift mind. But if we begin to condemn what is, if we begin to blame or
resist it, then we shall not understand its movement. If I want to understand somebody, I cannot
condemn him: I must observe, study him. I must love the very thing I am studying. If you want
to understand a child, you must love and not condemn him. You must play with him, watch his
movements, his idiosyncrasies, his ways of behaviour; but if you merely condemn, resist or blame
him, there is no comprehension of the child. Similarly, to understand what is, one must observe
what one thinks, feels and does from moment to moment. That is the actual. Any other action, any
ideal or ideological action, is not the actual; it is merely a wish, a ﬁctitious desire to be something
other than what is.
To understand what is requires a state of mind in which there is no identiﬁcation or condemnation,
which means a mind that is alert and yet passive. We are in that state when we really desire to
understand something; when the intensity of interest is there, that state of mind comes into being.
When one is interested in understanding what is, the actual state of the mind, one does not need to
force, discipline, or control it; on the contrary, there is passive alertness, watchfulness. This state of
awareness comes when there is interest, the intention to understand.
The fundamental understanding of oneself does not come through knowledge or through the
accumulation of experiences, which is merely the cultivation of memory. The understanding
of oneself is from moment to moment; if we merely accumulate knowledge of the self, that
very knowledge prevents further understanding, because accumulated knowledge and experience
becomes the centre through which thought focuses and has its being. The world is not different from
us and our activities because it is what we are which creates the problems of the world; the difﬁculty
with the majority of us is that we do not know ourselves directly, but seek a system, a method, a
means of operation by which to solve the many human problems.
Now is there a means, a system, of knowing oneself? Any clever person, any philosopher, can invent
a system, a method; but surely the following of a system will merely produce a result created by that
system, will it not? If I follow a particular method of knowing myself, then I shall have the result which
that system necessitates; but the result will obviously not be the understanding of myself. That is
by following a method, a system, a means through which to know myself, I shape my thinking, my
activities, according to a pattern; but the following of a pattern is not the understanding of oneself.
The First And Last Freedom 23 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 5. CHAPTER 4 ’SELF-KNOWLEDGE’
Therefore there is no method for self-knowledge. Seeking a method invariably implies the desire
to attain some result – and that is what we all want. We follow authority – if not that of a person,
then of a system, of an ideology – because we want a result which will be satisfactory, which will
give us security. We really do not want to understand ourselves, our impulses and reactions, the
whole process of our thinking, the conscious as well as the unconscious; we would rather pursue
a system which assures us of a result. But the pursuit of a system is invariably the outcome of our
desire for security, for certainty, and the result is obviously not the understanding of oneself. When
we follow a method, we must have authorities – the teacher, the guru, the saviour, the Master – who
will guarantee us what we desire; and surely that is not the way to self-knowledge.
Authority prevents the understanding of oneself, does it not? Under the shelter of an authority,
a guide, you may have temporarily a sense of security, a sense of well-being, but that is not
the understanding of the total process of oneself. Authority in its very nature prevents the full
awareness of oneself and therefore ultimately destroys freedom; in freedom alone can there be
creativeness. There can be creativeness only through self-knowledge. Most of us are not creative;
we are repetitive machines, mere gramophone records playing over and over again certain songs of
experience, certain conclusions and memories, either our own or those of another. Such repetition
is not creative being – but it is what we want. Because we want to be inwardly secure, we are
constantly seeking methods and means for this security, and thereby we create authority, the worship
of another, which destroys comprehension, that spontaneous tranquillity of mind in which alone there
can be a state of creativeness.
Surely our difﬁculty is that most of us have lost this sense of creativeness. To be creative does not
mean that we must paint pictures or write poems and become famous. That is not creativeness – it
is merely the capacity to express an idea, which the public applauds or disregards. Capacity and
creativeness should not be confused. Capacity is not creativeness. Creativeness is quite a different
state of being, is it not? It is a state in which the self is absent, in which the mind is no longer a focus
of our experiences, our ambitions, our pursuits and our desires. Creativeness is not a continuous
state, it is new from moment to moment, it is a movement in which there is not the ‘me’, the ‘mine’,
in which the thought is not focused on any particular experience, ambition, achievement, purpose
and motive. It is only when the self is not that there is creativeness – that state of being in which
alone there can be reality, the creator of all things. But that state cannot be conceived or imagined,
it cannot be formulated or copied, it cannot be attained through any system, through any philosophy,
through any discipline; on the contrary, it comes into being only through understanding the total
process of oneself.
The understanding of oneself is not a result, a culmination; it is seeing oneself from moment to
moment in the mirror of relationship – one’s relationship to property, to things, to people and to
ideas. But we ﬁnd it difﬁcult to be alert, to be aware, and we prefer to dull our minds by following
a method, by accepting authorities, superstitions and gratifying theories; so our minds become
weary, exhausted and insensitive. Such a mind cannot be in a state of creativeness. That state
of creativeness comes only when the self, which is the process of recognition and accumulation,
ceases to be; because, after all, consciousness as the ‘me’ is the centre of recognition, and
recognition is merely the process of the accumulation of experience. But we are all afraid to be
nothing, because we all want to be something. The little man wants to be a big man, the unvirtuous
wants to be virtuous, the weak and obscure crave power, position and authority. This is the incessant
activity of the mind. Such a mind cannot be quiet and therefore can never understand the state of
The First And Last Freedom 24 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 5. CHAPTER 4 ’SELF-KNOWLEDGE’
In order to transform the world about us, with its misery, wars, unemployment, starvation, class
divisions and utter confusion, there must be a transformation in ourselves. The revolution must
begin within oneself – but not according to any belief or ideology, because revolution based on an
idea, or in conformity to a particular pattern, is obviously no revolution at all. To bring about a
fundamental revolution in oneself one must understand the whole process of one’s thought and
feeling in relationship. That is the only solution to all our problems – not to have more disciplines,
more beliefs, more ideologies and more teachers. If we can understand ourselves as we are from
moment to moment without the process of accumulation, then we shall see how there comes a
tranquillity that is not a product of the mind, a tranquillity that is neither imagined nor cultivated; and
only in that state of tranquillity can there be creativeness.
The First And Last Freedom 25 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 5 ’ACTION AND IDEA’
I SHOULD LIKE TO discuss the problem of action. This may be rather abstruse and difﬁcult at the
beginning but I hope that by thinking it over we shall be able to see the issue clearly, because our
whole existence, our whole life, is a process of action.
Most of us live in a series of actions, of seemingly unrelated, disjointed actions, leading to
disintegration, to frustration. It is a problem that concerns each one of us, because we live by
action and without action there is no life, there is no experience, there is no thinking. Thought is
action; and merely to pursue action at one particular level of consciousness, which is the outer,
merely to be caught up in outward action without understanding the whole process of action itself,
will inevitably lead us to frustration, to misery.
Our life is a series of actions or a process of action at different levels of consciousness.
Consciousness is experiencing, naming and recording. That is consciousness is challenge and
response, which is experiencing, then terming or naming, and then recording, which is memory.
This process is action, is it not? Consciousness is action; and without challenge, response, without
experiencing, naming or terming, without recording, which is memory, there is no action.
Now action creates the actor. That is the actor comes into being when action has a result, an end
in view. If there is no result in action, then there is no actor; but if there is an end or a result in
view, then action brings about the actor. Thus actor, action, and end or result, is a unitary process,
a single process, which comes into being when action has an end in view. Action towards a result is
will; otherwise there is no will, is there? The desire to achieve an end brings about will, which is the
actor – I want to achieve, I want to write a book, I want to be a rich man, I want to paint a picture.
We are familiar with these three states: the actor, the action, and the end. That is our daily existence.
I am just explaining what is; but we will begin to understand how to transform what is only when we
26CHAPTER 6. CHAPTER 5 ’ACTION AND IDEA’
examine it clearly, so that there is no illusion or prejudice, no bias with regard to it. Now these three
states which constitute experience – the actor, the action, and the result – are surely a process of
becoming. Otherwise there is no becoming, is there? If there is no actor, and if there is no action
towards an end, there is no becoming; but life as we know it, our daily life, is a process of becoming.
I am poor and I act with an end in view, which is to become rich. I am ugly and I want to become
beautiful. Therefore my life is a process of becoming something. The will to be is the will to become,
at different levels of consciousness, in different states, in which there is challenge, response, naming
and recording. Now this becoming is strife, this becoming is pain, is it not? It is a constant struggle:
I am this, and I want to become that.
Therefore, then, the problem is: Is there not action without this becoming? Is there not action without
this pain, without this constant battle? If there is no end, there is no actor because action with an
end in view creates the actor. But can there be action without an end in view, and therefore no actor
– that is without the desire for a result? Such action is not a becoming, and therefore not a strife.
There is a state of action, a state of experiencing, without the experiencer and the experience. This
sounds rather philosophical but it is really quite simple.
In the moment of experiencing, you are not aware of yourself as the experiencer apart from the
experience; you are in a state of experiencing. Take a very simple example: you are angry. In that
moment of anger there is neither the experiencer nor the experience; there is only experiencing. But
the moment you come out of it, a split second after the experiencing, there is the experiencer and
the experience, the actor and the action with an end in view – which is to get rid of or to suppress
the anger. We are in this state repeatedly, in the state of experiencing; but we always come out of it
and give it a term, naming and recording it, and thereby giving continuity to becoming.
If we can understand action in the fundamental sense of the word then that fundamental
understanding will affect our superﬁcial activities also; but ﬁrst we must understand the fundamental
nature of action. Now is action brought about by an idea? Do you have an idea ﬁrst and act
afterwards? Or does action come ﬁrst and then, because action creates conﬂict, you build around it
an idea? Does action create the actor or does the actor come ﬁrst?
It is very important to discover which comes ﬁrst. If the idea comes ﬁrst, then action merely conforms
to an idea, and therefore it is no longer action but imitation, compulsion according to an idea. It is
very important to realize this; because, as our society is mostly constructed on the intellectual or
verbal level, the idea comes ﬁrst with all of us and action follows. Action is then the handmaid of an
idea, and the mere construction of ideas is obviously detrimental to action. Ideas breed further ideas,
and when there is merely the breeding of ideas there is antagonism, and society becomes top-heavy
with the intellectual process of ideation. Our social structure is very intellectual; we are cultivating
the intellect at the expense of every other factor of our being and therefore we are suffocated with
Can ideas ever produce action, or do ideas merely mould thought and therefore limit action? When
action is compelled by an idea, action can never liberate man. It is extraordinarily important for us
to understand this point. If an idea shapes action, then action can never bring about the solution to
our miseries because, before it can be put into action, we have ﬁrst to discover how the idea comes
into being. The investigation of ideation, of the building up of ideas, whether of the socialists, the
capitalists, the communists, or of the various religions, is of the utmost importance, especially when
The First And Last Freedom 27 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 6. CHAPTER 5 ’ACTION AND IDEA’
our society is at the edge of a precipice, inviting another catastrophe, another excision. Those who
are really serious in their intention to discover the human solution to our many problems must ﬁrst
understand this process of ideation.
What do we mean by an idea? How does an idea come into being? And can idea and action be
brought together? Suppose I have an idea and I wish to carry it out. I seek a method of carrying out
that idea, and we speculate, waste our time and energies in quarrelling over how the idea should be
carried out. So, it is really very important to ﬁnd out how ideas come into being; and after discovering
the truth of that we can discuss the question of action. Without discussing ideas, merely to ﬁnd out
how to act has no meaning.
Now how do you get an idea – a very simple idea, it need not be philosophical, religious or economic?
Obviously it is a process of thought, is it not? Idea is the outcome of a thought process. Without a
thought process, there can be no idea. So I have to understand the thought process itself before I
can understand its product, the idea. What do we mean by thought ? When do you think? Obviously
thought is the result of a response, neurological or psychological, is it not? It is the immediate
response of the senses to a sensation, or it is psychological, the response of stored-up memory.
There is the immediate response of the nerves to a sensation, and there is the psychological
response of stored-up memory, the inﬂuence of race, group, guru, family, tradition, and so on – all of
which you call thought. So the thought process is the response of memory, is it not? You would have
no thoughts if you had no memory; and the response of memory to a certain experience brings the
thought process into action. Say, for example, I have the stored-up memories of nationalism, calling
myself a Hindu. That reservoir of memories of past responses actions, implications, traditions,
customs, responds to the challenge of a Mussulman, a Buddhist or a Christian, and the response
of memory to the challenge inevitably brings about a thought process. Watch the thought process
operating in yourself and you can test the truth of this directly. You have been insulted by someone,
and that remains in your memory; it forms part of the background. When you meet the person, which
is the challenge, the response is the memory of that insult. So the response of memory, which is the
thought process, creates an idea; therefore the idea is always conditioned – and this is important to
understand. That is to say the idea is the result of the thought process, the thought process is the
response of memory, and memory is always conditioned. Memory is always in the past, and that
memory is given life in the present by a challenge. Memory has no life in itself; it comes to life in the
present when confronted by a challenge. And all memory, whether dormant or active, is conditioned,
is it not?
Therefore there has to be quite a different approach. You have to ﬁnd out for yourself, inwardly,
whether you are acting on an idea, and if there can be action without ideation. Let us ﬁnd out what
that is: action which is not based on an idea.
When do you act without ideation? When is there an action which is not the result of experience? An
action based on experience is, as we said, limiting, and therefore a hindrance. Action which is not the
outcome of an idea is spontaneous when the thought process, which is based on experience, is not
controlling action; which means that there is action independent of experience when the mind is not
controlling action. That is the only state in which there is understanding: when the mind, based on
experience, is not guiding action: when thought, based on experience, is not shaping action. What
is action, when there is no thought process? Can there be action without thought process? That is I
want to build a bridge, a house. I know the technique, and the technique tells me how to build it. We
The First And Last Freedom 28 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 6. CHAPTER 5 ’ACTION AND IDEA’
call that action. There is the action of writing a poem, of painting, of governmental responsibilities, of
social, environmental responses. All are based on an idea or previous experience, shaping action.
But is there an action when there is no ideation?
Surely there is such action when the idea ceases; and the idea ceases only when there is love. Love
is not memory. Love is not experience. Love is not the thinking about the person that one loves,
for then it is merely thought. You cannot think of love. You can think of the person you love or are
devoted to – your guru, your image, your wife, your husband; but the thought, the symbol, is not the
real which is love. Therefore love is not an experience.
When there is love there is action, is there not?, and is that action not liberating? It is not the result of
mentation, and there is no gap between love and action, as there is between idea and action. Idea
is always old, casting its shadow on the present and we are ever trying to build a bridge between
action and idea. When there is love – which is not mentation, which is not ideation, which is not
memory, which is not the outcome of an experience, of a practised discipline – then that very love
is action. That is the only thing that frees. So long as there is mentation, so long as there is the
shaping of action by an idea which is experience, there can be no release; and so long as that
process continues, all action is limited. When the truth of this is seen, the quality of love, which is
not mentation, which you cannot think about, comes into being.
One has to be aware of this total process, of how ideas come into being, how action springs from
ideas, and how ideas control action and therefore limit action, depending on sensation. It doesn’t
matter whose ideas they are, whether from the left or from the extreme right. So long as we cling to
ideas, we are in a state in which there can be no experiencing at all. Then we are merely living in
the ﬁeld of time in the past, which gives further sensation, or in the future, which is another form of
sensation. It is only when the mind is free from idea that there can be experiencing.
Ideas are not truth; and truth is something that must be experienced directly, from moment to
moment. It is not an experience which you want – which is then merely sensation. Only when
one can go beyond the bundle of ideas – which is the ‘me’, which is the mind, which has a partial or
complete continuity – only when one can go beyond that, when thought is completely silent, is there
a state of experiencing. Then one shall know what truth is.
The First And Last Freedom 29 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 6 ’BELIEF’
BELIEF AND KNOWLEDGE are very intimately related to desire; and perhaps, if we can understand
these two issues, we can see how desire works and understand its complexities.
One of the things, it seems to me, that most of us eagerly accept and take for granted is the question
of beliefs. I am not attacking beliefs. What we are trying to do is to ﬁnd out why we accept beliefs;
and if we can understand the motives, the causation of acceptance, then perhaps we may be able
not only to understand why we do it, but also be free of it. One can see how political and religious
beliefs, national and various other types of beliefs, do separate people, do create conﬂict, confusion,
and antagonism – which is an obvious fact; and yet we are unwilling to give them up. There is the
Hindu belief the Christian belief, the Buddhist – innumerable sectarian and national beliefs, various
political ideologies, all contending with each other, trying to convert each other. One can see,
obviously, that belief is separating people, creating intolerance; is it possible to live without belief?
One can ﬁnd that out only if one can study oneself in relationship to a bel1ef. Is it possible to live in
this world without a belief – not change beliefs, not substitute one belief for another, but be entirely
free from all beliefs, so that one meets life anew each minute? This, after all, is the truth: to have the
capacity of meeting everything anew, from moment to moment, without the conditioning reaction of
the past, so that there is not the cumulative effect which acts as a barrier between oneself and that
If you consider, you will see that one of the reasons for the desire to accept a belief is fear. If we
had no belief, what would happen to us? Shouldn’t we be very frightened of what might happen?
If we had no pattern of action, based on a belief – either in God, or in communism, or in socialism,
or in imperialism, or in some kind of religious formula, some dogma in which we are conditioned –
we should feel utterly lost, shouldn’t we? And is not this acceptance of a belief the covering up of
that fear – the fear of being really nothing, of being empty? After all, a cup is useful only when it is
30CHAPTER 7. CHAPTER 6 ’BELIEF’
empty; and a mind that is ﬁlled with beliefs, with dogmas, with assertions, with quotations, is really
an uncreative mind; it is merely a repetitive mind. To escape from that fear – that fear of emptiness,
that fear of loneliness, that fear of stagnation, of not arriving, not succeeding, not achieving, not
being something, not becoming something – is surely one of the reasons, is it not?, why we accept
beliefs so eagerly and greedily. And, through acceptance of belief, do we understand ourselves?
On the contrary. A belief, religious or political, obviously hinders the understanding of ourselves. It
acts as a screen through which we are looking at ourselves. And can we look at ourselves without
beliefs? If we remove those beliefs, the many beliefs that one has, is there anything left to look at?
If we have no beliefs with which the mind has identiﬁed itself, then the mind, without identiﬁcation, is
capable of looking at itself as it is – and then, surely, there is the beginning of the understanding of
It is really a very interesting problem, this question of belief and knowledge. What an extraordinary
part it plays in our life! How many beliefs we have! Surely the more intellectual, the more cultured,
the more spiritual, if I can use that word, a person is, the less is his capacity to understand. The
savages have innumerable superstitions, even in the modern world. The more thoughtful, the more
awake, the more alert are perhaps the less believing. That is because belief binds, belief isolates;
and we see that is so throughout the world, the economic and the political world, and also in the
so-called spiritual world. You believe there is God, and perhaps I believe that there is no God;
or you believe in the complete state control of everything and of every individual, and I believe in
private enterprise and all the rest of it; you believe that there is only one Saviour and through him
you can achieve your goal, and I don’t believe so. Thus you with your belief and I with mine are
asserting ourselves. Yet we both talk of love, of peace, of unity of mankind, of one life – which means
absolutely nothing; because actually the very belief is a process of isolation. You are a Brahmin, I
a non-Brahmin; you are a Christian, I a Mussulman, and so on. You talk of brotherhood and I also
talk of the same brotherhood, love and peace; but in actuality we are separated, we are dividing
ourselves. A man who wants peace and who wants to create a new world, a happy world, surely
cannot isolate himself through any form of belief. Is that clear? It may be verbally, but, if you see the
signiﬁcance and validity and the truth of it, it will begin to act.
We see that where there is a process of desire at work there must be the process of isolation
through belief because obviously you believe in order to be secure economically, spiritually, and
also inwardly. I am not talking of those people who believe for economic reasons, because they are
brought up to depend on their jobs and therefore will be Catholics, Hindus – it does not matter what
– as long as there is a job for them. We are also not discussing those people who cling to a belief
for the sake of convenience. Perhaps with most of us it is equally so. For convenience, we believe
in certain things. Brushing aside these economic reasons, we must go more deeply into it. Take
the people who believe strongly in anything, economic, social or spiritual; the process behind it is
the psychological desire to be secure, is it not? And then there is the desire to continue. We are
not discussing here whether there is or there is not continuity; we are only discussing the urge, the
constant impulse to believe. A man of peace, a man who would really understand the whole process
of human existence, cannot be bound by a belief, can he? He sees his desire at work as a means
to being secure. Please do not go to the other side and say that I am preaching non-religion. That
is not my point at all. My point is that as long as we do not understand the process of desire in the
form of belief, there must be contention, there must be conﬂict, there must be sorrow, and man will
be against man – which is seen every day. So if I perceive, if I am aware, that this process takes
the form of belief, which is an expression of the craving for inward security, then my problem is not
The First And Last Freedom 31 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 7. CHAPTER 6 ’BELIEF’
that I should believe this or that but that I should free myself from the desire to be secure. Can the
mind be free from the desire for security? That is the problem – not what to believe and how much
to believe. These are merely expressions of the inward craving to be secure psychologically, to be
certain about something, when everything is so uncertain in the world.
Can a mind, can a conscious mind, can a personality be free from this desire to be secure? We
want to be secure and therefore need the aid of our estates, our property and our family. We want
to be secure inwardly and also spiritually by erecting walls of belief, which are an indication of this
craving to be certain. Can you as an individual be free from this urge, this craving to be secure,
which expresses itself in the desire to believe in something? If we are not free of all that, we are a
source of contention; we are not peacemaking; we have no love in our hearts. Belief destroys; and
this is seen in our everyday life. Can I see myself when I am caught in this process of desire, which
expresses itself in clinging to a belief? Can the mind free itself from belief – not ﬁnd a substitute for
it but be entirely free from it? You cannot verbally answer ”yes” or ”no” to this; but you can deﬁnitely
give an answer if your intention is to become free from belief. You then inevitably come to the point at
which you are seeking the means to free yourself from the urge to be secure. Obviously there is no
security inwardly which, as you like to believe, will continue. You like to believe there is a God who
is carefully looking after your petty little things, telling you whom you should see, what you should
do and how you should do it. This is childish and immature thinking. You think the Great Father is
watching every one of us. That is a mere projection of your own personal liking. It is obviously not
true. Truth must be something entirely different.
Our next problem is that of knowledge. Is knowledge necessary to the understanding of truth?
When I say ”I know”, the implication is that there is knowledge. Can such a mind be capable of
investigating and searching out what is reality? And besides, what is it we know, of which we are so
proud? Actually what is it we know? We know information; we are full of information and experience
based on our conditioning, our memory and our capacities. When you say ”I know”, what do you
mean? Either the acknowledgement that you know is the recognition of a fact, of certain information,
or it is an experience that you have had. The constant accumulation of information, the acquisition
of various forms of knowledge, all constitutes the assertion ”I know”, and you start translating what
you have read, according to your background, your desire, your experience. Your knowledge is a
thing in which a process similar to the process of desire is at work. Instead of belief we substitute
knowledge. ”I know, I have had experience, it cannot be refuted; my experience is that, on that
I completely rely; these are indications of that knowledge. But when you go behind it, analyse it,
look at it more intelligently and carefully, you will ﬁnd that the very assertion ”I know” is another wall
separating you and me. Behind that wall you take refuge, seeking comfort, security. Therefore the
more knowledge a mind is burdened with, the less capable it is of understanding.
I do not know if you have ever thought of this problem of acquiring knowledge – whether knowledge
does ultimately help us to love, to be free from those qualities which produce conﬂict in ourselves
and with our neighbours; whether knowledge ever frees the mind of ambition. Because ambition
is, after all, one of the qualities that destroy relationship, that put man against man. If we would
live at peace with each other surely ambition must completely come to an end – not only political,
economic, social ambition, but also the more subtle and pernicious ambition, the spiritual ambition
– to be something. Is it ever possible for the mind to be free from this accumulating process of
knowledge, this desire to know?
It is a very interesting thing to watch how in our life these two, knowledge and belief, play an
The First And Last Freedom 32 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 7. CHAPTER 6 ’BELIEF’
extraordinarily powerful part. Look how we worship those who have immense knowledge and
erudition! Can you understand the meaning of it? If you would ﬁnd something new, experience
something which is not a projection of your imagination, your mind must be free, must it not? It
must be capable of seeing something new. Unfortunately, every time you see something new you
bring in all the information known to you already, all your knowledge, all your past memories; and
obviously you become incapable of looking, incapable of receiving anything that is new, that is not
of the old. Please don’t immediately translate this into detail. If I do not know how to get back to
my house, I shall be lost; if I do not know how to run a machine, I shall be of little use. That is quite
a different thing. We are not discussing that here. We are discussing knowledge that is used as a
means to security, the psychological and inward desire to be something. What do you get through
knowledge? The authority of knowledge, the weight of knowledge, the sense of importance, dignity,
the sense of vitality and what-not? A man who says ”I know”, ”There is‘’ or ”There is not” surely has
stopped thinking, stopped pursuing this whole process of desire.
Our problem then, as I see it, is that we are bound, weighed down by belief, by knowledge; and is it
possible for a mind to be free from yesterday and from the beliefs that have been acquired through
the process of yesterday? Do you understand the question? Is it possible for me as an individual
and you as an individual to live in this society and yet be free from the belief in which we have been
brought up? Is it possible for the mind to be free of all that knowledge, all that authority? We read
the various scriptures, religious books. There they have very carefully described what to do, what
not to do, how to attain the goal, what the goal is and what God is. You all know that by heart and
you have pursued that. That is your knowledge, that is what you have acquired, that is what you
have learnt; along that path you pursue. Obviously what you pursue and seek, you will ﬁnd. But is it
reality? is it not the projection of your own knowledge? It is not reality. Is it possible to realize that
now – not tomorrow, but now – and say ”I see the truth of it”, and let it go, so that your mind is not
crippled by this process of imagination, of projection?
Is the mind capable of freedom from belief? You can only be free from it when you understand the
inward nature of the causes that make you hold on to it, not only the conscious but the unconscious
motives as well, that make you believe. After all, we are not merely a superﬁcial entity functioning
on the conscious level. We can ﬁnd out the deeper conscious and unconscious activities if we give
the unconscious mind a chance, because it is much quicker in response than the conscious mind.
While your conscious mind is quietly thinking, listening and watching, the unconscious mind is much
more active, much more alert and much more receptive; it can, therefore, have an answer. Can the
mind which has been subjugated, intimidated, forced, compelled to believe, can such a mind be free
to think? Can it look anew and remove the process of isolation between you and another? Please
do not say that belief brings people together. It does not. That is obvious. No organized religion
has ever done that. Look at yourselves in your own country. You are all believers, but are you all
together? Are you all united? You yourselves know you are not. You are divided into so many petty
little parties, castes; you know the innumerable divisions. The process is the same right through the
world – whether in the east or in the west – Christians destroying Christians, murdering each other
for petty little things, driving people into camps and so on, the whole horror of war. Therefore belief
does not unite people. That is so clear. If that is clear and that is true, and if you see it, then it must
be followed. But the difﬁculty is that most of us do not see, because we are not capable of facing
that inward insecurity, that inward sense of being alone. We want something to lean on, whether
it is the State, whether it is the caste, whether it is nationalism, whether it is a Master or a Saviour
or anything else. And when we see the falseness of all this, the mind then is capable – it may be
The First And Last Freedom 33 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 7. CHAPTER 6 ’BELIEF’
temporally for a second – of seeing the truth of it; even though when it is too much for it, it goes back.
But to see temporarily is sufﬁcient; if you can see it for a ﬂeeting second, it is enough; because you
will then see an extraordinary thing taking place. The unconscious is at work, though the conscious
may reject. It is not a progressive second; but that second is the only thing, and it will have its own
results, even in spite of the conscious mind struggling against it.
So our question is:Is it possible for the mind to be free from knowledge and belief?” Is not the mind
made up of knowledge and belief? Is not the structure of the mind belief and knowledge? Belief and
knowledge are the processes of recognition, the centre of the mind. The process is enclosing, the
process is conscious as well as unconscious. Can the mind be free of its own structure? Can the
mind cease to be? That is the problem. Mind, as we know it, has belief behind it, has desire, the
urge to be secure, knowledge, and accumulation of strength. If, with all its power and superiority,
one cannot think for oneself there can be no peace in the world. You may talk about peace, you may
organize political parties, you may shout from the housetops; but you cannot have peace; because
in the mind is the very basis which creates contradiction, which isolates and separates. A man of
peace, a man of earnestness, cannot isolate himself and yet talk of brotherhood and peace. It is just
a game, political or religious, a sense of achievement and ambition. A man who is really earnest
about this, who wants to discover, has to face the problem of knowledge and belief; he has to go
behind it, to discover the whole process of desire at work, the desire to be secure, the desire to be
A mind that would be in a state in which the new can take place – whether it be the truth, whether it
be God, or what you will – must surely cease to acquire, to gather; it must put aside all knowledge.
A mind burdened with knowledge cannot possibly understand, surely, that which is real, which is not
The First And Last Freedom 34 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 7 ’EFFORT’
FOR MOST OF US, our whole life is based on effort, some kind of volition. We cannot conceive
of an action without volition, without effort; our life is based on it. Our social, economic and so-
called spiritual life is a series of efforts, always culminating in a certain result. And we think effort is
Why do we make effort? Is it not, put simply, in order to achieve a result, to become something,
to reach a goal? If we do not make an effort, we think we shall stagnate. We have an idea about
the goal towards which we are constantly striving; and this striving has become part of our life. If
we want to alter ourselves, if we want to bring about a radical change in ourselves, we make a
tremendous effort to eliminate the old habits, to resist the habitual environmental inﬂuences and so
on. So we are used to this series of efforts in order to ﬁnd or achieve something, in order to live at
Is not all such effort the activity of the self? Is not effort self-centred activity? If we make an effort
from the centre of the self, it must inevitably produce more conﬂict, more confusion, more misery.
Yet we keep on making effort after effort. Very few of us realize that the self-centred activity of
effort does not clear up any of our problems. On the contrary, it increases our confusion and our
misery and our sorrow. We know this; and yet we continue hoping somehow to break through this
self-centred activity of effort, the action of the will.
I think we shall understand the signiﬁcance of life if we understand what it means to make an effort.
Does happiness come through effort? Have you ever tried to be happy? It is impossible, is it
not? You struggle to be happy and there is no happiness, is there? Joy does not come through
suppression, through control or indulgence. You may indulge but there is bitterness at the end.
You may suppress or control, but there is always strife in the hidden. Therefore happiness does
35CHAPTER 8. CHAPTER 7 ’EFFORT’
not come through effort, nor joy through control and suppression; and still all our life is a series
of suppressions, a series of controls, a series of regretful indulgences. Also there is a constant
overcoming, a constant struggle with our passions, our greed and our stupidity. So do we not strive,
struggle, make effort, in the hope of ﬁnding happiness, ﬁnding something which will give us a feeling
of peace, a sense of love? Yet does love or understanding come by strife? I think it is very important
to understand what we mean by struggle, strife or effort.
Does not effort mean a struggle to change what is into what is not, or into what it should be or should
become? That is we are constantly struggling to avoid facing what is, or we are trying to get away
from it or to transform or modify what is. A man who is truly content is the man who understands
what is, gives the right signiﬁcance to what is. That is true contentment; it is not concerned with
having few or many possessions but with the understanding of the whole signiﬁcance of what is;
and that can only come when you recognize what is, when you are aware of it, not when you are
trying to modify it or change it.
So we see that effort is a strife or a struggle to transform that which is into something which you wish
it to be. I am only talking about psychological struggle, not the struggle with a physical problem, like
engineering or some discovery or transformation which is purely technical. I am only talking of that
struggle which is psychological and which always overcomes the technical. You may build with great
care a marvellous society, using the inﬁnite knowledge science has given us. But so long as the
psychological strife and struggle and battle are not understood and the psychological overtones and
currents are not overcome, the structure of society, however marvellously built, is bound to crash,
as has happened over and over again.
Effort is a distraction from what is. The moment I accept what is there is no struggle. Any form of
struggle or strife is an indication of distraction; and distraction, which is effort, must exist so long as
psychologically I wish to transform what is into something it is not.
First we must be free to see that joy and happiness do not come through effort. Is creation through
effort, or is there creation only with the cessation of effort? When do you write, paint or sing? When
do you create? Surely when there is no effort, when you are completely open, when on all levels
you are in complete communication, completely integrated. Then there is joy and then you begin to
sing or write a poem or paint or fashion something. The moment of creation is not born of struggle.
Perhaps in understanding the question of creativeness we shall be able to understand what we mean
by effort. Is creativeness the outcome of effort, and are we aware in those moments when we are
creative? Or is creativeness a sense of total self-forgetfulness, that sense when there is no turmoil,
when one is wholly unaware of the movement of thought, when there is only a complete, full, rich
being? is that state the result of travail, of struggle, of conﬂict, of effort? I do not know if you have
ever noticed that when you do something easily, swiftly, there is no effort, there is complete absence
of struggle; but as our lives are mostly a series of battles, conﬂicts and struggles, we cannot imagine
a life, a state of being, in which strife has fully ceased.
To understand the state of being without strife, that state of creative existence, surely one must
inquire into the whole problem of effort. We mean by effort the striving to fulﬁl oneself, to become
something, don’t we? I am this, and I want to become that; I am not that, and I must become that.
In becoming ‘that’, there is strife, there is battle, conﬂict, struggle. In this struggle we are concerned
The First And Last Freedom 36 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 8. CHAPTER 7 ’EFFORT’
inevitably with fulﬁlment through the gaining of an end; we seek self-fulﬁlment in an object, in a
person, in an idea, and that demands constant battle, struggle, the effort to become, to fulﬁl. So
we have taken this effort as inevitable; and I wonder if it is inevitable – this struggle to become
something? Why is there this struggle? Where there is the desire for fulﬁlment, in whatever degree
and at whatever level, there must be struggle. Fulﬁlment is the motive, the drive behind the effort;
whether it is in the big executive, the housewife, or a poor man, there is this battle to become, to
fulﬁl, going on.
Now why is there the desire to fulﬁl oneself? Obviously, the desire to fulﬁl, to become something,
arises when there is awareness of being nothing. Because I am nothing, because I am insufﬁcient,
empty, inwardly poor, I struggle to become something; outwardly or inwardly I struggle to fulﬁl myself
in a person, in a thing, in an idea. To ﬁll that void is the whole process of our existence. Being aware
that we are empty, inwardly poor, we struggle either to collect things outwardly, or to cultivate inward
riches. There is effort only when there is an escape from that inward void through action, through
contemplation, through acquisition, through achievement, through power, and so on. That is our
daily existence. I am aware of my insufﬁciency, my inward poverty, and I struggle to run away from
it or to ﬁll it. This running away, avoiding, or trying to cover up the void, entails struggle, strife, effort.
Now if one does not make an effort to run away, what happens? One lives with that loneliness, that
emptiness; and in accepting that emptiness one will ﬁnd that there comes a creative state which
has nothing to do with strife, with effort. Effort exists only so long as we are trying to avoid that
inward loneliness, emptiness, but when we look at it, observe it, when we accept what is without
avoidance, we will ﬁnd there comes a state of being in which all strife ceases. That state of being
is creativeness and it is not the result of strife. But when there is understanding of what is, which is
emptiness, inward insufﬁciency, when one lives with that insufﬁciency and understands it fully, there
comes creative reality, creative intelligence, which alone brings happiness.
Therefore action as we know it is really reaction, it is a ceaseless becoming, which is the denial,
the avoidance of what is; but when there is awareness of emptiness without choice, without
condemnation or justiﬁcation, then in that understanding of what is there is action, and this action
is creative being. You will understand this if you are aware of yourself in action. Observe yourself
as you are acting, not only outwardly but see also the movement of your thought and feeling. When
you are aware of this movement you will see that the thought process, which is also feeling and
action, is based on an idea of becoming. The idea of becom1ng arises only when there is a sense
of insecurity, and that sense of insecurity comes when one is aware of the inward void. If you are
aware of that process of thought and feeling, you will see that there is a constant battle going on, an
effort to change, to modify, to alter what is. This is the effort to become, and becoming is a direct
avoidance of what is. Through self-knowledge, through constant awareness, you will ﬁnd that strife,
battle, the conﬂict of becoming, leads to pain, to sorrow and ignorance. It is only if you are aware
of inward insufﬁciency and live with it without escape, accepting it wholly, that you will discover an
extraordinary tranquillity, a tranquillity which is not put together, made up, but a tranquillity which
comes with understanding of what is. Only in that state of tranquillity is there creative being.
The First And Last Freedom 37 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 8 ’CONTRADICTION’
WE SEE CONTRADICTION in us and about us; because we are in contradiction, there is lack of
peace in us and therefore outside us. There is in us a constant state of denial and assertion – what
we want to be and what we are. The state of contradiction creates conﬂict and this conﬂict does
not bring about peace – which is a simple, obvious fact. This inward contradiction should not be
translated into some kind of philosophical dualism, because that is a very easy escape. That is by
saying that contradiction is a state of dualism we think we have solved it – which is obviously a mere
convention, a contributory escape from actuality.
Now what do we mean by conﬂict, by contradiction? Why is there a contradiction in me? – this
constant struggle to be something apart from what I am. I am this, and I want to be that. This
contradiction in us is a fact, not a metaphysical dualism. Metaphysics has no signiﬁcance in
understanding what is. We may discuss, say, dualism, what it is, if it exists, and so on; but of what
value is it if we don’t know that there is contradiction in us, opposing desires, opposing interests,
opposing pursuits? I want to be good and I am not able to be. This contradiction, this opposition
in us, must be understood because it creates conﬂict; and in conﬂict, in struggle, we cannot create
individually. Let us be clear on the state we are in. There is contradiction, so there must be struggle;
and struggle is destruction, waste. In that state we can produce nothing but antagonism, strife, more
bitterness and sorrow. If we can understand this fully and hence be free of contradiction, then there
can be inward peace, which will bring understanding of each other. The problem is this. Seeing that
conﬂict is destructive, wasteful, why is it that in each of us there is contradiction? To understand
that, we must go a little further. Why is there the sense of opposing desires? I do not know if we
are aware of it in ourselves – this contradiction, this sense of wanting and not wanting, remembering
something and trying to forget it in order to ﬁnd something new. Just watch it. It is very simple and
very normal. It is not something extraordinary. The fact is, there is contradiction. Then why does
this contradiction arise?
38CHAPTER 9. CHAPTER 8 ’CONTRADICTION’
What do we mean by contradiction? Does it not imply an impermanent state which is being opposed
by another impermanent state? I think I have a permanent desire, I posit in myself a permanent
desire and another desire arises which contradicts it; this contradiction brings about conﬂict, which
is waste. That is to say there is a constant denial of one desire by another desire, one pursuit
overcoming another pursuit. Now, is there such a thing as a permanent desire ? Surely, all desire
is impermanent – not metaphysically, but actually. I want a job. That is I look to a certain job as a
means of happiness; and when I get it, I am dissatisﬁed. I want to become the manager, then the
owner, and so on and on, not only in this world, but in the so-called spiritual world – the teacher
becoming the principal, the priest becoming the bishop, the pupil becoming the master.
This constant becoming, arriving at one state after another, brings about contradiction, does it not?
Therefore, why not look at life not as one permanent desire but as a series of ﬂeeting desires always
in opposition to each other? Hence the mind need not be in a state of contradiction. If I regard life
not as a permanent desire but as a series of temporary desires which are constantly changing, then
there is no contradiction.
Contradiction arises only when the mind has a ﬁxed point of desire; that is when the mind does
not regard all desire as moving, transient, but seizes upon one desire and makes that into a
permanency – only then, when other desires arise, is there contradiction. But all desires are in
constant movement, there is no ﬁxation of desire. There is no ﬁxed point in desire; but the mind
establishes a ﬁxed point because it treats everything as a means to arrive, to gain; and there must
be contradiction, conﬂict, as long as one is arriving. You want to arrive, you want to succeed, you
want to ﬁnd an ultimate God or truth which will be your permanent satisfaction. Therefore you are not
seeking truth, you are not seeking God. You are seeking lasting gratiﬁcation, and that gratiﬁcation
you clothe with an idea, a respectable-sounding word such as God, truth; but actually we are all
seeking gratiﬁcation, and we place that gratiﬁcation, that satisfaction, at the highest point, calling it
God, and the lowest point is drink. So long as the mind is seeking gratiﬁcation, there is not much
difference between God and drink. Socially, drink may be bad; but the inward desire for gratiﬁcation,
for gain, is even more harmful, is it not? If you really want to ﬁnd truth, you must be extremely honest,
not merely at the verbal level but altogether; you must be extraordinarily clear, and you cannot be
clear if you are unwilling to face facts.
Now what brings about contradiction in each one of us? Surely it is the desire to become something,
is it not? We all want to become something: to become successful in the world and, inwardly, to
achieve a result. So long as we think in terms of time, in terms of achievement, in terms of position,
there must be contradiction. After all, the mind is the product of time. Thought is based on yesterday,
on the past; and so long as thought is functioning within the ﬁeld of time, thinking in terms of the
future, of becoming, gaining, achieving, there must be contradiction, because then we are incapable
of facing exactly what is. Only in realizing, in understanding, in being choicelessly aware of what is,
is there a possibility of freedom from that disintegrating factor which is contradiction.
Therefore it is essential, is it not?, to understand the whole process of our thinking, for it is there that
we ﬁnd contradiction. Thought itself has become a contradiction because we have not understood
the total process of ourselves; and that understanding is possible only when we are fully aware of
our thought, not as an observer operating upon his thought, but integrally and without choice – which
is extremely arduous. Then only is there the dissolution of that contradiction which is so detrimental,
The First And Last Freedom 39 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 9. CHAPTER 8 ’CONTRADICTION’
So long as we are trying to achieve a psychological result, so long as we want inward security, there
must be a contradiction in our life. I do not think that most of us are aware of this contradiction; or, if
we are, we do not see its real signiﬁcance. On the contrary, contradiction gives us an impetus to live;
the very element of friction makes us feel that we are alive. The effort, the struggle of contradiction,
gives us a sense of vitality. That is why we love wars, that is why we enjoy the battle of frustrations.
So long as there is the desire to achieve a result, which is the desire to be psychologically secure,
there must be a contradiction; and where there is contradiction, there cannot be a quiet mind.
Quietness of mind is essential to understand the whole signiﬁcance of life. Thought can never be
tranquil; thought, which is the product of time, can never ﬁnd that which is timeless, can never know
that which is beyond time. The very nature of our thinking is a contradiction, because we are always
thinking in terms of the past or of the future; therefore we are never fully cognizant, fully aware of
To be fully aware of the present is an extraordinarily difﬁcult task because the mind is incapable of
facing a fact directly without deception. Thought is the product of the past and therefore it can only
think in terms of the past or the future; it cannot be completely aware of a fact in the present. So
long as thought, which is the product of the past, tries to eliminate contradiction and all the problems
that it creates, it is merely pursuing a result, trying to achieve an end, and such thinking only creates
more contradiction and hence conﬂict, misery and confusion in us and, therefore, about us.
To be free of contradiction, one must be aware of the present without choice. How can there be
choice when you are confronted with a fact? Surely the understanding of the fact is made impossible
so long as thought is trying to operate upon the fact in terms of becoming, changing, altering.
Therefore self-knowledge is the beginning of understanding; without self-knowledge, contradiction
and conﬂict will continue. To know the whole process, the totality of oneself, does not require any
expert, any authority. The pursuit of authority only breeds fear. No expert, no specialist, can show
us how to understand the process of the self. One has to study it for oneself. You and I can help
each other by talking about it, but none can unfold it for us, no specialist, no teacher, can explore
it for us. We can be aware of it only in our relationship – in our relationship to things, to property,
to people and to ideas. In relationship we shall discover that contradiction arises when action is
approximating itself to an idea. The idea is merely the crystallization of thought as a symbol, and
the effort to live up to the symbol brings about a contradiction.
Thus, so long as there is a pattern of thought, contradiction will continue; to put an end to the
pattern, and so to contradiction, there must be self-knowledge. This understanding of the self is not
a process reserved for the few. The self is to be understood in our everyday speech, in the way we
think and feel, in the way we look at another. If we can be aware of every thought, of every feeling,
from moment to moment, then we shall see that in relationship the ways of the self are understood.
Then only is there a possibility of that tranquillity of mind in which alone the ultimate reality can come
The First And Last Freedom 40 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 10
CHAPTER 9 ’WHAT IS THE SELF?’
Do WE KNOW WHAT we mean by the self? By that, I mean the idea, the memory, the conclusion,
the experience, the various forms of nameable and unnameable intentions, the conscious endeavour
to be or not to be, the accumulated memory of the unconscious, the racial, the group, the individual,
the clan, and the whole of it all, whether it is projected outwardly in action or projected spiritually as
virtue; the striving after all this is the self. In it is included the competition, the desire to be. The
whole process of that is the self; and we know actually when we are faced with it that it is an evil
thing. I am using the word ‘evil’ intentionally, because the self is dividing: the self is self-enclosing:
its activities, however noble, are separative and isolating. We know all this. We also know those
extraordinary moments when the self is not there, in which there is no sense of endeavour, of effort,
and which happens when there is love.
It seems to me that it is important to understand how experience strengthens the self. If we are
earnest, we should understand this problem of experience. Now what do we mean by experience?
We have experience all the time, impressions; and we translate those impressions, and we react
or act according to them; we are calculating, cunning, and so on. There is the constant interplay
between what is seen objectively and our reaction to it, and interplay between the conscious and
the memories of the unconscious.
According to my memories, I react to whatever I see, to whatever I feel. In this process of reacting
to what I see, what I feel, what I know, what I believe, experience is taking place, is it not? Reaction,
response to something seen, is experience. When I see you, I react; the naming of that reaction is
experience. If I do not name that reaction it is not an experience. Watch your own responses and
what is taking place about you. There is no experience unless there is a naming process going on at
the same time. If I do not recognize you, how can I have the experience of meeting you? It sounds
simple and right. Is it not a fact? That is if I do not react according to my memories, according to my
conditioning, according to my prejudices, how can I know that I have had an experience?
41CHAPTER 10. CHAPTER 9 ’WHAT IS THE SELF?’
Then there is the projection of various desires. I desire to be protected, to have security inwardly;
or I desire to have a Master, a guru, a teacher, a God; and I experience that which I have projected;
that is I have projected a desire which has taken a form, to which I have given a name; to that I
react. It is my projection. It is my naming. That desire which gives me an experience makes me say:
”I have experience”, ”I have met the Master”, or ”I have not met the Master”. You know the whole
process of naming an experience. Desire is what you call experience, is it not?
When I desire silence of the mind, what is taking place? What happens? I see the importance
of having a silent mind, a quiet mind, for various reasons; because the Upanishads have said so,
religious scriptures have said so, saints have said it, and also occasionally I myself feel how good it is
to be quiet, because my mind is so very chatty all the day. At times I feel how nice, how pleasurable
it is to have a peaceful mind, a silent mind. The desire is to experience silence. I want to have a
silent mind, and so I ask ”How can I get it?” I know what this or that book says about meditation,
and the various forms of discipline. So through discipline I seek to experience silence. The self, the
‘me’, has therefore established itself in the experience of silence.
I want to understand what is truth; that is my desire, my longing; then there follows my projection
of what I consider to be the truth, because I have read lots about it; I have heard many people
talk about it; religious scriptures have described it. I want all that. What happens? The very want,
the very desire is projected, and I experience because I recognize that projected state. If I did not
recognize that state, I would not call it truth. I recognize it and I experience it; and that experience
gives strength to the self, to the ‘me’, does it not? So the self becomes entrenched in the experience.
Then you say ”I know”, ”the Master exists”,’‘there is God” or ”there is no God; you say that a particular
political system is right and all others are not.
So experience is always strengthening the ‘me’. The more you are entrenched in your experience,
the more does the self get strengthened. As a result of this, you have a certa1n strength of character,
strength of knowledge, of belief, which you display to other people because you know they are not
as clever as you are, and because you have the gift of the pen or of speech and you are cunning.
Because the self is still acting, so your beliefs, your Masters, your castes, your economic system
are all a process of isolation, and they therefore bring contention. You must, if you are at all serious
or earnest in this, dissolve this centre completely and not justify it. That is why we must understand
the process of experience.
Is it possible for the mind, fur the self, not to project, not to desire, not to experience? We see that all
experiences of the self are a negation, a destruction, and yet we call them positive action, don’t we?
That is what we call the positive way of life. To undo this whole process is, to you, negation. Are
you right in that? Can we, you and I, as individuals, go to the root of it and understand the process
of the self? Now what brings about dissolution of the self? Religious and other groups have offered
identiﬁcation, have they not? ”Identify yourself with a larger, and the self disappears”, is what they
say. But surely identiﬁcation is still the process of the self; the larger is simply the projection of the
‘me’, which I experience and which therefore strengthens the ‘me’.
All the various forms of discipline, belief and knowledge surely only strengthen the self. Can we
ﬁnd an element which will dissolve the self? Or is that a wrong question? That is what we want
basically. We want to ﬁnd something which will dissolve the ‘me’, do we not? We think there are
various means, namely, identiﬁcation, belief, etc; but all of them are at the same level; one is not
The First And Last Freedom 42 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 10. CHAPTER 9 ’WHAT IS THE SELF?’
superior to the other, because all of them are equally powerful in strengthening the self the ‘me’. So
can I see the ‘me’ wherever it functions, and see its destructive forces and energy? Whatever name
I may give to it, it is an isolating force, it is a destructive force, and I want to ﬁnd a way of dissolving it.
You must have asked this yourself – ”I see the ‘I’ functioning all the time and always bringing anxiety,
fear, frustration, despair, misery, not only to myself but to all around me. Is it possible for that self
to be dissolved, not partially but completely?” Can we go to the root of it and destroy it? That is the
only way of truly functioning, is it not? I do not want to be partially intelligent but intelligent in an
integrated manner. Most of us are intelligent in layers, you probably in one way and I in some other
way. Some of you are intelligent in your business work, some others in your ofﬁce work, and so on;
people are intelligent in different ways; but we are not integrally intelligent. To be integrally intelligent
means to be without the self. Is it possible?
Is it possible for the self to be completely absent now? You know it is possible. What are the
necessary ingredients, requirements? What is the element that brings it about? Can I ﬁnd it? When
I put that question ”Can I ﬁnd it?” surely I am convinced that it is possible; so I have already created
an experience in which the self is going to be strengthened, is it not? Understanding of the self
requires a great deal of intelligence, a great deal of watchfulness, alertness, watching ceaselessly,
so that it does not slip away. I, who am very earnest, want to dissolve the self. When I say that,
I know it is possible to dissolve the self. The moment I say;I want to dissolve this”, in that there is
still the experiencing of the self; and so the self is strengthened. So how is it possible for the self
not to experience? One can see that the state of creation is not at all the experience of the self
Creation is when the self is not there, because creation is not intellectual, is not of the mind, is not
self-projected, is something beyond all experiencing. So is it possible for the mind to be quite still,
in a state of non-recognition, or non-experiencing, to be in a state in which creation can take place,
which means when the self is not there, when the self is absent? The problem is this, is it not? Any
movement of the mind, positive or negative, is an experience which actually strengthens the ‘me’. Is
it possible for the mind not to recognize? That can only take place when there is complete silence,
but not the silence which is an experience of the self and which therefore strengthens the self.
Is there an entity apart from the self which looks at the self and dissolves the self? Is there a spiritual
entity which supercedes the self and destroys it, which puts it aside? We think there is, don’t we?
Most religious people think there is such an element. The materialist says, ”It is impossible for the
self to be destroyed; it can only be conditioned and restrained – politically, economically and socially;
we can hold it ﬁrmly within a certain pattern and we can break it; and therefore it can be made to
lead a high life, a moral life, and not to interfere with anything but to follow the social pattern, and to
function merely as a machine”. That we know. There are other people, the so-called religious ones
– they are not really religious, though we call them so – who say, ”Fundamentally, there is such an
element. If we can get into touch with it, it will dissolve the self”.
Is there such an element to dissolve the self? Please see what we are doing. We are forcing the
self into a corner. If you allow yourself to be forced into the corner, you will see what will happen.
We should like there to be an element which is timeless, which is not of the self, which, we hope,
will come and intercede and destroy the self – and which we call God. Now is there such a thing
which the mind can conceive? There may be or there may not be; that is not the point. But when
the mind seeks a timeless spiritual state which will go into action in order to destroy the self is that
not another form of experience which is strengthening the ‘me’? When you believe, is that not what
is actually taking place? When you believe that there is truth, God, the timeless state, immortality, is
The First And Last Freedom 43 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 10. CHAPTER 9 ’WHAT IS THE SELF?’
that not the process of strengthening the self? The self has projected that thing which you feel and
believe will come and destroy the self. So, having projected this idea of continuance in a timeless
state as a spiritual entity, you have an experience; and such experience only strengthens the self;
and therefore what have you done? You have not really destroyed the self but only given it a different
name, a different quality; the self is still there, because you have experienced it. Thus our action
from the beginning to the end is the same action, only we think it is evolving, growing, becoming
more and more beautiful; but, if you observe inwardly, it is the same action going on, the same ‘me’
functioning at different levels with different labels, different names.
When you see the whole process, the cunning, extraordinary inventions, the intelligence of the
self, how it covers itself up through identiﬁcation, through virtue, through experience, through belief,
through knowledge; when you see that the mind is moving in a circle, in a cage of its own making,
what happens? When you are aware of it, fully cognizant of it, then are you not extraordinarily quiet
– not through compulsion, not through any reward, not through any fear? When you recognize that
every movement of the mind is merely a form of strengthening the self when you observe it, see
it, when you are completely aware of it in action, when you come to that point – not ideologically,
verbally, not through projected experiencing, but when you are actually in that state – then you will
see that the mind, being utterly still, has no power of creating. Whatever the mind creates is in a
circle, within the ﬁeld of the self. When the mind is non-creating there is creation, which is not a
recognizable process. Reality, truth, is not to be recognized. For truth to come, belief, knowledge,
experiencing, the pursuit of virtue – all this must go. The virtuous person who is conscious of
pursuing virtue can never ﬁnd reality. He may be a very decent person; but that is entirely different
from being a man of truth, a man who understands. To the man of truth, truth has come into
being. A virtuous man is a righteous man, and a righteous man can never understand what is truth
because virtue to him is the covering of the self the strengthening of the self because he is pursuing
virtue. When he says ”I must be without greed”, the state of non-greed which he experiences only
strengthens the self. That is why it is so important to be poor, not only in the things of the world but
also in belief and in knowledge. A man with worldly riches or a man rich in knowledge and belief will
never know anything but darkness, and will be the centre of all mischief and misery. But if you and I,
as individuals, can see this whole working of the self, then we shall know what love is. I assure you
that is the only reformation which can possibly change the world. Love is not of the self. Self cannot
recognize love. You say ”I love; but then, in the very saying of it, in the very experiencing of it, love
is not. But, when you know love, self is not. When there is love, self is not.
The First And Last Freedom 44 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 11
CHAPTER 10 ’FEAR’
WHAT IS FEAR? Fear can exist only in relation to something, not in isolation. How can I be afraid
of death, how can I be afraid of something I do not know? I can be afraid only of what I know. When
I say I am afraid of death, am I really afraid of the unknown, which is death, or am I afraid of losing
what I have known? My fear is not of death but of losing my association with things belonging to me.
My fear is always in relation to the known, not to the unknown.
My inquiry now is how to be free from the fear of the known, which is the fear of losing my family, my
reputation, my character, my bank account, my appetites and so on. You may say that fear arises
from conscience; but your conscience is formed by your conditioning, so conscience is still the result
of the known. What do I know? Knowledge is having ideas, having opinions about things, having
a sense of continuity as in relation to the known, and no more. Ideas are memories, the result of
experience, which is response to challenge. I am afraid of the known, which means I am afraid of
losing people, things or ideas, I am afraid of discovering what I am, afraid of being at a loss, afraid of
the pain which might come into being when I have lost or have not gained or have no more pleasure.
There is fear of pain. Physical pain is a nervous response, but psychological pain arises when I hold
on to things that give me satisfaction, for then I am afraid of anyone or anything that may take them
away from me. The psychological accumulations prevent psychological pain as long as they are
undisturbed; that is I am a bundle of accumulations, experiences, which prevent any serious form
of disturbance – and I do not want to be disturbed. Therefore I am afraid of anyone who disturbs
them. Thus my fear is of the known, I am afraid of the accumulations, physical or psychological,
that I have gathered as a means of warding off pain or preventing sorrow. But sorrow is in the very
process of accumulating to ward off psychological pain. Knowledge also helps to prevent pain. As
medical knowledge helps to prevent physical pain, so beliefs help to prevent psychological pain, and
that is why I am afraid of losing my beliefs, though I have no perfect knowledge or concrete proof of
45CHAPTER 11. CHAPTER 10 ’FEAR’
the reality of such beliefs. I may reject some of the traditional beliefs that have been foisted on me
because my own experience gives me strength, conﬁdence, understanding; but such beliefs and the
knowledge which I have acquired are basically the same – a means of warding off pain.
Fear exists so long as there is accumulation of the known, which creates the fear of losing. Therefore
fear of the unknown is really fear of losing the accumulated known. Accumulation invariably means
fear, which in turn means pain; and the moment I say ”I must not lose” there is fear. Though my
intention in accumulating is to ward off pain, pain is inherent in the process of accumulation. The
very things which I have create fear, which is pain.
The seed of defence brings offence. I want physical security; thus I create a sovereign government,
which necessitates armed forces, which means war, which destroys security. Wherever there is
a desire for self-protection, there is fear. When I see the fallacy of demanding security I do not
accumulate any more. If you say that you see it but you cannot help accumulating, it is because you
do not really see that, inherently, in accumulation there is pain.
Fear exists in the process of accumulation and belief in something is part of the accumulative
process. My son dies, and I believe in reincarnation to prevent me psychologically from having
more pain; but, in the very process of believing, there is doubt. Outwardly I accumulate things, and
bring war; inwardly I accumulate beliefs, and bring pain. So long as I want to be secure, to have
bank accounts, pleasures and so on, so long as I want to become something, physiologically or
psychologically, there must be pain. The very things I am doing to ward off pain bring me fear, pain.
Fear comes into being when I desire to be in a particular pattern. To live without fear means to live
without a particular pattern. When I demand a particular way of living that in itself is a source of
fear. My difﬁculty is my desire to live in a certain frame. Can I not break the frame? I can do so only
when I see the truth: that the frame is causing fear and that this fear is strengthening the frame. If
I say I must break the frame because I want to be free of fear, then I am merely following another
pattern which will cause further fear. Any action on my part based on the desire to break the frame
will only create another pattern, and therefore fear. How am I to break the frame without causing
fear, that is without any conscious or unconscious action on my part with regard to it? This means
that I must not act, I must make no movement to break the frame. What happens to me when I am
simply looking at the frame without doing anything about it? I see that the mind itself is the frame,
the pattern; it lives in the habitual pattern which it has created for itself. Therefore, the mind itself is
fear. Whatever the mind does goes towards strengthening an old pattern or furthering a new one.
This means that whatever the mind does to get rid of fear causes fear.
Fear ﬁnds various escapes. The common variety is identiﬁcation, is it not? – identiﬁcation with
the country, with the society, with an idea. Haven’t you noticed how you respond when you see
a procession, a military procession or a religious procession, or when the country is in danger of
being invaded? You then identify yourself with the country, with a being, with an ideology. There
are other times when you identify yourself with your child, with your wife, with a particular form of
action, or inaction. Identiﬁcation is a process of self-forgetfulness. So long as I am conscious of
the ‘me’ I know there is pain, there is struggle, there is constant fear. But if I can identify myself
with something greater, with something worth while, with beauty, with life, with truth, with belief, with
knowledge, at least temporarily, there is an escape from the ‘me’, is there not? If I talk about ”my
country” I forget myself temporarily, do I not? If I can say something about God, I forget myself? If I
The First And Last Freedom 46 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 11. CHAPTER 10 ’FEAR’
can identify myself with my family, with a group, with a particular party, with a certain ideology, then
there is a temporary escape.
Identiﬁcation therefore is a form of escape from the self, even as virtue is a form of escape from
the self. The man who pursues virtue is escaping from the self and he has a narrow mind. That is
not a virtuous mind, for virtue is something which cannot be pursued. The more you try to become
virtuous, the more strength you give to the self, to the ‘me’. Fear, which is common to most of us in
different forms, must always ﬁnd a substitute and must therefore increase our struggle. The more
you are identiﬁed with a substitute, the greater the strength to hold on to that for which you are
prepared to struggle, to die, because fear is at the back.
Do we now know what fear is? Is it not the non-acceptance of what is? We must understand the
word ‘acceptance’. I am not using that word as meaning the effort made to accept. There is no
question of accepting when I perceive what is. When I do not see clearly what is, then I bring in
the process of acceptance. Therefore fear is the non-acceptance of what is. How can I, who am a
bundle of all these reactions, responses, memories, hopes, depressions, frustrations, who am the
result of the movement of consciousness blocked, go beyond? Can the mind, without this blocking
and hindrance, be conscious? We know, when there is no hindrance, what extraordinary joy there
is. Don’t you know when the body is perfectly healthy there is a certain joy, well-being; and don’t
you know when the mind is completely free, without any block, when the centre of recognition as
the‘me’ is not there, you experience a certain joy? Haven’t you experienced this state when the self
is absent? Surely we all have.
There is understanding and freedom from the self only when I can look at it completely and integrally
as a whole; and I can do that only when I understand the whole process of all activity born of desire
which is the very expression of thought – for thought is not different from desire – without justifying it,
without condemning it, without suppressing it; if I can understand that, then I shall know if there is
the possibility of going beyond the restrictions of the self.
The First And Last Freedom 47 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 12
CHAPTER 11 ’SIMPLICITY’
I WOULD LIKE To discuss what is simplicity, and perhaps from that arrive at the discovery of
sensitivity. We seem to think that simplicity is merely an outward expression, a withdrawal: having
few possessions, wearing a loincloth, having no home, putting on few clothes, having a small bank
account. Surely that is not simplicity. That is merely an outward show. It seems to me that simplicity
is essential; but simplicity can come into being only when we begin to understand the signiﬁcance
Simplicity is not merely adjustment to a pattern. It requires a great deal of intelligence to be simple
and not merely conform to a particular pattern, however worthy outwardly. Unfortunately most of us
begin by being simple externally, in outward things. It is comparatively easy to have few things and to
be satisﬁed with few things; to be content with little and perhaps to share that little with others. But a
mere outward expression of simplicity in things, in possessions, surely does not imply the simplicity
of inward being. Because, as the world is at present, more and more things are being urged upon
us, outwardly, externally. Life is becoming more and more complex. In order to escape from that,
we try to renounce or be detached from things – from cars, from houses, from organizations, from
cinemas, and from the innumerable circumstances outwardly thrust upon us. We think we shall be
simple by withdrawing. A great many saints, a great many teachers, have renounced the world;
and it seems to me that such a renunciation on the part of any of us does not solve the problem.
Simplicity which is fundamental, real, can only come into being inwardly; and from that there is an
outward expression. How to be simple, then, is the problem; because that simplicity makes one
more and more sensitive. A sensitive mind, a sensitive heart, is essential, for then it is capable of
quick perception, quick reception.
One can be inwardly simple, surely, only by understanding the innumerable impediments,
attachments, fears, in which one is held. But most of us like to be held – by people, by possessions,
48CHAPTER 12. CHAPTER 11 ’SIMPLICITY’
by ideas. We like to be prisoners. Inwardly we are prisoners, though outwardly we seem to be
very simple. Inwardly we are prisoners to our desires, to our wants, to our ideals, to innumerable
motivations. Simplicity cannot be found unless one is free inwardly. Therefore it must begin inwardly,
There is an extraordinary freedom when one understands the whole process of belief, why the
mind is attached to a belief. When there is freedom from beliefs, there is simplicity. But that
simplicity requires intelligence, and to be intelligent one must be aware of one’s own impediments.
To be aware, one must be constantly on the watch, not established in any particular groove, in any
particular pattern of thought or action. After all, what one is inwardly does affect the outer. Society, or
any form of action, is the projection of ourselves, and without transforming inwardly mere legislation
has very little signiﬁcance outwardly; it may bring about certain reforms, certain adjustments, but
what one is inwardly always overcomes the outer. If one is inwardly greedy, ambitious, pursuing
certain ideals, that inward complexity does eventually upset, overthrow outward society, however
carefully planned it may be.
Therefore one must begin within – not exclusively, not rejecting the outer. You come to the inner,
surely, by understanding the outer, by ﬁnding out how the conﬂict, the struggle, the pain, exists
outwardly; as one investigates it more and more, naturally one comes into the psychological states
which produce the outward conﬂicts and miseries. The outward expression is only an indication of
our inward state, but to understand the inward state one must approach through the outer. Most of us
do that. In understanding the inner – not exclusively, not by rejecting the outer, but by understanding
the outer and so coming upon the inner – we will ﬁnd that, as we proceed to investigate the inward
complexities of our being, we become more and more sensitive, free. It is this inward simplicity
that is so essential, because that simplicity creates sensitivity. A mind that is not sensitive, not
alert, not aware, is incapable of any receptivity, any creative action. Conformity as a means of
making ourselves simple really makes the mind and heart dull, insensitive. Any form of authoritarian
compulsion, imposed by the government, by oneself, by the ideal of achievement, and so on –
any form of conformity must make for insensitivity, for not being simple inwardly. Outwardly you
may conform and give the appearance of simplicity, as so many religious people do. They practise
various disciplines, join various organizations, meditate in a particular fashion, and so on – all giving
an appearance of simplicity, but such conformity does not make for simplicity. Compulsion of any
kind can never lead to simplicity. On the contrary, the more you suppress, the more you substitute,
the more you sublimate, the less there is simplicity, but the more you understand the process of
sublimation, suppression, substitution, the greater the possibility of being simple.
Our problems – social, environmental, political, religious – are so complex that we can solve them
only by being simple, not by becoming extraordinarily erudite and clever. A simple person sees much
more directly, has a more direct experience, than the complex person. Our minds are so crowded
with an inﬁnite knowledge of facts, of what others have said, that we have become incapable of being
simple and having direct experience ourselves. These problems demand a new approach; and they
can be so approached only when we are simple, inwardly really simple. That simplicity comes only
through self-knowledge, through understanding ourselves; the ways of our thinking and feeling; the
movements of our thoughts; our responses; how we conform, through fear, to public opinion, to what
others say, what the Buddha, the Christ, the great saints have said – all of which indicates our nature
to conform, to be safe, to be secure. When one is seeking security, one is obviously in a state of
fear and therefore there is no simplicity.
The First And Last Freedom 49 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 12. CHAPTER 11 ’SIMPLICITY’
Without being simple, one cannot be sensitive – to the trees, to the birds, to the mountains, to the
wind, to all the things which are going on about us in the world; if one is not simple one cannot
be sensitive to the inward intimation of things. Most of us live so superﬁcially, on the upper level
of our consciousness; there we try to be thoughtful or intelligent, which is synonymous with being
religious; there we try to make our minds simple, through compulsion, through discipline. But that
is not simplicity. When we force the upper mind to be simple, such compulsion only hardens the
mind, does not make the mind supple, clear, quick. To be simple in the whole, total process of our
consciousness is extremely arduous; because there must be no inward reservation, there must be
an eagerness to ﬁnd out, to inquire into the process of our being, which means to be awake to every
intimation, to every hint; to be aware of our fears, of our hopes, and to investigate and to be free
of them more and more and more. Only then, when the mind and the heart are really simple, not
encrusted, are we able to solve the many problems that confront us.
Knowledge is not going to solve our problems. You may know, for example, that there is
reincarnation, that there is a continuity after death. You may know, I don’t say you do; or you may
be convinced of it. But that does not solve the problem. Death cannot be shelved by your theory,
or by information, or by conviction. It is much more mysterious, much deeper, much more creative
One must have the capacity to investigate all these things anew; because it is only through direct
experience that our problems are solved, and to have direct experience there must be simplicity,
which means there must be sensitivity. A mind is made dull by the weight of knowledge. A mind is
made dull by the past, by the future. Only a mind that is capable of adjusting itself to the present,
continually, from moment to moment, can meet the powerful inﬂuences and pressures constantly
put upon us by our environment.
Thus a religious man is not really one who puts on a robe or a loincloth, or lives on one meal a day,
or has taken innumerable vows to be this and not to be that, but is he who is inwardly simple, who
is not becoming anything. Such a mind is capable of extraordinary receptivity, because there is no
barrier, there is no fear, there is no going towards something; therefore it is capable of receiving
grace, God, truth, or what you will. But a mind that is pursuing reality is not a simple mind. A
mind that is seeking out, searching, groping, agitated, is not a simple mind. A mind that conforms
to any pattern of authority, inward or outward, cannot be sensitive. And it is only when a mind is
really sensitive, alert, aware of all its own happenings, responses, thoughts, when it is no longer
becoming, is no longer shaping itself to be something – only then is it capable of receiving that which
is truth. It is only then that there can be happiness, for happiness is not an end – it is the result of
reality. When the mind and the heart have become simple and therefore sensitive – not through any
form of compulsion, direction, or imposition – then we shall see that our problems can be tackled
very simply. However complex our problems, we shall be able to approach them freshly and see
them differently. That is what is wanted at the present time: people who are capable of meeting this
outward confusion, turmoil, antagonism anew, creatively, simply – not with theories nor formulas,
either of the left or of the right. You cannot meet it anew if you are not simple.
A problem can be solved only when we approach it thus. We cannot approach it anew if we are
thinking in terms of certain patterns of thought, religious, political or otherwise. So we must be free
of all these things, to be simple. That is why it is so important to be aware, to have the capacity
to understand the process of our own thinking, to be cognizant of ourselves totally; from that there
The First And Last Freedom 50 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 12. CHAPTER 11 ’SIMPLICITY’
comes a simplicity, there comes a humility which is not a virtue or a practice. Humility that is gained
ceases to be humility. A mind that makes itself humble is no longer a humble mind. It is only when
one has humility, not a cultivated humility, that one is able to meet the things of life that are so
pressing, because then one is not important, one doesn’t look through one’s own pressures and
sense of importance; one looks at the problem for itself and then one is able to solve it.
The First And Last Freedom 51 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 13
CHAPTER 12 ’AWARENESS’
TO KNOW OURSELVES means to know our relationship with the world – not only with the world of
ideas and people, but also with nature, with the things we possess. That is our life – life being
relationship to the whole. Does the understanding of that relationship demand specialization?
Obviously not. What it demands is awareness to meet life as a whole. How is one to be aware?
That is our problem. How is one to have that awareness – if I may use this word without making
it mean specialization? How is one to be capable of meeting life as a whole? – which means not
only personal relationship with your neighbour but also with nature, with the things that you possess,
with ideas, and with the things that the mind manufactures as illusion, desire and so on. How is one
to be aware of this whole process of relationship? Surely that is our life, is it not? There is no life
without relationship; and to understand this relationship does not mean isolation. On the contrary, it
demands a full recognition or awareness of the total process of relationship.
How is one to be aware? How are we aware of anything? How are you aware of your relationship
with a person? How are you aware of the trees, the call of a bird? How are you aware of your
reactions when you read a newspaper? Are we aware of the superﬁcial responses of the mind, as
well as the inner responses? How are we aware of anything? First we are aware, are we not?, of
a response to a stimulus, which is an obvious fact; I see the trees, and there is a response, then
sensation, contact, identiﬁcation and desire. That is the ordinary process, isn’t it? We can observe
what actually takes place, without studying any books. So through identiﬁcation you have pleasure
and pain. And our ‘capacity’ is this concern with pleasure and the avoidance of pain, is it not? If
you are interested in something, if it gives you pleasure, there is ‘capacity’ immediately; there is
an awareness of that fact immediately; and if it is painful the ‘capacity’ is developed to avoid it.
So long as we are looking to ‘capacity’ to understand ourselves, I think we shall fail; because the
understanding of ourselves does not depend on capacity. It is not a technique that you develop,
cultivate and increase through time, through constantly sharpening. This awareness of oneself can
52CHAPTER 13. CHAPTER 12 ’AWARENESS’
be tested, surely, in the action of relationship; it can be tested in the way we talk, the way we behave.
Watch yourself without any identiﬁcation, without any comparison, without any condemnation; just
watch, and you will see an extraordinary thing taking place. You not only put an end to an activity
which is unconscious – because most of our activities are unconscious – you not only bring that to
an end, but, further, you are aware of the motives of that action, without inqui1y, without digging into
When you are aware, you see the whole process of your thinking and action; but it can happen
only when there is no condemnation. When I condemn something, I do not understand it, and it is
one way of avoiding any kind of understanding. I think most of us do that purposely; we condemn
immediately and we think we have understood. If we do not condemn but regard it, are aware of
it, then the content, the signiﬁcance of that action begins to open up. Experiment with this and you
will see for yourself. Just be aware – without any sense of justiﬁcation – which may appear rather
negative but is not negative. On the contrary, it has the quality of passivity which is direct action;
and you will discover this, if you experiment with it.
After all, if you want to understand something, you have to be in a passive mood, do you not? You
cannot keep on thinking about it, speculating about it or questioning it. You have to be sensitive
enough to receive the content of it. It is like being a sensitive photographic plate. If I want to
understand you, I have to be passively aware; then you begin to tell me all your story. Surely that
is not a question of capacity or specialization. In that process we begin to understand ourselves –
not only the superﬁcial layers of our consciousness, but the deeper, which is much more important;
because there are all our motives and intentions, our hidden, confused demands, anxieties, fears,
appetites. Outwardly we may have them all under control but inwardly they are boiling. Until those
have been completely understood through awareness, obviously there cannot be freedom, there
cannot be happiness, there is no intelligence.
Is intelligence a matter of specialization? – intelligence being the total awareness of our process.
And is that intelligence to be cultivated through any form of specialization? Because that is what is
happening, is it not? The priest, the doctor, the engineer, the industrialist, the business man, the
professor – we have the mentality of all that specialization.
To realize the highest form of intelligence – which is truth, which is God, which cannot be described
– to realize that, we think we have to make ourselves specialists. We study, we grope, we search
out; and, with the mentality of the specialist or looking to the specialist, we study ourselves in order
to develop a capacity which will help to unravel our conﬂicts, our miseries.
Our problem is, if we are at all aware, whether the conﬂicts and the miseries and the sorrows of our
daily existence can be solved by another; and if they cannot, how is it possible for us to tackle them?
To understand a problem obviously requires a certain intelligence, and that intelligence cannot be
derived from or cultivated through specialization. It comes into being only when we are passively
aware of the whole process of our consciousness, which is to be aware of ourselves without choice,
without choosing what is right and what is wrong. When you are passively aware, you will see that
out of that passivity – which is not idleness, which is not sleep, but extreme alertness – the problem
has quite a different signiﬁcance; which means there is no longer identiﬁcation with the problem
and therefore there is no judgement and hence the problem begins to reveal its content. If you
are able to do that constantly, continuously, then every problem can be solved fundamentally, not
The First And Last Freedom 53 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 13. CHAPTER 12 ’AWARENESS’
superﬁcially. That is the difﬁculty, because most of us are incapable of being passively aware, letting
the problem tell the story without our interpreting it. We do not know how to look at a problem
dispassionately. We are not capable of it, unfortunately, because we want a result from the problem,
we want an answer, we are looking to an end; or we try to translate the problem according to our
pleasure or pain; or we have an answer already on how to deal with the problem. Therefore we
approach a problem, which is always new, with the old pattern. The challenge is always the new,
but our response is always the old; and our difﬁculty is to meet the challenge adequately, that is
fully. The problem is always a problem of relationship – with things, with people or with ideas; there
is no other problem; and to meet the problem of relationship, with its constantly varying demands
– to meet it rightly, to meet it adequately – one has to be aware passively. This passivity is not a
question of determination, of will, of discipline; to be aware that we are not passive is the beginning.
To be aware that we want a particular answer to a particular problem – surely that is the beginning:
to know ourselves in relationship to the problem and how we deal with the problem. Then as we
begin to know ourselves in relationship to the problem – how we respond, what are our various
prejudices, demands, pursuits, in meeting that problem – this awareness will reveal the process of
our own thinking, of our own inward nature; and in that there is a release.
What is important, surely, is to be aware without choice, because choice brings about conﬂict. The
chooser is in confusion, therefore he chooses; if he is not in confusion, there is no choice. Only the
person who is confused chooses what he shall do or shall not do. The man who is clear and simple
does not choose; what is, is. Action based on an idea is obviously the action of choice and such
action is not liberating; on the contrary, it only creates further resistance, further conﬂict, according
to that conditioned thinking.
The important thing, therefore, is to be aware from moment to moment without accumulating the
experience which awareness brings; because, the moment you accumulate, you are aware only
according to that accumulation, according to that pattern, according to that experience. That is your
awareness is conditioned by your accumulation and therefore there is no longer observation but
merely translation. Where there is translation, there is choice, and choice creates conﬂict; in conﬂict
there can be no understanding.
Life is a matter of relationship; and to understand that relationship, which is not static, there must be
an awareness which is pliable, an awareness which is alertly passive, not aggressively active. As
I said, this passive awareness does not come through any form of discipline, through any practice.
It is to be just aware, from moment to moment, of our thinking and feeling, not only when we are
awake; for we shall see, as we go into it more deeply, that we begin to dream, that we begin to
throw up all kinds of symbols which we translate as dreams. Thus we open the door into the hidden,
which becomes the known; but to ﬁnd the unknown, we must go beyond the door – surely, that is our
difﬁculty. Reality is not a thing which is knowable by the mind, because the mind is the result of the
known, of the past; therefore the mind must understand itself and its functioning, its truth, and only
then is it possible for the unknown to be.
The First And Last Freedom 54 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 14
CHAPTER 13 ’DESIRE’
FOR MOST OF us, desire is quite a problem: the desire for property, for position, for power,
for comfort, for immortality, for continuity, the desire to be loved, to have something permanent,
satisfying, lasting, something which is beyond time. Now, what is desire? What is this thing that is
urging, compelling us? I am not suggesting that we should be satisﬁed with what we have or with
what we are, which is merely the opposite of what we want. We are trying to see what desire is,
and if we can go into it tentatively, hesitantly, I think we shall bring about a transformation which is
not a mere substitution of one object of desire for another object of desire. This is generally what
we mean by ‘change’, is it not? Being dissatisﬁed with one particular object of desire, we ﬁnd a
substitute for it. We are everlastingly moving from one object of desire to another which we consider
to be higher, nobler, more reﬁned; but, however reﬁned, desire is still desire, and in this movement
of desire there is endless struggle, the conﬂict of the opposites.
Is it not, therefore, important to ﬁnd out what is desire and whether it can be transformed? What is
desire? Is it not the symbol and its sensation? Desire is sensation with the object of its attainment.
Is there desire without a symbol and its sensation? Obviously not. The symbol may be a picture,
a person, a word, a name, an image, an idea which gives me a sensation, which makes me feel
that I like or dislike it; if the sensation is pleasurable, I want to attain, to possess, to hold on to its
symbol and continue in that pleasure. From time to time, according to my inclinations and intensities,
I change the picture, the image, the object. With one form of pleasure I am fed up, tired, bored, so I
seek a new sensation, a new idea, a new symbol. I reject the old sensation and take on a new one,
with new words, new signiﬁcances, new experiences. I resist the old and yield to the new which I
consider to be higher, nobler, more satisfying. Thus in desire there is a resistance and a yielding,
which involves temptation; and of course in yielding to a particular symbol of desire there is always
the fear of frustration.
55CHAPTER 14. CHAPTER 13 ’DESIRE’
If I observe the whole process of desire in myself I see that there is always an object towards
which my mind is directed for further sensation, and that in this process there is involved resistance,
temptation and discipline. There is perception, sensation, contact and desire, and the mind becomes
the mechanical instrument of this process, in which symbols words, objects are the centre round
which all desire, all pursuits, all ambitions are built; that centre is the ‘me’. Can I dissolve that centre
of desire – not one particular desire, one particular appetite or craving, but the whole structure of
desire, of longing, hoping, in which there is always the fear of frustration? The more I am frustrated,
the more strength I give to the ‘me’. So long as there is hoping, longing, there is always the
background of fear, which again strengthens that centre. And revolution is possible only at that
centre, not on the surface, which is merely a process of distraction, a superﬁcial change leading to
When I am aware of this whole structure of desire, I see how my mind has become a dead centre,
a mechanical process of memory. Having tired of one desire, I automatically want to fulﬁl myself
in another. My mind is always experiencing in terms of sensation, it is the instrument of sensation.
Being bored with a particular sensation, I seek a new sensation, which may be what I call the
realization of God; but it is still sensation. I have had enough of this world and its travail and I want
peace, the peace that is everlasting; so I meditate, control, I shape my mind in order to experience
that peace. The experiencing of that peace is still sensation. So my mind is the mechanical
instrument of sensation, of memory, a dead centre from which I act, think. The objects I pursue
are the projections of the mind as symbols from which it derives sensations. The word ‘God’, the
word ‘love’, the word ‘communism’, the word ‘democracy’, the word ‘nationalism’ – these are all
symbols which give sensations to the mind, and therefore the mind clings to them. As you and I
know, every sensation comes to an end, and so we proceed from one sensation to another; and
every sensation strengthens the habit of seeking further sensation. Thus the mind becomes merely
an instrument of sensation and memory, and in that process we are caught. So long as the mind
is seeking further experience it can only think in terms of sensation; and any experience that may
be spontaneous, creative, vital, strikingly new, it immediately reduces to sensation and pursues that
sensation, which then becomes a memory. Therefore the experience is dead and the mind becomes
merely a stagnant pool of the past.
If we have gone into it at all deeply we are familiar with this process; and we seem to be incapable of
going beyond. We want to go beyond, because we are tired of this endless routine, this mechanical
pursuit of sensation; so the mind projects the idea of truth, or God; it dreams of‘ a vital change
and of playing a principal part in that change, and so on and on and on. Hence there is never a
creative state. In myself I see this process of desire going on, which is mechanical, repetitive, which
holds the mind in a process of routine and makes of it a dead centre of the past in which there is no
creative spontaneity. Also there are sudden moments of creation, of that which is not of the mind,
which is not of memory, which is not of sensation or of desire.
Our problem, therefore, is to understand desire – not how far it should go or where it should come
to an end, but to understand the whole process of desire, the cravings, the longings, the burning
appetites. Most of us think that possessing very little indicates freedom from desire – and how we
worship those who have but few things! A loincloth, a robe, symbolizes our desire to be free from
desire; but that again is a very superﬁcial reaction. Why begin at the superﬁcial level of giving
up outward possessions when your mind is crippled with innumerable wants, innumerable desires,
beliefs, struggles? Surely it is there that the revolution must take place, not in how much you
The First And Last Freedom 56 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 14. CHAPTER 13 ’DESIRE’
possess or what clothes you wear or how many meals you eat. But we are impressed by these
things because our minds are very superﬁcial.
Your problem and my problem is to see whether the mind can ever be free from desire, from
sensation. Surely creation has nothing to do with sensation; reality, God, or what you will, is not
a state which can be experienced as sensation. When you have an experience, what happens? It
has given you a certain sensation, a feeling of elation or depression. Naturally, you try to avoid, put
aside, the state of depression; but if it is a joy, a feeling of elation, you pursue it. Your experience
has produced a pleasurable sensation and you want more of it; and the ‘more’ strengthens the dead
centre of the mind, which is ever craving further experience. Hence the mind cannot experience
anything new, it is incapable of experiencing anything new, because its approach is always through
memory, through recognition; and that which is recognized through memory is not truth, creation,
reality. Such a mind cannot experience reality; it can only experience sensation, and creation is not
sensation, it is something that is everlastingly new from moment to moment.
Now I realize the state of my own mind; I see that it is the instrument of sensation and desire,
or rather that it is sensation and desire, and that it is mechanically caught up in routine. Such a
mind is incapable of ever receiving or feeling out the new; for the new must obviously be something
beyond sensation, which is always the old. So, this mechanical process with its sensations has to
come to an end, has it not? The wanting more, the pursuit of symbols, words, images, with their
sensation – all that has to come to an end. Only then is it possible for the mind to be in that state
of creativeness in which the new can always come into being. If you will understand without being
mesmerized by words, by habits, by ideas, and see how important it is to have the new constantly
impinging on the mind, then, perhaps, you will understand the process of desire, the routine, the
boredom, the constant craving for experience. Then I think you will begin to see that desire has very
little signiﬁcance in life for a man who is really seeking. Obviously there are certain physical needs:
food, clothing, shelter, and all the rest of it. But they never become psychological appetites, things
on which the mind builds itself as a centre of desire. Beyond the physical needs, any form of desire
– for greatness, for truth, for virtue – becomes a psychological process by which the mind builds the
idea of the ‘me’ and strengthens itself at the centre.
When you see this process, when you are really aware of it without opposition, without a sense of
temptation, without resistance, without justifying or judging it, then you will discover that the mind
is capable of receiving the new and that the new is never a sensation; therefore it can never be
recognized, re-experienced. It is a state of being in which creativeness comes without invitation,
without memory; and that is reality.
The First And Last Freedom 57 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 15
CHAPTER 14 ’RELATIONSHIP AND ISOLATION’
LIFE IS EXPERIENCE, experience in relationship. One cannot live in isolation, so life is relationship
and relationship is action. And how can one have that capacity for understanding relationship which
is life? Does not relationship mean not only communion with people but intimacy with things and
ideas? Life is relationship, which is expressed through contact with things, with people and with
ideas. In understanding relationship we shall have capacity to meet life fully, adequately. So our
problem is not capacity – for capacity is not independent of relationship – but rather the understanding
of relationship, which will naturally produce the capacity for quick pliability, for quick adjustment, for
Relationship, surely, is the mirror in which you discover yourself. Without relationship you are not;
to be is to be related; to be related is existence. You exist only in relationship; otherwise you do not
exist, existence has no meaning. It is not because you think you are that you come into existence.
You exist because you are related; and it is the lack of understanding of relationship that causes
Now there is no understanding of relationship, because we use relationship merely as a means of
furthering achievement, furthering transformation, furthering becoming. But relationship is a means
of self-discovery, because relationship is to be; it is existence. Without relationship, I am not. To
understand myself, I must understand relationship. Relationship is a mirror in which I can see myself.
That mirror can either be distorted, or it can be ‘as is’, reﬂecting that which is. But most of us see
in relationship, in that mirror, things we would rather see; we do not see what is. We would rather
idealize, escape, we would rather live in the future than understand that relationship in the immediate
Now if we examine our life, our relationship with another, we shall see that it is a process of isolation.
We are really not concerned with another; though we talk a great deal about it, actually we are
58CHAPTER 15. CHAPTER 14 ’RELATIONSHIP AND ISOLATION’
not concerned. We are related to someone only so long as that relationship gratiﬁes us, so long
as it gives us a refuge, so long as it satisﬁes us. But the moment there is a disturbance in the
relationship which produces discomfort in ourselves, we discard that relationship. In other words,
there is relationship only so long as we are gratiﬁed. This may sound harsh, but if you really examine
your life very closely you will see it is a fact; and to avoid a fact is to live in ignorance, which can never
produce right relationship. If we look into our lives and observe relationship, we see it is a process of
building resistance against another, a wall over which we look and observe the other; but we always
retain the wall and remain behind it, whether it be a psychological wall, a material wall, an economic
wall or a national wall. So long as we live in isolation, behind a wall, there is no relationship with
another; and we live enclosed because it is much more gratifying, we think it is much more secure.
The world is so disruptive, there is so much sorrow, so much pain, war, destruction, misery, that we
want to escape and live within the walls of security of our own psychological being. So, relationship
with most of us is actually a process of isolation, and obviously such relationship builds a society
which is also isolating. That is exactly what is happening throughout the world: you remain in your
isolation and stretch your hand over the wall, calling it nationalism, brotherhood or what you will, but
actually sovereign governments, armies, continue. Still clinging to your own limitations, you think you
can create world unity, world peace – which is impossible. So long as you have a frontier, whether
national, economic, religious or social, it is an obvious fact that there cannot be peace in the world.
The process of isolation is a process of the search for power; whether one is seeking power
individually or for a racial or national group there must be isolation, because the very desire for
power, for position, is separatism. After all, that is what each one wants, is it not? He wants a
powerful position in which he can dominate, whether at home, in the ofﬁce, or in a bureaucratic
regime. Each one is seeking power and in seeking power he will establish a society which is based
on power, military, industrial, economic, and so on – which again is obvious. Is not the desire
for power in its very nature isolating? I think it is very important to understand this, because the
man who wants a peaceful world, a world in which there are no wars, no appalling destruction, no
catastrophic misery on an immeasurable scale must understand this fundamental question, must he
not? A man who is affectionate, who is kindly, has no sense of power, and therefore such a man is
not bound to any nationality, to any ﬂag. He has no ﬂag.
There is no such thing as living in isolation – no country, no people, no individual, can live in isolation;
yet, because you are seeking power in so many different ways, you breed isolation. The nationalist
is a curse because through his very nationalistic, patriotic spirit, he is creating a wall of isolation.
He is so identiﬁed with his country that he builds a wall against another. What happens when you
build a wall against something? That something is constantly beating against your wall. When you
resist something, the very resistance indicates that you are in conﬂict with the other. So nationalism,
which is a process of isolation, which is the outcome of the search for power, cannot bring about
peace in the world. The man who is a nationalist and talks of brotherhood is telling a lie; he is living
in a state of contradiction.
Can one live in the world without the desire for power, for position, for authority? Obviously one
can. One does it when one does not identify oneself with something greater. This identiﬁcation
with something greater – the party, the country, the race, the religion, God – is the search for power.
Because you in yourself are empty, dull, weak, you like to identify yourself with something greater.
That des1re to identify yourself with something greater is the desire for power.
Relationship is a process of self-revelation, and, without knowing oneself, the ways of one’s own
The First And Last Freedom 59 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 15. CHAPTER 14 ’RELATIONSHIP AND ISOLATION’
mind and heart, merely to establish an outward order, a system, a cunning formula, has very little
meaning. What is important is to understand oneself in relationship with another. Then relationship
becomes not a process of isolation but a movement in which you discover your own motives, your
own thoughts, your own pursuits; and that very discovery is the beginning of liberation, the beginning
The First And Last Freedom 60 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 16
CHAPTER 15 ’THE THINKER AND THE THOUGHT’
IN ALL OUR experiences, there is always the experiencer, the observer, who is gathering to himself
more and more or denying himself. Is that not a wrong process and is that not a pursuit which does
not bring about the creative state? If it is a wrong process, can we wipe it out completely and put it
aside? That can come about only when I experience, not as a thinker experiences, but when I am
aware of the false process and see that there is only a state in which the thinker is the thought.
So long as I am experiencing, so long as I am becoming, there must be this dualistic action; there
must be the thinker and the thought, two separate processes at work; there is no integration, there
is always a centre which is operating through the will of action to be or not to be – collectively,
individually, nationally and so on. Universally, this is the process. So long as effort is divided into the
experiencer and the experience, there must be deterioration. Integration is only possible when the
thinker is no longer the observer. That is, we know at present there are the thinker and the thought,
the observer and the observed, the experiencer and the experienced; there are two different states.
Our effort is to bridge the two.
The will of action is always dualistic. Is it possible to go beyond this will which is separative and
discover a state in which this dualistic action is not? That can only be found when we directly
experience the state in which the thinker is the thought. We now think the thought is separate from
the thinker; but is that so? We would like to think it is, because then the thinker can explain matters
through his thought. The effort of the thinker is to become more or become less; and therefore, in
that struggle, in that action of the will, in ‘becoming’, there is always the deteriorating factor; we are
pursuing a false process and not a true process.
Is there a division between the thinker and the thought? So long as they are separate, divided, our
effort is wasted; we are pursuing a false process which is destructive and which is the deteriorating
61CHAPTER 16. CHAPTER 15 ’THE THINKER AND THE THOUGHT’
factor. We think the thinker is separate from his thought. When I ﬁnd that I am greedy, possessive,
brutal, I think I should not be all this. The thinker then tries to alter his thoughts and therefore
effort is made to ‘become; in that process of effort he pursues the false illusion that there are two
separate processes, whereas there is only one process. I think therein lies the fundamental factor
Is it possible to experience that state when there is only one entity and not two separate processes,
the experiencer and the experience? Then perhaps we shall ﬁnd out what it is to be creative, and
what the state is in which there is no deterioration at any time, in whatever relationship man may be.
I am greedy. I and greed are not two different states; there is only one thing and that is greed. If I
am aware that I am greedy, what happens? I make an effort not to be greedy, either for sociological
reasons or for religious reasons; that effort will always be in a small limited circle; I may extend the
circle but it is always limited. Therefore the deteriorating factor is there. But when I look a little more
deeply and closely, I see that the maker of effort is the cause of greed and he is greed itself; and I
also see that there is no ‘me’ and greed, existing separately, but that there is only greed. If I realize
that I am greedy, that there is not the observer who is greedy but I am myself greed, then our whole
question is entirely different; our response to it is entirely different; then our effort is not destructive.
What will you do when your whole being is greed, when whatever action you do is greed?
Unfortunately, we don’t think along those lines. There is the ‘me’, the superior entity, the soldier
who is controlling, dominating. To me that process is destructive. It is an illusion and we know
why we do it. I divide myself into the high and the low in order to continue. If there is only greed,
completely, not ‘I’ operating greed, but I am entirely greed, then what happens? Surely then there is
a different process at work altogether, a different problem comes into being. It is that problem which
is creative, in which there is no sense of ‘I’ dominating, becoming, positively or negatively. We must
come to that state if we would be creative. In that state, there is no maker of effort. It is not a matter
of verbalizing or of trying to ﬁnd out what that state is; if you set about it in that way you will lose and
you will never ﬁnd. What is important is to see that the maker of effort and the object towards which
he is making effort are the same. That requires enormously great understanding, watchfulness, to
see how the mind divides itself into the high and the low – the high being the security, the permanent
entity – but still remaining a process of thought and therefore of time. If we can understand this as
direct experience, then you will see that quite a different factor comes into being.
The First And Last Freedom 62 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 17
CHAPTER 16 ’CAN THINKING SOLVE OUR PROBLEMS?’
THOUGHT HAS NOT solved our problems and I don’t think it ever will. We have relied on the intellect
to show us the way out of our complexity. The more cunning, the more hideous, the more subtle the
intellect is, the greater the variety of systems, of theories, of ideas. And ideas do not solve any of
our human problems; they never have and they never will. The mind is not the solution; the way of
thought is obviously not the way out of our difﬁculty. It seems to me that we should ﬁrst understand
this process of thinking, and perhaps be able to go beyond – for when thought ceases, perhaps we
shall be able to ﬁnd a way which will help us to solve our problems, not only the individual but also
Thinking has not solved our problems. The clever ones, the philosophers, the scholars, the political
leaders, have not really solved any of our human problems – which are the relationship between
you and another, between you and myself. So far we have used the mind, the intellect, to help
us investigate the problem and thereby are hoping to ﬁnd a solution. Can thought ever dissolve
our problems? Is not thought, unless it is in the laboratory or on the drawing board, always self-
protecting, self-perpetuating, conditioned? Is not its activity self-centred? And can such thought
ever resolve any of the problems which thought itself has created? Can the mind, which has created
the problems, resolve those things that it has itself brought forth?
Surely thinking is a reaction. If I ask you a question, you respond to it – you respond according to
your memory, to your prejudices, to your upbringing, to the climate, to the whole background of your
conditioning; you reply accordingly, you think accordingly. The centre of this background is the ‘me’
in the process of action. So long as that background is not understood, so long as that thought
process, that self which creates the problem, is not understood and put an end to, we are bound to
have conﬂict, within and without, in thought, in emotion, in action. No solution of any kind, however
clever, however well thought out, can ever put an end to the conﬂict between man and man, between
63CHAPTER 17. CHAPTER 16 ’CAN THINKING SOLVE OUR PROBLEMS?’
you and me. Realizing this, being aware of how thought springs up and from what source, then we
ask, ”Can thought ever come to an end?”
That is one of the problems, is it not? Can thought resolve our problems? By thinking over the
problem, have you resolved it? Any kind of problem – economic, social, religious – has it ever been
really solved by thinking? In your daily life, the more you think about a problem, the more complex,
the more irresolute, the more uncertain it becomes. Is that not so? – in our actual, daily life? You
may, in thinking out certain facets of the problem, see more clearly another person’s point of view,
but thought cannot see the completeness and fullness of the problem – it can only see partially and
a partial answer is not a complete answer, therefore it is not a solution.
The more we think over a problem, the more we investigate, analyse and discuss it, the more
complex it becomes. So is it possible to look at the problem comprehensively, wholly? How is this
possible? Because that, it seems to me, is our major difﬁculty. Our problems are being multiplied
– there is imminent danger of war, there is every kind of disturbance in our relationships – and how
can we understand all that comprehensively, as a whole? Obviously it can be solved only when
we can look at it as a whole – not in compartments, not divided. When is that possible? Surely
it is only possible when the process of thinking – which has its source in the ‘me’, the self, in the
background of tradition, of conditioning, of prejudice, of hope, of despair – has come to an end. Can
we understand this self, not by analysing, but by seeing the thing as it is, being aware of it as a
fact and not as a theory? – not seeking to dissolve the self in order to achieve a result but seeing
the activity of the self, the ‘me’, constantly in action? Can we look at it, without any movement to
destroy or to encourage? That is the problem, is it not? If, in each one of us, the centre of the ‘me’ is
non-existent, with its desire for power, position, authority, continuance, self-preservation, surely our
problems will come to an end!
The self is a problem that thought cannot resolve. There must be an awareness which is not of
thought. To be aware, without condemnation or justiﬁcation, of the activities of the self – just to be
aware – is sufﬁcient. If you are aware in order to ﬁnd out how to resolve the problem, in order to
transform it, in order to produce a result, then it is still within the ﬁeld of the self, of the ‘me’. So
long as we are seeking a result, whether through analysis, through awareness, through constant
examination of every thought, we are still within the ﬁeld of thought, which is within the ﬁeld of the
‘me’, of the ‘I’, of the ego, or what you will.
As long as the activity of the mind exists, surely there can be no love. When there is love, we shall
have no social problems. But love is not something to be acquired. The mind can seek to acquire it,
like a new thought, a new gadget, a new way of thinking; but the mind cannot be in a state of love
so long as thought is acquiring love. So long as the mind is seeking to be in a state of non-greed,
surely it is still greedy, is it not? Similarly, so long as the mind wishes, desires, and practises in order
to be in a state in which there is love, surely it denies that state, does it not?
Seeing this problem, this complex problem of living, and being aware of the process of our own
thinking and realizing that it actually leads nowhere – when we deeply realize that, then surely there is
a state of intelligence which is not individual or collective. Then the problem of the relationship of the
individual to society, of the individual to the community, of the individual to reality, ceases; because
then there is only intelligence, which is neither personal nor impersonal. It is this intelligence alone,
I feel, that can solve our immense problems. That cannot be a result; it comes into being only when
The First And Last Freedom 64 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 17. CHAPTER 16 ’CAN THINKING SOLVE OUR PROBLEMS?’
we understand this whole total process of thinking, not only at the conscious level but also at the
deeper, hidden levels of consciousness.
To understand any of these problems we have to have a very quiet mind, a very still mind, so that
the mind can look at the problem without interposing ideas or theories, without any distraction. That
is one of our difﬁculties – because thought has become a distraction. When I want to understand,
look at something, I don’t have to think about it – I look at it. The moment I begin to think, to have
ideas, opinions about it, I am already in a state of distraction, looking away from the thing which I
must understand. So thought, when you have a problem, becomes a distraction – thought being an
idea, opinion, judgement, comparison – which prevents us from looking and thereby understanding
and resolving the problem. Unfortunately for most of us thought has become so important. You say,
”How can I exist, be, without thinking? How can I have a blank mind ?” To have a blank mind is to be
in a state of stupor, idiocy or what you will, and your instinctive reaction is to reject it. But surely a
mind that is very quiet, a mind that is not distracted by its own thought, a mind that is open, can look
at the problem very directly and very simply. And it is this capacity to look without any distraction at
our problems that is the only solution. For that there must be a quiet, tranquil mind.
Such a mind is not a result, is not an end product of a practice, of meditation, of control. It comes
into being through no form of discipline or compulsion or sublimation, without any effort of the ‘me’,
of thought; it comes into being when I understand the whole process of thinking – when I can see a
fact without any distraction. In that state of tranquillity of a mind that is really still there is love. And
it is love alone that can solve all our human problems.
The First And Last Freedom 65 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 18
CHAPTER 17 ’THE FUNCTION OF THE MIND’
WHEN YOU OBSERVE your own mind you are observing not only the so-called upper levels of
the mind but also watching the unconscious; you are seeing what the mind actually does, are you
not? That is the only way you can investigate. Do not superimpose what it should do, how it should
think or act and so on; that would amount to making mere statements. That is if you say the mind
should be this or should not be that, then you stop all investigation and all thinking; or, if you quote
some high authority, then you equally stop thinking, don’t you? If you quote Buddha, Christ or XYZ,
there is an end to all pursuit, to all thinking and all investigation. So one has to guard against that.
You must put aside all these subtleties of the mind if you would investigate this problem of the self
together with me.
What is the function of the mind? To ﬁnd that out, you must know what the mind is actually doing.
What does your mind do? It is all a process of thinking, is it not? Otherwise, the mind is not there.
So long as the mind is not thinking, consciously or unconsciously, there is no consciousness. We
have to ﬁnd out what the mind that we use in our everyday life, and also the mind of which most of
us are unconscious, does in relation to our problems. We must look at the mind as it is and not as it
Now what is mind as it is functioning? It is actually a process of isolation, is it not? Fundamentally
that is what the process of thought is. It is thinking in an isolated form, yet remaining collective.
When you observe your own thinking, you will see it is an isolated, fragmentary process. You
are thinking according to your reactions, the reactions of your memory of your experience, of your
knowledge, of your belief. You are reacting to all that, aren’t you? If I say that there must be a
fundamental revolution, you immediately react. You will object to that word ‘revolution’ if you have
got good investments, spiritual or otherwise. So your reaction is dependent on your knowledge, on
your belief, on your experience. That is an obvious fact. There are various forms of reaction. You
66CHAPTER 18. CHAPTER 17 ’THE FUNCTION OF THE MIND’
say ”I must be brotherly”, ”I must co-operate”, ”I must be friendly”, ‘’I must be kind”, and so on. What
are these? These are all reactions; but the fundamental reaction of thinking is a process of isolation.
You are watching the process of your own mind, each one of you, which means watching your own
action, belief, knowledge, experience. All these give security, do they not? They give security, give
strength to the process of thinking. That process only strengthens the ‘me’, the mind, the self –
whether you call that self high or low. All our religions, all our social sanctions, all our laws are for
the support of the individual, the individual self, the separative action; and in opposition to that there
is the totalitarian state. If you go deeper into the unconscious, there too it is the same process that
is at work. There, we are the collective inﬂuenced by the environment, by the climate, by the society,
by the father, the mother, the grandfather. There again is the desire to assert, to dominate as an
individual, as the me.
Is not the function of the mind, as we know it and as we function daily, a process of isolation? Aren’t
you seeking individual salvation? You are going to be somebody in the future; or in this very life
you are going to be a great man, a great writer. Our whole tendency is to be separated. Can the
mind do anything else but that? Is it possible for the mind not to think separatively, in a self-enclosed
manner, fragmentarily? That is impossible. So we worship the mind; the mind is extraordinarily
important. Don’t you know, the moment you are a little bit cunning, a little bit alert, and have a little
accumulated information and knowledge, how important you become in society? You know how
you worship those who are intellectually superior, the lawyers, the professors, the orators, the great
writers, the explainers and the expounders! You have cultivated the intellect and the mind.
The function of the mind is to be separated; otherwise your mind is not there. Having cultivated
this process for centuries we ﬁnd we cannot co-operate; we can only be urged, compelled, driven by
authority, fear, either economic or religious. If that is the actual state, not only consciously but also at
the deeper levels, in our motives, our intentions, our pursuits, how can there be co-operation? How
can there be intelligent coming together to do something? As that is almost impossible, religions and
organized social parties force the individual to certain forms of discipline. Discipline then becomes
imperative if we want to come together, to do things together.
Until we understand how to transcend this separative thinking, this process of giving emphasis to
the ‘me’ and the ‘mine’, whether in the collective form or in individual form, we shall not have peace;
we shall have constant conﬂict and wars. Our problem is how to bring an end to the separative
process of thought. Can thought ever destroy the self, thought being the process of verbalization
and of reaction? Thought is nothing else but reaction; thought is not creative. Can such thought
put an end to itself? That is what we are trying to ﬁnd out. When I think along these lines: ”I must
discipline”, ”I must think more properly”, ”I must be this or that”, thought is compelling itself, urging
itself, disciplining itself to be something or not to be something. Is that not a process of isolation? It
is therefore not that integrated intelligence which functions as a whole, from which alone there can
How are you to come to the end of thought? Or rather how is thought, which is isolated, fragmentary
and partial, to come to an end? How do you set about it? Will your so-called discipline destroy it?
Obviously, you have not succeeded all these long years, otherwise you would not be here. Please
examine the disciplining process, which is solely a thought process, in which there is subjection,
repression, control, domination – all affecting the unconscious, which asserts itself later as you
grow older. Having tried for such a long time to no purpose, you must have found that discipline
The First And Last Freedom 67 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 18. CHAPTER 17 ’THE FUNCTION OF THE MIND’
is obviously not the process to destroy the self. The self cannot be destroyed through discipline,
because discipline is a process of strengthening the self. Yet all your religions support it; all your
meditations, your assertions are based on this. Will knowledge destroy the self? Will belief destroy
it? In other words, will anything that we are at present doing, any of the activities in which we are
at present engaged in order to get at the root of the self, will any of that succeed? Is not all this a
fundamental waste in a thought process which is a process of isolation, of reaction? What do you
do when you realize fundamentally or deeply that thought cannot end itself? What happens? Watch
yourself. When you are fully aware of this fact, what happens? You understand that any reaction is
conditioned and that, through conditioning, there can be no freedom either at the beginning or at the
end – and freedom is always at the beginning and not at the end.
When you realize that any reaction is a form of conditioning and therefore gives continuity to the
self in different ways, what actually takes place? You must be very clear in this matter. Belief,
knowledge, discipline, experience, the whole process of achieving a result or an end, ambition,
becoming something in this life or in a future life – all these are a process of isolation, a process
which brings destruction, misery, wars, from which there is no escape through collective action,
however much you may be threatened with concentration camps and all the rest of it. Are you aware
of that fact? What is the state of the mind which says ”It is so”, ”That is my problem”, ”That is exactly
where I am”, ”I see what knowledge and discipline can do, what ambition does”? Surely, if you see
all that, there is already a different process at work. We see the ways of the intellect but we do not
see the way of love. The way of love is not to be found through the intellect. The intellect, with all
its ramiﬁcations, with all its desires, ambitions, pursuits, must come to an end for love to come into
existence. Don’t you know that when you love, you co-operate, you are not thinking of yourself?
That is the highest form of intelligence – not when you love as a superior entity or when you are in
a good position, which is nothing but fear. When your vested interests are there, there can be no
love; there is only the process of exploitation, born of fear. So love can come into being only when
the mind is not there. Therefore you must understand the whole process of the mind, the function of
It is only when we know how to love each other that there can be co-operation, that there can be
intelligent functioning, a coming together over any question. Only then is it possible to ﬁnd out what
God is, what truth is. Now, we are trying to ﬁnd truth through intellect, through imitation – which is
idolatry. Only when you discard completely, through understanding, the whole structure of the self,
can that which is eternal, timeless, immeasurable, come into being. You cannot go to it; it comes to
The First And Last Freedom 68 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 19
CHAPTER 18 ’SELF-DECEPTION’
I WOULD LIKE TO discuss or consider the question of self-deception, the delusions that the mind
indulges in and imposes upon itself and upon others. That is a very serious matter, especially in a
crisis of the kind which the world is facing. But in order to understand this whole problem of self-
deception we must follow it not merely at the verbal level but intrinsically, fundamentally, deeply. We
are too easily satisﬁed with words and counter-words; we are worldlywise; and, being worldly-wise,
all that we can do is to hope that something will happen. We see that the explanation of war does
not stop war; there are innumerable historians, theologians and religious people explaining war and
how it comes into being but wars still go on, perhaps more destructive than ever. Those of us who
are really earnest must go beyond the word, must seek this fundamental revolution within ourselves.
That is the only remedy which can bring about a lasting, fundamental redemption of mankind.
Similarly, when we are discussing this kind of self-deception, I think we should guard against any
superﬁcial explanations and rejoinders; we should, if I may suggest it, not merely listen to a speaker
but follow the problem as we know it in our daily life; that is we should watch ourselves in thinking
and in action, watch how we affect others and how we proceed to act from ourselves.
What is the reason, the basis, for self-deception? How many of us are actually aware that we are
deceiving ourselves? Before we can answer the question ”What is self-deception and how does it
arise?”, must we not be aware that we are deceiving ourselves? Do we know that we are deceiving
ourselves? What do we mean by this deception? I think it is very important, because the more
we deceive ourselves the greater is the strength in the deception; for it gives us a certain vitality,
a certain energy, a certain capacity which entails the imposing of our deception on others. So
gradually we are not only imposing deception on ourselves but on others. It is an interacting process
of self-deception. Are we aware of this process? We think we are capable of thinking very clearly,
purposefully and directly; and are we aware that, in this process of thinking, there is self-deception?
69CHAPTER 19. CHAPTER 18 ’SELF-DECEPTION’
Is not thought itself a process of search, a seeking of justiﬁcation, of security, of self-protection, a
desire to be well thought of, a desire to have position, prestige and power? Is not this desire to be,
politically, or religio-sociologically, the very cause of self-deception? The moment I want something
other than the purely materialistic necessities, do I not produce, do I not bring about, a state which
easily accepts? Take, for example, this: many of us are interested to know what happens after
death; the older we are, the more interested we are. We want to know the truth of it. How shall we
ﬁnd it? Certainly not by reading nor through the different explanations.
How will you ﬁnd it out? First, you must purge your mind completely of every factor that is in the way –
every hope, every desire to continue, every desire to ﬁnd out what is on that other side. Because the
mind is constantly seeking security, it has the desire to continue and hopes for a means of fulﬁlment,
for a future existence. Such a mind, though it is seeking the truth of life after death, reincarnation
or whatever it is, is incapable of discovering that truth, is it not? What is important is not whether
reincarnation is true or not but how the mind seeks justiﬁcation, through self-deception, of a fact
which may or may not be. What is important is the approach to the problem, with what motivation,
with what urge, with what desire you come to it. The seeker is always imposing this deception
upon himself; no one can impose it upon him; he himself does it. We create deception and then we
become slaves to it. The fundamental factor of self-deception is this constant desire to be something
in this world and in the world hereafter. We know the result of wanting to be something in this world;
it is utter confusion, where each is competing with the other, each is destroying the other in the
name of peace; you know the whole game we play with each other, which is an extraordinary form
of self-deception. Similarly, we want security in the other world, a position.
So we begin to deceive ourselves the moment there is this urge to be, to become or to achieve.
That is a very difﬁcult thing for the mind to be free from. That is one of the basic problems of our
life. Is it possible to live in this world and be nothing? Then only is there freedom from all deception,
because then only is the mind not seeking a result, the mind is not seeking a satisfactory answer,
the mind is not seeking any form of justiﬁcation, the mind is not seeking security in any form, in
any relationship. That takes place only when the mind realizes the possibilities and subtleties of
deception and therefore, with understanding, abandons every form of justiﬁcation, security – which
means the mind is capable, then, of being completely nothing. Is that possible?
So long as we deceive ourselves in any form, there can be no love. So long as the mind is capable of
creating and imposing upon itself a delusion, it obviously separates itself from collective or integrated
understanding. That is one of our difﬁculties; we do not know how to co-operate. All that we know
is that we try to work together towards an end which both of us bring into being. There can be
co-operation only when you and I have no common aim created by thought. What is important to
realize is that co-operation is only possible when you and I do not desire to be anything. When you
and I desire to be something, then belief and all the rest of it become necessary, a self-projected
Utopia is necessary. But if you and I are anonymously creating, without any self-deception, without
any barriers of belief and knowledge, without a desire to be secure, then there is true co-operation.
Is it possible for us to co-operate, for us to be together without an end in view? Can you and I work
together without seeking a result? Surely that is true co-operation, is it not? If you and I think out,
work out, plan out a result and we are working together towards that result, then what is the process
involved? Our thoughts, our intellectual minds, are of course meeting; but emotionally, the whole
being may be resisting it, which brings about deception, which brings about conﬂict between you
The First And Last Freedom 70 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 19. CHAPTER 18 ’SELF-DECEPTION’
and me. It is an obvious and observable fact in our everyday life. You and I agree to do a certain
piece of work intellectually but unconsciously, deeply, you and I are at battle with each other. I want
a result to my satisfaction; I want to dominate; I want my name to be ahead of yours, though I am
said to be working with you. So we both, who are creators of that plan, are really opposing each
other, even though outwardly you and I agree as to the plan.
Is it not important to ﬁnd out whether you and I can co-operate, commune, live together in a world
where you and I are as nothing; whether we are able really and truly to co-operate not at the
superﬁcial level but fundamentally? That is one of our greatest problems, perhaps the greatest. I
identify myself with an object and you identify yourself with the same object; both of us are interested
in it; both of us are intending to bring it about. Surely this process of thinking is very superﬁcial,
because through identiﬁcation we bring about separation – which is so obvious in our everyday life.
You are a Hindu and I a Catholic; we both preach brotherhood, and we are at each other’s throats.
Why? That is one of our problems, is it not? Unconsciously and deeply, you have your beliefs and
I have mine. By talking about brotherhood, we have not solved the whole problem of beliefs but
have only theoretically and intellectually agreed that this should be so; inwardly and deeply, we are
against each other.
Until we dissolve those barriers which are a self-deception which give us a certain vitality, there can
be no co-operation between you and me. Through identiﬁcation with a group, with a particular idea,
with a particular country, we can never bring about co-operation.
Belief does not bring about co-operation; on the contrary, it divides. We see how one political party is
against another, each believing in a certain way of dealing with economic problems, and so they are
all at war with one another. They are not resolved in solving, for instance, the problem of starvation.
They are concerned with the theories which are going to solve that problem. They are not actually
concerned with the problem itself but with the method by which the problem will be solved. Therefore
there must be contention between the two, because they are concerned with the idea and not with
the problem. Similarly, religious people are against each other, though verbally they say they have
all one life, one God; you know all that. Inwardly their beliefs, their opinions, their experiences are
destroying them and are keeping them separate.
Experience becomes a dividing factor in our human relationship; experience is a way of deception.
If I have experienced something, I cling to it, I do not go into the whole problem of the process of
experiencing but, because I have experienced, that is sufﬁcient and I cling to it; thereby I impose,
through that experience, self-deception.
Our difﬁculty is that each of us is so identiﬁed with a particular belief, with a particular form or
method of bringing about happiness, economic adjustment, that our mind is captured by that and
we are incapable of going deeper into the problem; therefore we desire to remain aloof individually
in our particular ways, beliefs and experiences. Until we dissolve them, through understanding –
not only at the superﬁcial level, but at the deeper level also – there can be no peace in the world.
That is why it is important for those who are really serious, to understand this whole problem – the
desire to become, to achieve, to gain – not only at the superﬁcial level but fundamentally and deeply;
otherwise there can be no peace in the world.
Truth is not something to be gained. Love cannot come to those who have a desire to hold on to
it, or who like to become identiﬁed with it. Surely such things come when the mind does not seek,
The First And Last Freedom 71 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 19. CHAPTER 18 ’SELF-DECEPTION’
when the mind is completely quiet, no longer creating movements and beliefs upon which it can
depend, or from which it derives a certain strength, which is an indication of self-deception. It is only
when the mind understands this whole process of desire that it can be still. Only then is the mind
not in movement to be or not to be; then only is there the possibility of a state in which there is no
deception of any kind.
The First And Last Freedom 72 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 20
CHAPTER 19 ’SELF-CENTRED ACTIVITY’
MOST OF US, I think, are aware that every form of persuasion, every kind of inducement, has been
offered us to resist self-centred activities. Religions, through promises, through fear of hell, through
every form of condemnation have tried in different ways to dissuade man from this constant activity
that is born from the centre of the ‘me’. These having failed, political organizations have taken over.
There again, persuasion; there again the ultimate utopian hope. Every form of legislation from the
very limited to the extreme, including concentration camps, has been used and enforced against
any form of resistance. Yet we go on in our self-centred activity, which is the only kind of action we
seem to know. If we think about it at all, we try to modify; if we are aware of it, we try to change the
course of it; but fundamentally, deeply, there is no transformation, there is no radical cessation of that
activity. The thoughtful are aware of this; they are also aware that when that activity from the centre
ceases, only then can there be happiness. Most of us take it for granted that self-centred activity
is natural and that the consequential action, which is inevitable, can only be modiﬁed, shaped and
controlled. Now those who are a little more serious, more earnest, not sincere – because sincerity
is the way of self-deception – must ﬁnd out whether, being aware of this extraordinary total process
of self-centred activity, one can go beyond.
To understand what this self-centred activity is, one must obviously examine it, look at it, be aware
of the entire process. If one can be aware of it, then there is the possibility of its dissolution; but to
be aware of it requires a certain understanding, a certain intention to face the thing as it is and not
to interpret, not to modify, not to condemn it. We have to be aware of what we are doing, of all the
activity which springs from that self-centred state; we must be conscious of if it. One of our primary
difﬁculties is that the moment we are conscious of that activity, we want to shape it, we want to
control it, we want to condemn it or we want to modify it, so we are seldom able to look at it directly.
When we do, very few of us are capable of knowing what to do.
73CHAPTER 20. CHAPTER 19 ’SELF-CENTRED ACTIVITY’
We realize that self-centred activities are detrimental, are destructive, and that every form of
identiﬁcation – such as with a country, with a particular group, with a particular desire, the search for
a result here or hereafter, the gloriﬁcation of an idea, the pursuit of an example, the pursuit of virtue
and so on – is essentially the activity of a self-centred person. All our relationships, with nature, with
people, with ideas, are the outcome of that activity. Knowing all this, what is one to do? All such
activity must voluntarily come to an end – not self-imposed, not inﬂuenced, not guided.
Most of us are aware that this self-centred activity creates mischief and chaos but we are only aware
of it in certain directions. Either we observe it in others and are ignorant of our own activities or being
aware, in relationship with others, of our own self-centred activity we want to transform, we want to
ﬁnd a substitute, we want to go beyond. Before we can deal with it we must know how this process
comes into being, must we not? In order to understand something, we must be capable of looking
at it; and to look at it we must know its various activities at different levels, conscious as well as
unconscious – the conscious directives, and also the self-centred movements of our unconscious
motives and intentions.
I am only conscious of this activity of the ‘me’ when I am opposing, when consciousness is thwarted,
when the ‘me’ is desirous of achieving a result, am I not? Or I am conscious of that centre when
pleasure comes to an end and I want to have more of it; then there is resistance and a purposive
shaping of the mind to a particular end which will give me a delight, a satisfaction; I am aware of
myself and my activities when I am pursuing virtue consciously. Surely a man who pursues virtue
consciously is unvirtuous. Humility cannot be pursued, and that is the beauty of humility.
This self-centred process is the result of time, is it not? So long as this centre of activity exists in
any direction, conscious or unconscious, there is the movement of time and I am conscious of the
past and the present in conjunction with the future. The self-centred activity of the ‘me’ is a time
process. It is memory that gives continuity to the activity of the centre, which is the ‘me’. If you
watch yourself and are aware of this centre of activity, you will see that it is only the process of time,
of memory, of experiencing and translating every experience accord1ng to a memory; you will also
see that self-activity is recognition, which is also the process of the mind.
Can the mind be free from all this? It may be possible at rare moments; it may happen to most of us
when we do an unconscious, unintentional, unpurposive act; but is it possible for the mind ever to
be completely free from self-centred activity? That is a very important question to put to ourselves,
because in the very putting of it, you will ﬁnd the answer. If you are aware of the total process of
this self-centred activity, fully cognizant of its activities at different levels of your consciousness, then
surely you have to ask yourselves if it is possible for that activity to come to an end. Is it possible
not to think in terms of time, not to think in terms of what I shall be, what I have been, what I am
? For from such thought the whole process of self-centred activity begins; there, also, begins the
determination to become, the determination to choose and to avoid, which are all a process of time.
We see in that process inﬁnite mischief, misery, confusion, distortion, deterioration.
Surely the process of time is not revolutionary. In the process of time there is no transformation; there
is only a continuity and no ending, there is nothing but recognition. It is only when you have complete
cessation of the time process, of the activity of the self, that there is a revolution, a transformation,
the coming into being of the new.
Being aware of this whole total process of the ‘me’ in its activity, what is the mind to do? It is only
The First And Last Freedom 74 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 20. CHAPTER 19 ’SELF-CENTRED ACTIVITY’
with renewal, it is only with revolution – not through evolution, not through the ‘me’ becoming, but
through the ‘me’ completely coming to an end – that there is the new. The time process cannot bring
the new; time is not the way of creation.
I do not know if any of you have had a moment of creativity. I am not talking of putting some vision
into action; I mean that moment of creation when there is no recognition. At that moment, there is
that extraordinary state in which the ‘me’, as an activity through recognition, has ceased. If we are
aware, we shall see that in that state there is no experiencer who remembers, translates, recognizes
and then identiﬁes; there is no thought process, which is of time. In that state of creation, of creativity
of the new, which is timeless, there is no action of the ‘me’ at all.
Our question surely is: Is it possible for the mind to be in that state, not momentarily, not at rare
moments, but – I would rather not use the words ‘everlasting’ or ‘for ever’, because that would imply
time – but to be in that state without regard to time? Surely that is an important discovery to be made
by each one of us, because that is the door to love; all other doors are activities of the self Where
there is action of the self, there is no love. Love is not of time. You cannot practise love. If you do,
then it is a self-conscious activity of the ‘me’ which hopes through loving to gain a result.
Love is not of time; you cannot come upon it through any conscious effort, through any discipline,
through identiﬁcation, which is all of the process of time. The mind, knowing only the process of
time, cannot recognize love. Love is the only thing that is eternally new. Since most of us have
cultivated the mind, which is the result of time, we do not know what love is. We talk about love; we
say we love people, that we love our children, our wife, our neighbour, that we love nature; but the
moment we are conscious that we love, self-activity has come into being; therefore it ceases to be
This total process of the mind is to be understood only through relationship – relationship with nature,
with people, with our own projections, with everything about us. Life is nothing but relationship.
Though we may attempt to isolate ourselves from relationship, we cannot exist without it. Though
relationship is painful we cannot run away, by means of isolation, by becoming a hermit and so on.
All these methods are indications of the activity of the self. Seeing this whole picture, being aware of
the whole process of time as consciousness, without any choice, without any determined, purposive
intention, without the desire for any result, you will see that this process of time comes to an end
voluntarily – not induced, not as a result of desire. It is only when that process comes to an end that
love is, which is eternally new.
We do not have to seek truth. Truth is not something far away. It is the truth about the mind, truth
about its activities from moment to moment. If we are aware of this moment-to-moment truth, of this
whole process of time, that awareness releases consciousness or the energy which is intelligence,
love. So long as the mind uses consciousness as self-activity, time comes into being with all its
miseries, with all its conﬂicts, with all its mischief, its purposive deceptions; and it is only when the
mind, understanding this total process, ceases, that love can be.
The First And Last Freedom 75 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 21
CHAPTER 20 ’TIME AND TRANSFORMATION’
I WOULD LIKE TO TALK a little about what is time, because I think the enrichment, the beauty
and signiﬁcance of that which is timeless, of that which is true, can be experienced only when we
understand the whole process of time. After all, we are seeking, each in his own way, a sense
of happiness, of enrichment. Surely a life that has signiﬁcance, the riches of true happiness, is
not of time. Like love, such a life is timeless; and to understand that which is timeless, we must
not approach it through time but rather understand time. We must not utilize time as a means of
attaining, realizing, apprehending the timeless. That is what we are doing most of our lives: spending
time in trying to grasp that which is timeless, so it is important to understand what we mean by time,
because I think it is possible to be free of time. It is very important to understand time as a whole
and not partially.
It is interesting to realize that our lives are mostly spent in time – time, not in the sense of
chronological sequence, of minutes, hours, days and years, but in the sense of psychological
memory. We live by time, we are the result of time. Our minds are the product of many yesterdays
and the present is merely the passage of the past to the future. Our minds, our activities, our being,
are founded on time; without time we cannot think, because thought is the result of time, thought is
the product of many yesterdays and there is no thought without memory. Memory is time; for there
are two kinds of time, the chronological and the psychological. There is time as yesterday by the
watch and as yesterday by memory. You cannot reject chronological time; it would be absurd – you
would miss your train. But is there really any time at all apart from chronological time? Obviously
there is time as yesterday but is there time as the mind thinks of it? Is there time apart from the mind?
Surely time, psychological time, is the product of the mind. Without the foundation of thought there is
no time – time merely being memory as yesterday in conjunction with today, which moulds tomorrow.
That is, memory of yesterday’s experience in response to the present is creating the future – which
is still the process of thought, a path of the mind. The thought process brings about psychological
76CHAPTER 21. CHAPTER 20 ’TIME AND TRANSFORMATION’
progress in time but is it real, as real as chronological time? And can we use that time which is
of the mind as a means of understanding the eternal, the timeless? As I said, happiness is not of
yesterday, happiness is not the product of time, happiness is always in the present, a timeless state.
I do not know if you have noticed that when you have ecstasy, a creative joy, a series of bright clouds
surrounded by dark clouds, in that moment there is no time: there is only the immediate present.
The mind, coming in after the experiencing in the present, remembers and wishes to continue it,
gathering more and more of itself, thereby creating time. So time is created by the ‘more; time is
acquisition and time is also detachment, which is still an acquisition of the mind. Therefore merely
disciplining the mind in time, conditioning thought within the framework of time, which is memory,
surely does not reveal that which is timeless.
Is transformation a matter of time? Most of us are accustomed to think that time is necessary for
transformation: I am something, and to change what I am into what I should be requires time. I
am greedy, with greed’s results of confusion, antagonism, conﬂict, and misery; to bring about the
transformation, which is non-greed, we think time is necessary. That is to say time is considered
as a means of evolving something greater, of becoming something. The problem is this: One is
violent, greedy, envious, angry, vicious or passionate. To transform what is, is time necessary? First
of all, why do we want to change what is, or bring about a transformation? Why? Because what
we are dissatisﬁes us; it creates conﬂict, disturbance, and, disliking that state, we want something
better, something nobler, more idealistic. Therefore we desire transformation because there is pain,
discomfort, conﬂict. Is conﬂict overcome by time ? If you say it will be overcome by time, you are
still in conﬂict. You may say it will take twenty days or twenty years to get rid of conﬂict, to change
what you are, but during that time you are still in conﬂict and therefore time does not bring about
transformation. When we use time as a means of acquiring a quality, a virtue or a state of being,
we are merely postponing or avoiding what is; and I think it is important to understand this point.
greed or violence causes pain, disturbance in the world of our relationship with another, which is
society; and being conscious of this state of disturbance, which we term greed or violence, we say
to ourselves, ”I will get out of it in time. I will practise non-violence, I will practise non-envy, I will
practise peace.” Now, you want to practise non-violence because violence is a state of disturbance,
conﬂict, and you think that in time you will gain non-violence and overcome the conﬂict. What is
actually happening? Being in a state of conﬂict you want to achieve a state in which there is no
conﬂict. Now is that state of no conﬂict the result of time, of a duration? Obviously not; because,
while you are achieving a state of non-violence, you are still being violent and are therefore still in
Our problem is, can a conﬂict, a disturbance, be overcome in a period of time, whether it be days,
years or lives? What happens when you say, ”I am going to practise non-violence during a certain
period of time”? The very practice indicates that you are in conﬂict, does it not? You would not
practise if you were not resisting conﬂict; you say the resistance to conﬂict is necessary in order to
overcome conﬂict and for that resistance you must have time. But the very resistance to conﬂict is
itself a form of conﬂict. You are spending your energy in resisting conﬂict in the form of what you
call greed, envy or violence but your mind is still in conﬂict, so it is important to see the falseness
of the process of depending on time as a means of overcoming violence and thereby be free of that
process. Then you are able to be what you are: a psychological disturbance which is violence itself.
To understand anything, any human or scientiﬁc problem, what is important, what is essential? A
quiet mind, is it not?, a mind that is intent on understanding. It is not a mind that is exclusive,
The First And Last Freedom 77 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 21. CHAPTER 20 ’TIME AND TRANSFORMATION’
that is trying to concentrate – which again is an effort of resistance. If I really want to understand
something, there is immediately a quiet state of mind. When you want to listen to music or look at
a picture which you love, which you have a feeling for, what is the state of your mind? Immediately
there is a quietness, is there not? When you are listening to music, your mind does not wander
all over the place; you are listening. Similarly, when you want to understand conﬂict, you are no
longer depending on time at all; you are simply confronted with what is, which is conﬂict. Then
immediately there comes a quietness, a stillness of mind. When you no longer depend on time
as a means of transforming what is because you see the falseness of that process, then you are
confronted with what is, and as you are interested to understand what is, naturally you have a quiet
mind. In that alert yet passive state of mind there is understanding. So long as the mind is in conﬂict,
blaming, resisting, condemning, there can be no understanding. If I want to understand you, I must
not condemn you, obviously. It is that quiet mind, that still mind, which brings about transformation.
When the mind is no longer resisting, no longer avoiding, no longer discarding or blaming what is
but is simply passively aware, then in that passivity of the mind you will ﬁnd, if you really go into the
problem, that there comes a transformation.
Revolution is only possible now, not in the future; regeneration is today, not tomorrow. If you will
experiment with what I have been saying, you will ﬁnd that there is immediate regeneration, a
newness, a quality of freshness; because the mind is always still when it is interested, when it desires
or has the intention to understand. The difﬁculty with most of us is that we have not the intention to
understand, because we are afraid that, if we understood, it might bring about a revolutionary action
in our life and therefore we resist. It is the defence mechanism that is at work when we use time or
an ideal as a means of gradual transformation.
Thus regeneration is only possible in the present, not in the future, not tomorrow. A man who relies
on time as a means through which he can gain happiness or realize truth or God is merely deceiving
himself; he is living in ignorance and therefore in conﬂict. A man who sees that time is not the way
out of our difﬁculty and who is therefore free from the false, such a man naturally has the intention to
understand; therefore his mind is quiet spontaneously, without compulsion, without practice. When
the mind is still, tranquil, not seeking any answer or any solution, neither resisting nor avoiding – it is
only then that there can be a regeneration, because then the mind is capable of perceiving what is
true; and it is truth that liberates, not your effort to be free.
The First And Last Freedom 78 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 22
CHAPTER 21 ’POWER AND REALIZATION’
WE SEE THAT A radical change is necessary in society, in ourselves, in our individual and group
relationships; how is it to be brought about? If change is through conformity to a pattern projected by
the mind, through a reasonable, well studied plan, then it is still within the ﬁeld of the mind; therefore
whatever the mind calculates becomes the end, the vision for which we are willing to sacriﬁce
ourselves and others. If you maintain that, then it follows that we as human beings are merely
the creation of the mind, which implies conformity, compulsion, brutality, dictatorships, concentration
camps – the whole business. When we worship the mind, all that is implied, is it not? If I realize
this, if I see the futility of discipline, of control, if I see that the various forms of suppression only
strengthen the ‘me’ and the ‘mine’, then what am I to do?
To consider this problem fully we must go into the question of what is consciousness. I wonder
if you have thought about it for yourself or have merely quoted what authorities have said about
consciousness? I do not know how you have understood from your own experience, from your own
study of yourself, what this consciousness implies – not only the consciousness of everyday activity
and pursuits but the consciousness that is hidden, deeper, richer and much more difﬁcult to get at.
If we are to discuss this question of a fundamental change in ourselves and therefore in the world,
and in this change to awaken a certain vision, an enthusiasm, a zeal, a faith, a hope, a certainty
which will give us the necessary impetus for action – if we are to understand that, isn’t it necessary
to go into this question of consciousness? We can see what we mean by consciousness at the
superﬁcial level of the mind. Obviously it is the thinking process, thought. Thought is the result of
memory, verbalization; it is the naming, recording and storing up of certain experiences, so as to be
able to communicate; at this level there are also various inhibitions, controls, sanctions, disciplines.
With all this we are quite familiar. When we go a little deeper there are all the accumulations of the
race, the hidden motives, the collective and personal ambitions, prejudices, which are the result of
perception, contact and desire. This total consciousness, the hidden as well as the open, is centred
round the idea of the ‘me’, the self.
79CHAPTER 22. CHAPTER 21 ’POWER AND REALIZATION’
When we discuss how to bring about a change we generally mean a change at the superﬁcial level,
do we not? Through determination, conclusions, beliefs, controls, inhibitions, we struggle to reach
a superﬁcial end which we want, which we crave for, and we hope to arrive at that with the help of
the unconscious, of the deeper layers of the mind; therefore we think it is necessary to uncover the
depths of oneself. But there is everlasting conﬂict between the superﬁcial levels and the so-called
deeper levels – all psychologists, all those who have pursued self-knowledge are fully aware of that.
Will this inner conﬂict bring about a change? Is that not the most fundamental and important
question in our daily life: how to bring about a radical change in ourselves? Will mere alteration
at the superﬁcial level bring it about? Will understanding the different layers of consciousness, of the
‘me’, uncovering the past, the various personal experiences from childhood up to now, examining in
myself the collective experiences of my father, my mother, my ancestors, my race, the conditioning
of the particular society in which I live – will the analysis of all that bring about a change which is not
merely an adjustment?
I feel, and surely you also must feel, that a fundamental change in one’s life is essential – a change
which is not a mere reaction, which is not the outcome of the stress and strain of environmental
demands. How is one to bring about such a change? My consciousness is the sum total of human
experience, plus my particular contact with the present; can that bring about a change? Will the
study of my own consciousness, of my activities, will the awareness of my thoughts and feelings,
stilling the mind in order to observe without condemnation, will that process bring about a change?
Can there be change through belief, through identiﬁcation with a projected image called the ideal?
Does not all this imply a certain conﬂict between what I am and what I should be? Will conﬂict
bring about fundamental change? I am in constant battle within myself and with society, am I not?
There is a ceaseless conﬂict going on between what I am and what I want to be; will this conﬂict,
this struggle bring about a change? I see a change is essential; can I bring it about by examining
the whole process of my consciousness, by struggling by disciplining by practising various forms
of repression? I feel such a process cannot bring about a radical change. Of that one must be
completely sure. And if that process cannot bring about a fundamental transformation, a deep
inward revolution, then what will?
How are you to bring about true revolution? What is the power, the creative energy that brings about
that revolut1on and how is it to be released? You have tried disciplines, you have tried the pursuit of
ideals and various speculative theories: that you are God, and that if you can realize that Godhood
or experience the Atman, the highest, or what you will, then that very realization will bring about a
fundamental change. Will it? First you postulate that there is a reality of which you are a part and
build up round it various theories, speculations, beliefs, doctrines, assumptions, according to which
you live; by thinking and acting according to that pattern you hope to bring about a fundamental
change. Will you?
Suppose you assume, as most so-called religious people do, that there is in you, fundamentally,
deeply, the essence of reality; and that if, through cultivating virtue, through various forms of
discipline, control, suppression, denial, sacriﬁce, you can get into touch with that reality, then the
required transformation will be brought about. Is not this assumption still part of thought? Is it not
the outcome of a conditioned mind, a mind that has been brought up to think in a particular way,
according to certain patterns? Having created the image, the idea, the theory, the belief, the hope,
you then look to your creation to bring about this radical change.
The First And Last Freedom 80 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 22. CHAPTER 21 ’POWER AND REALIZATION’
One must ﬁrst see the extraordinarily subtle activities of the ‘me’, of the mind, one must become
aware of the ideas, beliefs, speculations and put them all aside, for they are deceptions, are they
not? Others may have experienced reality; but if you have not experienced it, what is the good of
speculating about it or imagining that you are in essence something real, immortal, godly? That is
still within the ﬁeld of thought and anything that springs from thought is conditioned, is of time, of
memory; therefore it is not real. If one actually realizes that – not speculatively, not imaginatively
or foolishly, but actually sees the truth that any activity of the mind in its speculative search, in its
philosophical groping, any assumption, any imagination or hope is only self-deception – then what is
the power, the creative energy that brings about this fundamental transformation?
Perhaps, in coming to this point, we have used the conscious mind; we have followed the argument,
we have opposed or accepted it, we have seen it clearly or dimly. To go further and experience
more deeply requires a mind that is quiet and alert to ﬁnd out, does it not? It is no longer pursuing
ideas because, if you pursue an idea, there is the thinker following what is being said and so you
immediately create duality. If you want to go further into this matter of fundamental change, is
it not necessary for the active mind to be quiet? Surely it is only when the mind is quiet that it
can understand the enormous difﬁculty, the complex implications of the thinker and the thought
as two separate processes, the experiencer and the experienced, the observer and the observed.
Revolution, this psychological, creative revolution in which the ‘me’ is not, comes only when the
thinker and the thought are one, when there is no duality such as the thinker controlling thought; and
I suggest it is this experience alone that releases the creative energy which in turn brings about a
fundamental revolution, the breaking up of the psychological ‘me’.
We know the way of power – power through domination, power through discipline, power through
compulsion. Through political power we hope to change fundamentally; but such power only breeds
further darkness, disintegration evil, the strengthening of the ‘me’. We are familiar with the various
forms of acquisition, both individually and as groups, but we have never tried the way of love, and
we don’t even know what it means. Love is not possible so long as there is the thinker, the centre of
the ‘me’. Realizing all this, what is one to do?
Surely the only thing which can bring about a fundamental change, a creative, psychological release,
is everyday watchfulness, being aware from moment to moment of our motives, the conscious as
well as the unconscious. When we realize that disciplines, beliefs, ideals only strengthen the ‘me’
and are therefore utterly futile – when we are aware of that from day to day, see the truth of it, do
we not to the central point when the thinker is constantly separating himself from his thought, from
his observations, from his experiences? So long as the thinker exists apart from his thought, which
he is trying to dominate, there can be no fundamental transformation. So long as the ‘me’ is the
observer, the one who gathers experience, strengthens himself through experience, there can be
no radical change, no creative release. That creative release comes only when the thinker is the
thought – but the gap cannot be bridged by any effort. When the mind realizes that any speculation
any verbalization, any form of thought only gives strength to the ‘me’, when it sees that as long as
the thinker exists apart from thought there must be limitation, the conﬂict of duality – when the mind
realizes that, then it is watchful, everlastingly aware of how it is separating itself from experience,
asserting itself, seeking power. In that awareness, if the mind pursues it ever more deeply and
extensively without seeking an end, a goal, there comes a state in which the thinker and the thought
are one. In that state there is no effort, there is no becoming, there is no desire to change; in that
state the ‘me’ is not, for there is a transformation which is not of the mind.
The First And Last Freedom 81 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 22. CHAPTER 21 ’POWER AND REALIZATION’
It is only when the mind is empty that there is a possibility of creation; but I do not mean this
superﬁcial emptiness which most of us have. Most of us are superﬁcially empty, and it shows
itself through the desire for distraction. We want to be amused, so we turn to books, to the radio,
we run to lectures, to authorities; the mind is everlastingly ﬁlling itself. I am not talking of that
emptiness which is thoughtlessness. On the contrary, I am talking of the emptiness which comes
through extraordinary thoughtfulness, when the mind sees its own power of creating illusion and
Creative emptiness is not possible so long as there is the thinker who is waiting, watching, observing
in order to gather experience, in order to strengthen himself. Can the mind ever be empty of all
symbols, of all words with their sensations, so that there is no experiencer who is accumulating? Is
it possible for the mind to put aside completely all the reasonings, the experiences, the impositions,
authorities, so that it is in a state of emptiness? You will not be able to answer this question, naturally;
it is an impossible question for you to answer, because you do not know, you have never tried. But,
if I may suggest, listen to it, let the question be put to you, let the seed be sown; and it will bear fruit
if you really listen to it, if you do not resist it.
It is only the new that can transform, not the old. If you pursue the pattern of the old, any change is
a modiﬁed continuity of the old; there is nothing new in that, there is nothing creative. The creative
can come into being only when the mind itself is new; and the mind can renew itself only when it is
capable of seeing all its own activities, not only at the superﬁcial level, but deep down. When the
mind sees its own activities, is aware of its own desires, demands, urges, pursuits, the creation of its
own authorities, fears; when it sees in itself the resistance created by discipline, by control, and the
hope which projects beliefs, ideals – when the mind sees through, is aware of this whole process, can
it put aside all these things and be new, creatively empty? You will ﬁnd out whether it can or cannot
only if you experiment without having an opinion about it, without wanting to experience that creative
state. If you want to experience it, you will; but what you experience is not creative emptiness, it is
only a projection of desire. If you desire to experience the new, you are merely indulging in illusion;
but if you begin to observe, to be aware of your own activities from day to day, from moment to
moment, watching the whole process of yourself as in a mirror, then, as you go deeper and deeper,
you will come to the ultimate question of this emptiness in which alone there can be the new.
Truth, God or what you will, is not something to be experienced, for the experiencer is the result
of time, the result of memory, of the past, and so long as there is the experiencer there cannot be
reality. There is reality only when the mind is completely free from the analyser, from the experiencer
and the experienced. Then you will ﬁnd the answer, then you will see that the change comes without
your asking, that the state of creative emptiness is not a thing to be cultivated – it is there, it comes
darkly, without any invitation; only in that state is there a possibility of renewal, newness, revolution.
The First And Last Freedom 82 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 23
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 1 ’ON THE PRESENT
Question: You say the present crisis is without precedent. In what way is it exceptional?
Krishnamurti: Obviously the present crisis throughout the world is exceptional, without precedent.
There have been crises of varying types at different periods throughout history, social, national,
political. Crises come and go; economic recessions, depressions, come, get modiﬁed, and continue
in a different form. We know that; we are familiar with that process. Surely the present crisis is
different, is it not? It is different ﬁrst because we are dealing not with money nor with tangible things
but with ideas. The crisis is exceptional because it is in the ﬁeld of ideation. We are quarrelling with
ideas, we are justifying murder; everywhere in the world we are justifying murder as a means to a
righteous end, which in itself is unprecedented. Before, evil was recognized to be evil, murder was
recognized to be murder, but now murder is a means to achieve a noble result. Murder, whether of
one person or of a group of people, is justiﬁed, because the murderer, or the group that the murderer
represents, justiﬁes it as a means of achieving a result which will be beneﬁcial to man. That is we
sacriﬁce the present for the future – and it does not matter what means we employ as long as our
declared purpose is to produce a result which we say will be beneﬁcial to man. Therefore, the
implication is that a wrong means will produce a right end and you justify the wrong means through
ideation. In the various crises that have taken place before, the issue has been the exploitation of
things or of man; it is now the exploitation of ideas, which is much more pernicious, much more
dangerous, because the exploitation of ideas is so devastating, so destructive. We have learned
now the power of propaganda and that is one of the greatest calamities that can happen: to use
ideas as a means to transform man. That is what is happening in the world today. Man is not
important – systems, ideas, have become important. Man no longer has any signiﬁcance. We can
destroy millions of men as long as we produce a result and the result is justiﬁed by ideas. We
have a magniﬁcent structure of ideas to justify evil and surely that is unprecedented. Evil is evil; it
83CHAPTER 23. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 1 ’ON THE PRESENT CRISIS’
cannot bring about good. War is not a means to peace. War may bring about secondary beneﬁts,
like more efﬁcient aeroplanes, but it will not bring peace to man. War is intellectually justiﬁed as a
means of bringing peace; when the intellect has the upper hand in human life, it brings about an
There are other causes also which indicate an unprecedented crisis. One of them is the
extraordinary importance man is going to sensate values, to property, to name, to caste and
country, to the particular label you wear. You are either a Mohammedan or a Hindu, a Christian
or a Communist. Name and property, caste and country, have become predominantly important,
which means that man is caught in sensate value, the value of things, whether made by the mind
or by the hand. Things made by the hand or by the mind have become so important that we are
killing, destroying, butchering, liquidating each other because of them. We are nearing the edge
of a precipice; every action is leading us there, every political, every economic action is bringing
us inevitably to the precipice, dragging us into this chaotic, confusing abyss. Therefore the crisis
is unprecedented and it demands unprecedented action. To leave, to step out of that crisis, needs
a timeless action, an action which is not based on idea, on system, because any action which is
based on a system, on an idea, will inevitably lead to frustration. Such action merely brings us back
to the abyss by a different route. As the crisis is unprecedented there must also be unprecedented
action, which means that the regeneration of the individual must be instantaneous, not a process of
time. It must take place now, not tomorrow; for tomorrow is a process of disintegration. If I think of
transforming myself tomorrow I invite confusion, I am still within the ﬁeld of destruction. Is it possible
to change now? Is it possible completely to transform oneself in the immediate, in the now? I say it
The point is that as the crisis is of an exceptional character to meet it there must be revolution
in thinking; and this revolution cannot take place through another, through any book, through any
organization. It must come through us, through each one of us. Only then can we create a new
society, a new structure away from this horror, away from these extraordinarily destructive forces
that are being accumulated, piled up; and that transformation comes into being only when you as
an individual begin to be aware of yourself in every thought, action and feeling.
The First And Last Freedom 84 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 24
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 2 ’ON NATIONALISM’
Question: What is it that comes when nationalism goes?
Krishnamurti: Obviously, intelligence. But I am afraid that is not the implication in this question. The
implication is, what can be substituted for nationalism? Any substitution is an act which does not
bring intelligence. If I leave one religion and join another, or leave one political party and later on
join something else, this constant substitution indicates a state in which there is no intelligence.
How does nationalism go? Only by our understanding its full implications, by examining it, by being
aware of its signiﬁcance in outward and inward action. Outwardly it brings about divisions between
people, classiﬁcations, wars and destruction, which is obvious to anyone who is observant. Inwardly,
psychologically, this identiﬁcation with the greater, with the country, with an idea, is obviously a form
of self-expansion. Living in a little village or a big town or whatever it may be, I am nobody; but
if I identify myself with the larger, with the country, if I call myself a Hindu, it ﬂatters my vanity,
it gives me gratiﬁcation, prestige, a sense of well-being; and that identiﬁcation with the larger,
which is a psychological necessity for those who feel that self-expansion is essential, also creates
conﬂict, strife, between people. Thus nationalism not only creates outward conﬂict but inward
frustrations; when one understands nationalism, the whole process of nationalism, it falls away.
The understanding of nationalism comes through intelligence, by carefully observing, by probing
into the whole process of nationalism, patriotism. Out of that examination comes intelligence and
then there is no substitution of something else for nationalism. The moment you substitute religion
for national1sm, religion becomes another means of self-expansion, another source of psychological
anxiety, a means of feeding oneself through a belief. Therefore any form of substitution, however
noble, is a form of ignorance. It is like a man substituting chewing gum or betel nut or whatever it is
for smoking, whereas if one really understands the whole problem of smoking, of habits, sensations,
psychological demands and all the rest of it, then smoking drops away. You can understand only
85CHAPTER 24. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 2 ’ON NATIONALISM’
when there is a development of intelligence, when intelligence is functioning, and intelligence is not
functioning when there is substitution. Substitution is merely a form of self-bribery, to tempt you not
to do this but to do that. Nationalism, with its poison, with its misery and world strife, can disappear
only when there is intelligence, and intelligence does not come merely by passing examinations
and studying books. Intelligence comes into being when we understand problems as they arise.
When there is understanding of the problem at its different levels, not only of the outward part but
of its inward, psychological implications, then, in that process, intelligence comes into being. So
when there is intelligence there is no substitution; and when there is intelligence, then nationalism,
patriotism, which is a form of stupidity, disappears.
The First And Last Freedom 86 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 25
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 3 ’WHY SPIRITUAL
Question: You say that gurus are unnecessary, but how can I ﬁnd truth without the wise help and
guidance which only a guru can give?
Krishnamurti: The question is whether a guru is necessary or not, Can truth be found through
another? Some say it can and some say it cannot. We want to know the truth of this, not my opinion
as against the opinion of another. I have no opinion in this matter. Either it is so or it is not. Whether
it is essential that you should or should not have a guru is not a quest1on of opinion. The truth of
the matter is not dependent on opinion, however profound, erudite, popular, universal. The truth of
the matter is to be found out, in fact.
First of all, why do we want a guru? We say we need a guru because we are confused and the guru
is helpful; he will point out what truth is, he will help us to understand, he knows much more about
life than we do, he will act as a father, as a teacher to instruct us in life; he has vast experience and
we have but little; he will help us through his greater experience and so on and on. That is, basically,
you go to a teacher because you are confused. If you were clear, you would not go near a guru.
Obviously if you were profoundly happy, if there were no problems, if you understood life completely,
you would not go to any guru. I hope you see the signiﬁcance of this. Because you are confused,
you seek out a teacher. You go to him to give you a way of life to clarify your own confusion, to ﬁnd
truth. You choose your guru because you are confused and you hope he will give you what you ask.
That is you choose a guru who will satisfy your demand; you choose according to the gratiﬁcation
he will give you and your choice is dependent on your gratiﬁcation. You do not choose a guru who
says, ”Depend on yourself; you choose him according to your prejudices. So since you choose your
guru according to the gratiﬁcation he gives you, you are not seeking truth but a way out of confusion;
and the way out of confusion is mistakenly called truth.
87CHAPTER 25. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 3 ’WHY SPIRITUAL TEACHERS?’
Let us examine ﬁrst this idea that a guru can clear up our confusion. Can anyone clear up our
confusion? – confusion being the product of our responses. We have created it. Do you think
someone else has created it – this misery, this battle at all levels of existence, within and without?
It is the result of our own lack of knowledge of ourselves. It is because we do not understand
ourselves, our conﬂicts, our responses, our miseries, that we go to a guru whom we think will help
us to be free of that confusion. We can understand ourselves only in relationship to the present;
and that relationship itself is the guru not someone outside. If I do not understand that relationship,
whatever a guru may say is useless, because if I do not understand relationship, my relationship to
property, to people, to ideas, who can resolve the conﬂict within me? To resolve that conﬂict, I must
understand it myself, which means I must be aware of myself in relationship. To be aware, no guru
is necessary. If I do not know myself, of what use is a guru? As a political leader is chosen by those
who are in confusion and whose choice therefore is also confused, so I choose a guru. I can choose
him only according to my confusion; hence he, like the political leader, is confused.
What is important is not who is right – whether I am right or whether those are right who say a guru
is necessary; to ﬁnd out why you need a guru is important. Gurus exist for exploitation of various
kinds, but that is irrelevant. It gives you satisfaction if someone tells you how you are progressing,
but to ﬁnd out why you need a guru – there lies the key. Another can point out the way but you have
to do all the work, even if you have a guru. Because you do not want to face that, you shift the
responsibility to the guru. The guru becomes useless when there is a particle of self-knowledge. No
guru, no book or scripture, can give you self-knowledge: it comes when you are aware of yourself in
relationship. To be, is to be related; not to understand relationship is misery, strife. Not to be aware
of your relationship to property is one of the causes of confusion. If you do not know your right
relationship to property there is bound to be conﬂict, which increases the conﬂict in society. If you
do not understand the relationship between yourself and your wife, between yourself and your child,
how can another resolve the conﬂict arising out of that relationship? Similarly with ideas, beliefs and
so on. Being confused in your relationship with people, with property, with ideas, you seek a guru. If
he is a real guru, he will tell you to understand yourself. You are the source of all misunderstanding
and confusion; and you can resolve that conﬂict only when you understand yourself in relationship.
You cannot ﬁnd truth through anybody else. How can you? Truth is not something static; it has no
ﬁxed abode; it is not an end, a goal. On the contrary, it is living, dynamic, alert, alive. How can it be
an end? If truth is a ﬁxed point it is no longer truth; it is then a mere opinion. Truth is the unknown,
and a mind that is seeking truth will never ﬁnd it, for mind is made up of the known, it is the result
of the past, the outcome of time – which you can observe for yourself. Mind is the instrument of the
known, hence it cannot ﬁnd the unknown; it can only move from the known to the known. When the
mind seeks truth, the truth it has read about in books, that ‘truth’ is self-projected; for then the mind
is merely in pursuit of the known, a more satisfactory known than the previous one. When the mind
seeks truth, it is seeking its own self-projection, not truth. After all, an ideal is self-projected; it is
ﬁctitious, unreal. What is real is what is, not the opposite. But a mind that is seeking reality, seeking
God, is seeking the known. When you think of God, your God is the projection of your own thought,
the result of social inﬂuences. You can think only of the known; you cannot think of the unknown, you
cannot concentrate on truth. The moment you think of the unknown, it is merely the self-projected
known. God or truth cannot be thought about. If you think about it, it is not truth. Truth cannot be
sought: it comes to you. You can go only after what is known. When the mind is not tortured by the
known, by the effects of the known, then only can truth reveal itself. Truth is in every leaf, in every
tear; it is to be known from moment to moment. No one can lead you to truth; and if anyone leads
The First And Last Freedom 88 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 25. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 3 ’WHY SPIRITUAL TEACHERS?’
you, it can only be to the known.
Truth can only come to the mind that is empty of the known. It comes in a state in which the known
is absent, not functioning. The mind is the warehouse of the known, the residue of the known; for
the mind to be in that state in which the unknown comes into being, it must be aware of itself, of
its previous experiences, the conscious as well as the unconscious, of its responses, reactions, and
structure. When there is complete self-knowledge, then there is the ending of the known, then the
mind is completely empty of the known. It is only then that truth can come to you uninvited. Truth
does not belong to you or to me. You cannot worship it. The moment it is known, it is unreal. The
symbol is not real, the image is not real; but when there is the understanding of self, the cessation
of self, then eternity comes into being.
The First And Last Freedom 89 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 26
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 4 ’ON KNOWLEDGE’
Question: I gather deﬁnitely from you that learning and knowledge are impediments. To what are
Krishnamurti: Obviously knowledge and learning are an impediment to the understanding of the
new, the timeless, the eternal. Developing a perfect technique does not make you creative. You may
know how to paint marvellously, you may have the technique; but you may not be a creative painter.
You may know how to write poems, technically most perfect; but you may not be a poet. To be a
poet implies, does it not?, being capable of receiving the new; to be sensitive enough to respond to
something new, fresh. With most of us knowledge or learning has become an addiction and we think
that through knowing we shall be creative. A mind that is crowded, encased in facts, in knowledge
– is it capable of receiving something new, sudden, spontaneous? If your mind is crowded with the
known, is there any space in it to receive something that is of the unknown? Surely knowledge is
always of the known; and with the known we are trying to understand the unknown, something which
is beyond measure.
Take, for example, a very ordinary thing that happens to most of us: those who are religious –
whatever that word may mean for the moment – try to imagine what God is or try to think about what
God is. They have read innumerable books, they have read about the experiences of the various
saints, the Masters, the Mahatma and all the rest, and they try to imagine or try to feel what the
experience of another is; that is with the known you try to approach the unknown. Can you do it?
Can you think of something that is not knowable? You can only think of something that you know.
But there is this extraordinary perversion taking place in the world at the present time: we think we
shall understand if we have more information, more books, more facts, more printed matter.
To be aware of something that is not the projection of the known, there must be the elimination,
through the understanding, of the process of the known. Why is it that the mind clings always to the
90CHAPTER 26. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 4 ’ON KNOWLEDGE’
known? Is it not because the mind is constantly seeking certainty, security? Its very nature is ﬁxed
in the known, in time; how can such a mind, whose very foundation is based on the past, on time,
experience the timeless? it may conceive, formulate, picture the unknown, but that is all absurd.
The unknown can come into being only when the known is understood, dissolved, put aside. That
is extremely difﬁcult, because the moment you have an experience of anything, the mind translates
it into the terms of the known and reduces it to the past. I do not know if you have noticed that every
experience is immediately translated in1o the known, given a name, tabulated and recorded. So the
movement of the known is knowledge, and obviously such knowledge, learning, is a hindrance.
Suppose you had never read a book, religious or psychological, and you had to ﬁnd the meaning,
the signiﬁcance of life. How would you set about it? Suppose there were no Masters, no religious
organizations, no Buddha, no Christ, and you had to begin from the beginning. How would you set
about it? First, you would have to understand your process of thinking, would you not? – and not
project yourself, your thoughts, into the future and create a God which pleases you; that would be
too childish. So ﬁrst you would have to understand the process of your thinking. That is the only way
to discover anything new, is it not?
When we say that learning or knowledge is an impediment, a hindrance, we are not including
technical knowledge – how to drive a car, how to run machinery – or the efﬁciency which such
knowledge brings. We have in mind quite a different thing: that sense of creative happiness which
no amount of knowledge or learning will bring. To be creative in the truest sense of that word is to
be free of the past from moment to moment, because it is the past that is continually shadowing
the present. Merely to cling to information, to the experiences of others, to what someone has said,
however great, and try to approximate your action to that – all that is knowledge, is it not? But to
discover anything new you must start on your own; you must start on a journey completely denuded,
especially of knowledge, because it is very easy, through knowledge and belief, to have experiences;
but those experiences are merely the products of self-projection and therefore utterly unreal, false.
If you are to discover for yourself what is the new, it is no good carrying the burden of the old,
especially knowledge – the knowledge of another, however great. You use knowledge as a means
of self-protection, security, and you want to be quite sure that you have the same experiences as
the Buddha or the Christ or X. But a man who is protecting himself constantly through knowledge is
obviously not a truth-seeker.
For the discovery of truth there is no path. You must enter the uncharted sea – which is not
depressing, which is not being adventurous. When you want to ﬁnd something new, when you
are experimenting with anything, your mind has to be very quiet, has it not? If your mind is crowded,
ﬁlled with facts, knowledge, they act as an impediment to the new; the difﬁculty is for most of us
that the mind has become so important, so predominantly signiﬁcant, that it interferes constantly
with anything that may be new, with anything that may exist simultaneously with the known. Thus
knowledge and learning are impediments for those who would seek, for those who would try to
understand that which is timeless.
The First And Last Freedom 91 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 27
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 5 ’ON DISCIPLINE’
Question: All religions have insisted on some kind of self-discipline to moderate the instincts of the
brute in man. Through self-discipline the saints and mystics have asserted that they have attained
godhood. Now you seem to imply that such disciplines are a hindrance to the realization of God. I
am confused. Who is right in this matter?
Krishnamurti: It is not a question of who is right in this matter. What is important is to ﬁnd out the
truth of the matter for ourselves – not according to a particular saint or to a person who comes from
India or from some other place, the more exotic the better.
You are caught between these two: someone says discipline, another says no discipline. Generally
what happens is that you choose what is more convenient, what is more satisfying: you like the man,
his looks, his personal idiosyncrasies, his personal favouritism and all the rest of it. Putting all that
aside, let us examine this question directly and ﬁnd out the truth of the matter for ourselves. In this
question a great deal is implied and we have to approach it very cautiously and tentatively.
Most of us want someone in authority to tell us what to do. We look for a direction in conduct,
because our instinct is to be safe, not to suffer more. Someone is said to have realized happiness,
bliss or what you will and we hope that he will tell us what to do to arrive there. That is what we
want: we want that same happiness, that same inward quietness, joy; and in this mad world of
confusion we want someone to tell us what to do. That is really the basic instinct with most of us
and, according to that instinct, we pattern our action. Is God, is that highest thing, unnameable
and not to be measured by words – is that come by through discipline, through following a particular
pattern of action? We want to arrive at a particular goal, particular end, and we think that by practice,
by discipline, by suppressing or releasing, sublimating or substituting, we shall be able to ﬁnd that
which we are seeking.
92CHAPTER 27. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 5 ’ON DISCIPLINE’
What is implied in discipline? Why do we discipline ourselves, if we do? Can discipline and
intelligence go together? Most people feel that we must, through some kind of discipline, subjugate
or control the brute, the ugly thing in us. Is that brute, that ugly thing, controllable through discipline?
What do we mean by discipline? A course of action which promises a reward, a course of action
which, if pursued, will give us what we want – it may be positive or negative; a pattern of conduct
which, if practised diligently, sedulously, very, very ardently, will give me in the end what I want. It
may be painful but I am willing to go through it to get that. The self, which is aggressive, selﬁsh,
hypocritical, anxious, fearful – you know, all of it – that self, which is the cause of the brute in us, we
want to transform, subjugate, destroy. How is this to be done? Is it to be done through discipline,
or through an intelligent understanding of the past of the self, what the self is, how it comes into
being, and so on? Shall we destroy the brute in man through compulsion or through intelligence?
Is intelligence a matter of discipline? Let us for the time being forget what the saints and all the rest
of the people have said; let us go into the matter for ourselves, as though we were for the ﬁrst time
looking at this problem; then we may have something creative at the end of it, not just quotations of
what other people have said, which is all so vain and useless.
We ﬁrst say that in us there is conﬂict, the black against the white, greed against non-greed and
so on. I am greedy, which creates pain; to be rid of that greed, I must discipline myself. That is I
must resist any form of conﬂict which gives me pain, which in this case I call greed. I then say it is
antisocial, it is unethical, it is not saintly and so on and so on – the various social-religious reasons
we give for resisting it. Is greed destroyed or put away from us through compulsion? First, let us
examine the process involved in suppression, in compulsion, in putting it away, resisting. What
happens when you do that, when you resist greed? What is the thing that is resisting greed? That
is the ﬁrst question, isn’t it? Why do you resist greed and who is the entity that says, ”I must be
free of greed”? The entity that says, ”I must be free” is also greed, is he not? Up to now, greed has
paid him, but now it is painful; therefore he says, ”I must get rid of it”. The motive to get rid of it is
still a process of greed, because he is wanting to be something which he is not. Non-greed is now
proﬁtable, so I am pursuing non-greed; but the motive, the intention, is still to be something, to be
non-greedy – which is still greed, surely; which is again a negative form of the emphasis on the ‘me’.
We ﬁnd that being greedy is painful, for various reasons which are obvious. So long as we enjoy it,
so long as it pays us to be greedy, there is no problem. Society encourages us in different ways to be
greedy; so do religions encourage us in different ways. So long as it is proﬁtable, so long as it is not
painful, we pursue it but the moment it becomes painful we want to resist it. That resistance is what
we call discipline against greed; but are we free from greed through resistance, through sublimation,
through suppression? Any act on the part of the ‘me’ who wants to be free from greed is still greed.
Therefore any action, any response on my part with regard to greed, is obviously not the solution.
First of all there must be a quiet mind, an undisturbed mind, to understand anything, especially
something which I do not know, something which my mind cannot fathom – which, this questioner
says, is God. To understand anything, any intricate problem – of life or relationship, in fact any
problem – there must be a certain quiet depth to the mind. Is that quiet depth come by through
any form of compulsion? The superﬁcial mind may compel itself, make itself quiet; but surely such
quietness is the quietness of decay, death. It is not capable of adaptability, pliability, sensitivity. So
resistance is not the way.
Now to see that requires intelligence, doesn’t it? To see that the mind is made dull by compulsion
is already the beginning of intelligence, isn’t it? – to see that discipline is merely conformity to a
The First And Last Freedom 93 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 27. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 5 ’ON DISCIPLINE’
pattern of action through fear. That is what is implied in disciplining ourselves: we are afraid of not
getting what we want. What happens when you discipline the mind, when you discipline your being?
It becomes very hard, doesn’t it; unpliable, not quick, not adjustable. Don’t you know people who
have disciplined themselves – if there are such people? The result is obviously a process of decay.
There is an inward conﬂict which is put away, hidden away; but it is there, burning.
Thus we see that discipline, which is resistance, merely creates a habit and habit obviously cannot
be productive of intelligence: habit never is, practice never is. You may become very clever with
your ﬁngers by practising the piano all day, making something with your hands; but intelligence is
demanded to direct the hands and we are now inquiring into that intelligence.
You see somebody whom you consider happy or as having realized, and he does certain things;
you, wanting that happiness, imitate him. This imitation is called discipline, isn’t it? We imitate
in order to receive what another has; we copy in order to be happy, which you think he is. Is
happiness found through discipline? By practising a certain rule, by practising a certain discipline,
a mode of conduct, are you ever free? Surely there must be freedom for discovery, must there
not? If you would discover anything, you must be free inwardly, which is obvious. Are you free
by shaping your mind in a particular way which you call discipline? Obviously you are not. You
are merely a repetitive machine, resisting according to a certain conclusion, according to a certain
mode of conduct. Freedom cannot come through discipline. Freedom can only come into being with
intelligence; and that intelligence is awakened, or you have that intelligence, the moment you see
that any form of compulsion denies freedom, inwardly or outwardly.
The ﬁrst requirement, not as a discipline, is obviously freedom; only virtue gives this freedom. Greed
is confusion; anger is confusion; bitterness is confusion. When you see that, obviously you are free
of them; you do not resist them. but you see that only in freedom can you discover and that any form
of compulsion is not freedom, and therefore there is no discovery. What virtue does is to give you
freedom. The unvirtuous person is a confused person; in confusion, how can you discover anything?
How can you? Thus virtue is not the end product of a discipline, but virtue is freedom and freedom
cannot come through any action which is not virtuous, which is not true in itself. Our difﬁculty is that
most of us have read so much, most of us have superﬁcially followed so many disciplines – getting
up every morning at a certain hour, sitting in a certain posture, trying to hold our minds in a certain
way – you know, practise, practise, discipline, because you have been told that if you do these things
for a number of years you will have God at the end of it. I may put it crudely, but that is the basis of
our thinking. Surely God doesn’t come so easily as all that? God is not a mere marketable thing: I
do this and you give me that.
Most of us are so conditioned by external inﬂuences, by religious doctrines, beliefs, and by our own
inward demand to arrive at something, to gain something, that it is very difﬁcult for us to think of this
problem anew without thinking in terms of discipline. First we must see very clearly the implications
of discipline, how it narrows down the mind, limits the mind, compels the mind to a particular action,
through our desire, through inﬂuence and all the rest of it; a conditioned mind, however ‘virtuous’
that conditioning, cannot possibly be free and therefore cannot understand reality. God, reality or
what you will – the name doesn’t matter – can come into being only when there is freedom, and there
is no freedom where there is compulsion, positive or negative, through fear. There is no freedom if
you are seeking an end, for you are tied to that end. You may be free from the past but the future
holds you, and that is not freedom. It is only in freedom that one can discover anything: new idea,
The First And Last Freedom 94 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 27. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 5 ’ON DISCIPLINE’
a new feeling, a new perception. Any form of discipline which is based on compulsion denies that
freedom whether political or religious; and since discipline, which is conformity to an action with an
end in view, is binding, the mind can never be free. It can function only within that groove, like a
Thus, through practice, through habit, through cultivation of a pattern, the mind only achieves what
it has in view. Therefore it is not free; therefore it cannot realize that which is immeasurable. To be
aware of that whole process – why you are constantly disciplining yourself to public opinion; to certain
saints; the whole business of conforming to opinion, whether of a saint or of a neighbour, it is all
the same – to be aware of this whole conformity through practice, through subtle ways of submitting
yourself, of denying, asserting, suppressing, sublimating, all implying conformity to a pattern: this
is already the beginning of freedom, from which there is a virtue. Virtue surely is not the cultivation
of a particular idea, Non-greed, for instance, if pursued as an end is no longer virtue, is it? That is
if you are conscious that you are non-greedy, are you virtuous? That is what we are doing through
Discipline, conformity, practice, only give emphasis to self-consciousness as being something. The
mind practises non-greed and therefore it is not free from its own consciousness as being non-
greedy; therefore, it is not really non-greedy. It has merely taken on a new cloak which it calls
non-greed. We can see the total process of all this: the motivation, the desire for an end, the
conformity to a pattern, the desire to be secure in pursuing a pattern – all this is merely the moving
from the known to the known, always within the limits of the mind’s own self-enclosing process. To
see all this, to be aware of it, is the beginning of intelligence, and intelligence is neither virtuous nor
non-virtuous, it cannot be ﬁtted into a pattern as virtue or non-virtue. Intelligence brings freedom,
which is not licentiousness, not disorder. Without this intelligence there can be no virtue; virtue gives
freedom and in freedom there comes into being reality. If you see the whole process totally, in its
entirety, then you will ﬁnd there is no conﬂict. It is because we are in conﬂict and because we want
to escape from that conﬂict that we resort to various forms of disciplines, denials and adjustments.
When we see what is the process of conﬂict there is no question of discipline, because then we
understand from moment to moment the ways of conﬂict. That requires great alertness, watching
yourself all the time; the curious part of it is that although you may not be watchful all the time
there is a recording process going on inwardly, once the intention is there – the sensitivity, the inner
sensitivity, is taking the picture all the time, so that the inner will project that picture the moment you
Therefore, it is not a question of discipline. Sensitivity can never come into being through
compulsion. You may compel a child to do something, put him in a corner, and he may be quiet; but
inwardly he is probably seething, looking out of the window, doing something to get away. That is
what we are still doing. So the question of discipline and of who is right and who is wrong can be
solved only by yourself.
Also, you see, we are afraid to go wrong because we want to be a success. Fear is at the bottom
of the desire to be disciplined, but the unknown cannot be caught in the net of discipline. On
the contrary, the unknown must have freedom and not the pattern of your mind. That is why the
tranquillity of the mind is essential. When the mind is conscious that it is tranquil, it is no longer
tranquil; when the mind is conscious that it is non-greedy, free from greed, it recognizes itself in the
new robe of non-greed but that is not tranquillity. That is why one must also understand the problem
The First And Last Freedom 95 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 27. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 5 ’ON DISCIPLINE’
in this question of the person who controls and that which is controlled. They are not separate
phenomena but a joint phenomenon: the controller and the controlled are one.
The First And Last Freedom 96 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 28
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 6 ’ON LONELINESS’
Question: I am beginning to realize that I am very lonely. What am I to do?
Krishnamurti: The questioner wants to know why he feels loneliness? Do you know what loneliness
means and are you aware of it? I doubt it very much, because we have smothered ourselves in
activities, in books, in relationships, in ideas which really prevent us from being aware of loneliness.
What do we mean by loneliness? it is a sense of being empty, of having nothing, of being
extraordinarily uncertain, with no anchorage anywhere. It is not despair, nor hopelessness. but
a sense of void, a sense of emptiness and a sense of frustration. I am sure we have all felt it, the
happy and the unhappy, the very, very active and those who are addicted to knowledge. They all
know this. It is the sense of real inexhaustible pain, a pain that cannot be covered up, though we do
try to cover it up.
Let us approach this problem again to see what is actually taking place, to see what you do when
you feel lonely. You try to escape from your feeling of loneliness, you try to get on with a book,
you follow some leader, or you go to a cinema, or you become socially very, very active, or you go
and worship and pray, or you paint, or you write a poem about loneliness. That is what is actually
taking place. Becoming aware of loneliness, the pain of it, the extraordinary and fathomless fear of
it, you seek an escape and that escape becomes more important and therefore your activities, your
knowledge, your gods, your radios all become important, don’t they? When you give importance
to secondary values, they lead you to misery and chaos; the secondary values are inevitably the
sensate values; and modern civilization based on these gives you this escape – escape through
your job, your family, your name, your studies, through painting etc; all our culture is based on that
escape. Our civilization is founded on it and that is a fact.
Have you ever tried to be alone? When you do try, you will feel how extraordinarily difﬁcult it is and
how extraordinarily intelligent we must be to be alone, because the mind will not let us be alone.
97CHAPTER 28. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 6 ’ON LONELINESS’
The mind becomes restless, it busies itself with escapes, so what are we doing? We are trying to
ﬁll this extraordinary void with the known. We discover how to be active, how to be social; we know
how to study, how to turn on the radio. We are ﬁlling that thing which we do not know with the things
we know. We try to ﬁll that emptiness with various kinds of knowledge, relationship or things. Is that
not so? That is our process, that is our existence. Now when you realize what you are doing, do you
still think you can ﬁll that void? You have tried every means of ﬁlling this void of loneliness. Have
you succeeded in ﬁlling it? You have tried cinemas and you did not succeed and therefore you go
after your gurus and your books or you become very active socially. Have you succeeded in ﬁlling
it or have you merely covered it up? If you have merely covered it up, it is still there; therefore it will
come back. If you are able to escape altogether then you are locked up in an asylum or you become
very, very dull. That is what is happening in the world.
Can this emptiness, this void, be ﬁlled? If not, can we run away from it, escape from it? If we
have experienced and found one escape to be of no value, are not all other escapes therefore of no
value? It does not matter whether you ﬁll the emptiness with this or with that. So-called meditation
is also an escape. It does not matter much that you change your way of escape.
How then will you ﬁnd what to do about this loneliness? You can only ﬁnd what to do when you have
stopped escaping. Is that not so? When you are willing to face what is – which means you must not
turn on the radio, which means you must turn your back to civilization – then that loneliness comes
to an end, because it is completely transformed. It is no longer loneliness. If you understand what
is then what is is the real. Because the mind is continuously avoiding, escaping, refusing to see
what is it creates its own hindrances. Because we have so many hindrances that are preventing
us from seeing, we do not understand what is and therefore we are getting away from reality; all
these hindrances have been created by the mind in order not to see what is. To see what is not
only requires a great deal of capacity and awareness of action but it also means turning your back
on everything that you have built up, your bank account, your name and everything that we call
civilization. When you see what is, you will ﬁnd how loneliness is transformed.
The First And Last Freedom 98 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 29
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 7 ’ON SUFFERING’
Question: What is the signiﬁcance of pain and suffering?
Krishnamurti: When you suffer, when you have pain, what is the signiﬁcance of it? Physical pain
has one signiﬁcance but probably we mean psychological pain and sufferings which has quite a
different signiﬁcance at different levels. What is the signiﬁcance of suffering? Why do you want to
ﬁnd the signiﬁcance of suffering? Not that it has no signiﬁcance – we are going to ﬁnd out. But why
do you want to ﬁnd it? Why do you want to ﬁnd out why you suffer? When you put that question to
yourself, ”Why do I suffer?”, and are looking for the cause of sufferings are you not escaping from
suffering? When I seek the signiﬁcance of sufferings am I not avoidings,evading it, running away
from it? The fact is, I am suffering; but the moment I bring the mind to operate upon it and say,
”Now, why?”, I have already diluted the intensity of suffering. In other words, we want suffering to be
diluted, alleviated, put away, explained away. Surely that doesn’t give an understanding of suffering.
If I am free from that desire to run away from its then I begin to understand what is the content of
What is suffering? A disturbances isn’t it?, at different levels – at the physical and at the different
levels of the subconscious. It is an acute form of disturbance which I don’t like. My son is dead. I
have built round him all my hopes or round my daughter, my husband, what you will. I have enshrined
him with all the things I wanted him to be and I have kept him as my companion – you know, all that
sort of thing. Suddenly he is gone. So there is a disturbance, isn’t there? That disturbance I call
If I don’t like that suffering, then I say ”Why am I suffering?”, ”I loved him so much”, ”He was this”, ”I
had that”. I try to escape in words, in labels, in beliefs, as most of us do. They act as a narcotic. If I
do not do that, what happens? I am simply aware of suffering. I don’t condemn it, I don’t justify it – I
99CHAPTER 29. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 7 ’ON SUFFERING’
am suffering. Then I can follow its movements can’t I? Then I can follow the whole content of what
it means – ‘I follow’ in the sense of trying to understand something.
What does it mean? What is it that is suffering? Not why there is suffering, not what is the cause of
suffering, but what is actually happening? I do not know if you see the difference. When I am simply
aware of suffering, not as apart from me, not as an observer watching suffering – it is part of me, that
is the whole of me is suffering. Then I am able to follow its movement, see where it leads. Surely if I
do that it opens up, does it not? Then I see that I have laid emphasis on the ‘me’ – not on the person
whom I love. He only acted to cover me from my misery, from my loneliness, from my misfortune.
As I am not something, I hoped he would be that. That has gone; I am left, I am lost, I am lonely.
Without him, I am nothing. So I cry. It is not that he is gone but that I am left. I am alone. To come
to that point is very difﬁcult, isn’t it? It is difﬁcult really to recognize it and not merely say, ”I am alone
and how am I to get rid of that loneliness?”, which is another form of escape, but to be conscious of
it, to remain with it, to see its movement. I am only taking this as an example. Gradually, if I allow
it to unfold, to open up, I see that I am suffering because I am lost; I am being called to give my
attention to something which I am not willing to look at; something is being forced upon me which
I am reluctant to see and to understand. There are innumerable people to help me to escape –
thousands of so-called religious people, with their beliefs and dogmas, hopes and fantasies – ”it is
karma, it is God’s will” – you know, all giving me a way out. But if I can stay with it and not put it away
from me, not try to circumscribe or deny it, then what happens? What is the state of my mind when
it is thus following the movement of suffering?
Is suffering merely a word, or an actuality? If it is an actuality and not just a word, then the word
has no meaning now, so there is merely the feeling of intense pain. With regard to what? With
regard to an image, to an experience, to something which you have or have not. If you have it, you
call it pleasure; if you haven’t it is pain. Therefore pain, sorrow, is in relationship to something. Is
that something merely a verbalization, or an actuality ? That is when sorrow exists, it exists only
in relationship to something. it cannot exist by itself – even as fear cannot exist by itself but only
in relationship to something: to an individual, to an incident, to a feeling. Now, you are fully aware
of the suffering. Is that suffering apart from you and therefore you are merely the observer who
perceives the suffering, or is that suffering you?
When there is no observer who is suffering, is the suffering different from you? You are the suffering,
are you not? You are not apart from the pain – you are the pain. What happens? There is no labelling,
there is no giving it a name and thereby brushing it aside – you are merely that pain, that feeling,
that sense of agony. When you are that, what happens? When you do not name it, when there
is no fear with regard to it, is the centre related to it? If the centre is related to it, then it is afraid
of it. Then it must act and do something about it. But if the centre is that, then what do you do?
There is nothing to be done, is there? If you are that and you are not accepting it, not labelling it,
not pushing it aside – if you are that thing, what happens? Do you say you suffer then? Surely, a
fundamental transformation has taken place. Then there is no longer ”I suffer”, because there is no
centre to suffer and the centre suffers because we have never examined what the centre is. We
just live from word to word, from reaction to reaction. We never say, ”Let me see what that thing
is that suffers”, You cannot see by enforcement, by discipline. You must look with interest, with
spontaneous comprehension. Then you will see that the thing we call suffering, pain, the thing that
we avoid, and the discipline, have all gone. As long as I have no relationship to the thing as outside
me, the problem is not; the moment I establish a relationship with it outside me, the problem is. As
The First And Last Freedom 100 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 29. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 7 ’ON SUFFERING’
long as I treat suffering as something outside – I suffer because I lost my brother, because I have no
money, because of this or that – I establish a relationship to it and that relationship is ﬁctitious. But
if I am that thing, if I see the fact, then the whole thing is transformed, it all has a different meaning.
Then there is full attention, integrated attention and that which is completely regarded is understood
and dissolved, and so there is no fear and therefore the word ‘sorrow’ is non-existent.
The First And Last Freedom 101 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 30
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 8 ’ON AWARENESS’
Question: What is the difference between awareness and introspection? And who is aware in
Krishnamurti: Let us ﬁrst examine what we mean by introspection. We mean by introspection
looking within oneself, examining oneself. Why does one examine oneself? In order to improve,
in order to change, in order to modify. You introspect in order to become something, otherwise
you would not indulge in introspection. You would not examine yourself if there were not the desire
to modify, change, to become something other than what you are. That is the obvious reason for
introspection. I am angry and I introspect, examine myself, in order to get rid of anger or to modify or
change anger. Where there is introspection, which is the desire to modify or change the responses,
the reactions of the self, there is always an end in view; when that end is not achieved, there is
moodiness, depression. Therefore introspection invariably goes with depression. I don’t know if you
have noticed that when you introspect, when you look into yourself in order to change yourself, there
is always a wave of depression. There is always a moody wave which you have to battle against;
you have to examine yourself again in order to overcome that mood and so on. Introspection is a
process in which there is no release because it is a process of transforming what is into something
which it is not. Obviously that is exactly what is taking place when we introspect, when we indulge
in that peculiar action. In that action, there is always an accumulative process, the ‘I’ examining
something in order to change it, so there is always a dualistic conﬂict and therefore a process of
frustration. There is never a release; and, realizing that frustration, there is depression.
Awareness is entirely different. Awareness is observation without condemnation. Awareness brings
understanding, because there is no condemnation or identiﬁcation but silent observation. If I want
to understand something, I must observe, I must not criticize, I must not condemn, I must not
pursue it as pleasure or avoid it as non-pleasure. There must merely be the silent observation
102CHAPTER 30. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 8 ’ON AWARENESS’
of a fact. There is no end in view but awareness of everything as it arises. That observation
and the understanding of that observation cease when there is condemnation, identiﬁcation, or
justiﬁcation. Introspection is self-improvement and therefore introspection is self-centredness.
Awareness is not self-improvement. On the contrary, it is the ending of the self, of the ’I’, with all
its peculiar idiosyncrasies, memories, demands and pursuits. In introspection there is identiﬁcation
and condemnation. In awareness there is no condemnation or identiﬁcation; therefore there is no
self-improvement. There is a vast difference between the two.
The man who wants to improve himself can never be aware, because improvement implies
condemnation and the achievement of a result. Whereas in awareness there is observation without
condemnation, without denial or acceptance. That awareness begins with outward things, being
aware, being in contact with objects, with nature. First, there is awareness of things about one, being
sensitive to objects, to nature, then to people, which means relationship; then there is awareness of
ideas. This awareness, being sensitive to things, to nature, to people, to ideas, is not made up of
separate processes, but is one unitary process. It is a constant observation of everything, of every
thought and feeling and action as they arise within oneself. As awareness is not condemnatory,
there is no accumulation. You condemn only when you have a standard, which means there is
accumulation and therefore improvement of the self. Awareness is to understand the activities of the
self, the ‘I’, in its relationship with people, with ideas and with things. That awareness is from moment
to moment and therefore it cannot be practised. When you practise a thing, it becomes a habit and
awareness is not habit. A mind that is habitual is insensitive, a mind that is functioning within
the groove of a particular action is dull, unpliable, whereas awareness demands constant pliability,
alertness. This is not difﬁcult. It is what you actually do when you are interested in something,
when you are interested in watching your child, your wife, your plants, the trees, the birds. You
observe without condemnation, without identiﬁcation; therefore in that observation there is complete
communion; the observer and the observed are completely in communion. This actually takes place
when you are deeply, profoundly interested in something.
Thus there is a vast difference between awareness and the self-expansive improvement of
introspection. Introspection leads to frustration, to further and greater conﬂict; whereas awareness
is a process of release from the action of the self; it is to be aware of your daily movements, of your
thoughts, of your actions and to be aware of another, to observe him. You can do that only when
you love somebody, when you are deeply interested in something; when I want to know myself, my
whole being, the whole content of myself and not just one or two layers, then there obviously must
be no condemnation. Then I must be open to every thought, to every feeling, to all the moods, to
all the suppressions; and as there is more and more expansive awareness, there is greater and
greater freedom from all the hidden movement of thoughts, motives and pursuits. Awareness is
freedom, it brings freedom, it yields freedom, whereas introspection cultivates conﬂict, the process
of self-enclosure; therefore there is always frustration and fear in it.
The questioner also wants to know who is aware. When you have a profound experience of any kind,
what is taking place? When there is such an experience, are you aware that you are experiencing?
When you are angry, at the split second of anger or of jealousy or of joy, are you aware that you are
joyous or that you are angry? It is only when the experience is over that there is the experiencer and
the experienced. Then the experiencer observes the experienced, the object of experience. At the
moment of experience, there is neither the observer nor the observed: there is only the experiencing.
Most of us are not experiencing. We are always outside the state of experiencing and therefore we
The First And Last Freedom 103 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 30. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 8 ’ON AWARENESS’
ask this question as to who is the observer, who is it that is aware? Surely such a question is a
wrong question, is it not? The moment there is experiencing, there is neither the person who is
aware nor the object of which he is aware. There is neither the observer nor the observed but only
a state of experiencing. Most of us ﬁnd it is extremely difﬁcult to live in a state of experiencing,
because that demands an extraordinary pliability, a quickness, a high degree of sensitivity; and that
is denied when we are pursuing a result, when we want to succeed, when we have an end in view,
when we are calculating – all of which brings frustration. A man who does not demand anything,
who is not seeking an end, who is not searching out a result with all its implications, such a man
is in a state of constant experiencing. Everything then has a movement, a meaning; nothing is old,
nothing is charred, nothing is repetitive, because what is is never old, The challenge is always new.
It is only the response to the challenge that is old; the old creates further residue, which is memory,
the observer, who separates himself from the observed, from the challenge, from the experience.
You can experiment with this for yourself very simply and very easily. Next time you are angry
or jealous or greedy or violent or whatever it may be, watch yourself. In that state, ‘you’ are not.
There is only that state of being. The moment, the second afterwards, you term it, you name it,
you call it jealousy, anger, greed; so you have created immediately the observer and the observed,
the experiencer and the experienced. When there is the experiencer and the experienced, then
the experiencer tries to modify the experience, change it, remember things about it and so on, and
therefore maintains the division between himself and the experienced. If you don’t name that feeling
– which means you are not seeking a result, you are not condemning, you are merely silently aware
of the feeling – then you will see that in that state of feeling, of experiencing, there is no observer
and no observed, because the observer and the observed are a joint phenomenon and so there is
Therefore introspection and awareness are entirely different. Introspection leads to frustration, to
further conﬂict, for in it is implied the desire for change and change is merely a modiﬁed continuity.
Awareness is a state in which there is no condemnation, no justiﬁcation or identiﬁcation, and
therefore there is understanding; in that state of passive, alert awareness there is neither the
experiencer nor the experienced.
Introspection, which is a form of self-improvement, of self-expansion, can never lead to truth,
because it is always a process of self-enclosure; whereas awareness is a state in which truth
can come into being, the truth of what is, the simple truth of daily existence. It is only when we
understand the truth of daily existence that we can go far. You must begin near to go far but most of
us want to jump, to begin far without understanding what is close. As we understand the near, we
shall ﬁnd the distance between the near and the far is not. There is no distance – the beginning and
the end are one.
The First And Last Freedom 104 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 31
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 9 ’ON RELATIONSHIP’
Question: You have often talked of relationship. What does it mean to you?
Krishnamurti: First of all, there is no such thing as being isolated. To be is to be related and
without relationship there is no existence. What do we mean by relationship? It is an interconnected
challenge and response between two people, between you and me, the challenge which you throw
out and which I accept or to which I respond; also the challenge I throw out to you. The relationship
of two people creates society; society is not independent of you and me; the mass is not by itself a
separate entity but you and I in our relationship to each other create the mass, the group, the society.
Relationship is the awareness of interconnection between two people. What is that relationship
generally based on? Is it not based on so-called interdependence, mutual assistance? At least, we
say it is mutual help, mutual aid and so on, but actually, apart from words, apart from the emotional
screen which we throw up against each other, what is it based upon? On mutual gratiﬁcation, is it
not? If I do not please you, you get rid of me; if I please you, you accept me either as your wife or
as your neighbour or as your friend. That is the fact.
What is it that you call the family? Obviously it is a relationship of intimacy, of communion. In
your family, in your relationship with your wife, with your husband, is there communion? Surely
that is what we mean by relationship, do we not? Relationship means communion without fear,
freedom to understand each other, to communicate directly. Obviously relationship means that – to
be in communion with another. Are you? Are you in communion with your wife? Perhaps you are
physically but that is not relationship. You and your wife live on opposite sides of a wall of isolation,
do you not? You have your own pursuits, your ambitions, and she has hers. You live behind the wall
and occasionally look over the top – and that you call relationship. That is a fact, is it not? You may
enlarge it, soften it, introduce a new set of words to describe it. but that is the fact – that you and
another live in isolation, and that life in isolation you call relationship.
105CHAPTER 31. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 9 ’ON RELATIONSHIP’
If there is real relationship between two people, which means there is communion between them,
then the implications are enormous. Then there is no isolation; there is love and not responsibility
or duty. It is the people who are isolated behind their walls who talk about duty and responsibility. A
man who loves does not talk about responsibility – he loves. Therefore he shares with another his
joy, his sorrow, his money. Are your families such? Is there direct communion with your wife, with
your children? Obviously not. Therefore the family is merely an excuse to continue your name or
tradition, to give you what you want, sexually or psychologically, so the family becomes a means of
self-perpetuation, of carrying on your name. That is one kind of immortality, one kind of permanency.
The family is also used as a means of gratiﬁcation. I exploit others ruthlessly in the business world,
in the political or social world outside, and at home I try to be kind and generous. How absurd! Or
the world is too much for me, I want peace and I go home. I suffer in the world and I go home and
try to ﬁnd comfort. So I use relationship as a means of gratiﬁcation, which means I do not want to
be disturbed by my relationship.
Thus relationship is sought where there is mutual satisfaction, gratiﬁcation; when you do not ﬁnd that
satisfaction you change relationship; either you divorce or you remain together but seek gratiﬁcation
elsewhere or else you move from one relationship to another till you ﬁnd what you seek – which is
satisfaction, gratiﬁcation, and a sense of self-protection and comfort. After all, that is our relationship
in the world, and it is thus in fact. Relationship is sought where there can be security, where you as
an individual can live in a state of security, in a state of gratiﬁcation, in a state of ignorance – all of
which always creates conﬂict, does it not? If you do not satisfy me and I am seeking satisfaction,
naturally there must be conﬂict, because we are both seeking security in each other; when that
security becomes uncertain you become jealous, you become violent, you become possessive and
so on. So relationship invariably results in possession in condemnation, in self-assertive demands
for security, for comfort and for gratiﬁcation, and in that there is naturally no love.
We talk about love, we talk about responsibility, duty, but there is really no love; relationship is based
on gratiﬁcation, the effect of which we see in the present civilization. The way we treat our wives,
children, neighbours, friends is an indication that in our relationship there is really no love at all. It
is merely a mutual search for gratiﬁcation. As this is so, what then is the purpose of relationship?
What is its ultimate signiﬁcance? If you observe yourself in relationship with others, do you not ﬁnd
that relationship is a process of self-revelation? Does not my contact with you reveal my own state
of being if I am aware, if I am alert enough to be conscious of my own reaction in relationship?
Relationship is really a process of self-revelation, which is a process of self-knowledge; in that
revelation there are many unpleasant things, disquieting, uncomfortable thoughts, activities. Since
I do not like what I discover, I run away from a relationship which is not pleasant to a relationship
which is pleasant. Therefore, relationship has very little signiﬁcance when we are merely seeking
mutual gratiﬁcation but becomes extraordinarily signiﬁcant when it is a means of self-revelation and
After all, there is no relationship in love, is there? It is only when you love something and expect a
return of your love that there is a relationship. When you love, that is when you give yourself over to
something entirely, wholly, then there is no relationship.
If you do love, if there is such a love, then it is a marvellous thing. In such love there is no friction,
there is not the one and the other, there is complete unity. It is a state of integration, a complete
being. There are such moments, such rare, happy, joyous moments, when there is complete love,
The First And Last Freedom 106 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 31. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 9 ’ON RELATIONSHIP’
complete communion. What generally happens is that love is not what is important but the other, the
object of love becomes important; the one to whom love is given becomes important and not love
itself. Then the object of love, for various reasons, either biological, verbal or because of a desire
for gratiﬁcation, for comfort and so on, becomes important and love recedes. Then possession,
jealousy and demands create conﬂict and love recedes further and further; the further it recedes,
the more the problem of relationship loses its signiﬁcance, its worth and its meaning. Therefore, love
is one of the most difﬁcult things to comprehend. It cannot come through an intellectual urgency, it
cannot be manufactured by various methods and means and disciplines. It is a state of being when
the activities of the self have ceased; but they will not cease if you merely suppress them, shun
them or discipline them. You must understand the activities of the self in all the different layers of
consciousness. We have moments when we do love, when there is no thought, no motive, but those
moments are very rare. Because they are rare we cling to them in memory and thus create a barrier
between living reality and the action of our daily existence.
In order to understand relationship it is important to understand ﬁrst of all what is, what is actually
taking place in our lives, in all the different subtle forms; and also what relationship actually means.
Relationship is self-revelation. it is because we do not want to be revealed to ourselves that we hide
in comfort, and then relationship loses its extraordinary depth, signiﬁcance and beauty. There can
be true relationship only when there is love but love is not the search for gratiﬁcation. Love exists
only when there is self-forgetfulness, when there is complete communion, not between one or two,
but communion with the highest; and that can only take place when the self is forgotten.
The First And Last Freedom 107 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 32
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 10 ’ON WAR’
Question: How can we solve our present political chaos and the crisis in the world? Is there anything
an individual can do to stop the impending war?
Krishnamurti: War is the spectacular and bloody projection of our everyday life, is it not? War is
merely an outward expression of our inward state, an enlargement of our daily action. It is more
spectacular, more bloody, more destructive, but it is the collective result of our individual activities.
Therefore, you and I are responsible for war and what can we do to stop it? Obviously the ever-
impending war cannot be stopped by you and me, because it is already in movement; it is already
taking place, though at present chieﬂy on the psychological level. As it is already in movement, it
cannot be stopped – the issues are too many, too great, and are already committed. But you and I,
seeing that the house is on ﬁre, can understand the causes of that ﬁre, can go away from it and build
in a new place with different materials that are not combustible, that will not produce other wars.
That is all that we can do. You and I can see what creates wars, and if we are interested in stopping
wars, then we can begin to transform ourselves, who are the causes of war.
An American lady came to see me a couple of years ago, during the war. She said she had lost her
son in Italy and that she had another son aged sixteen whom she wanted to save; so we talked the
thing over. I suggested to her that to save her son she had to cease to be an American; she had
to cease to be greedy, cease piling up wealth, seeking power, domination, and be morally simple
– not merely simple in clothes, in outward things, but simple in her thoughts and feelings, in her
relationships. She said, ”That is too much. You are asking far too much. I cannot do it, because
circumstances are too powerful for me to alter”. Therefore she was responsible for the destruction
of her son.
Circumstances can be controlled by us, because we have created the circumstances. Society is
the product of relationship, of yours and mine together. If we change in our relationship, society
108CHAPTER 32. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 10 ’ON WAR’
changes; merely to rely on legislation, on compulsion, for the transformation of outward society,
while remaining inwardly corrupt, while continuing inwardly to seek power, position, domination, is
to destroy the outward, however carefully and scientiﬁcally built. That which is inward is always
overcoming the outward. What causes war – religious, political or economic? Obviously belief,
either in nationalism, in an ideology, or in a particular dogma. If we had no belief but goodwill, love
and consideration between us, then there would be no wars. But we are fed on beliefs, ideas and
dogmas and therefore we breed discontent. The present crisis is of an exceptional nature and we
as human beings must either pursue the path of constant conﬂict and continuous wars, which are
the result of our everyday action, or else see the causes of war and turn our back upon them.
Obviously what causes war is the desire for power, position, prestige, money; also the disease called
nationalism, the worship of a ﬂag; and the disease of organized religion, the worship of a dogma.
All these are the causes of war; if you as an individual belong to any of the organized religions, if
you are greedy for power, if you are envious, you are bound to produce a society which will result
in destruction. So again it depends upon you and not on the leaders – not on so-called statesmen
and all the rest of them. It depends upon you and me but we do not seem to realize that. If once
we really felt the responsibility of our own actions, how quickly we could bring to an end all these
wars, this appalling misery! But you see, we are indifferent. We have three meals a day, we have
our jobs, we have our bank accounts, big or little, and we say, ”For God’s sake, don’t disturb us,
leave us alone”. The higher up we are, the more we want security, permanency, tranquillity, the
more we want to be left alone, to maintain things ﬁxed as they are; but they cannot be maintained as
they are, because there is nothing to maintain. Everything is disintegrating. We do not want to face
these things, we do not want to face the fact that you and I are responsible for wars. You and I may
talk about peace, have conferences, sit round a table and discuss, but inwardly, psychologically,
we want power, posit1on, we are motivated by greed. We intrigue, we are nationalistic, we are
bound by beliefs, by dogmas, for which we are willing to die and destroy each other. Do you think
such men, you and I, can have peace in the world? To have peace, we must be peaceful; to live
peacefully means not to create antagonism. Peace is not an ideal. To me, an ideal is merely an
escape, an avoidance of what is, a contradiction of what is. An ideal prevents direct action upon
what is. To have peace, we will have to love, we will have to begin not to live an ideal life but to
see things as they are and act upon them, transform them. As long as each one of us is seeking
psychological security, the physiological security we need – food, clothing and shelter – is destroyed.
We are seeking psychological security, which does not exist; and we seek it, if we can, through
power, through position, through titles, names – all of which is destroying physical security. This is
an obvious fact, if you look at it.
To bring about peace in the world, to stop all wars, there must be a revolution in the individual, in you
and me. Economic revolution without this inward revolution is meaningless, for hunger is the result
of the maladjustment of economic conditions produced by our psychological states – greed, envy, ill
will and possessiveness. To put an end to sorrow, to hunger, to war, there must be a psychological
revolution and few of us are willing to face that. We will discuss peace, plan legislation, create
new leagues, the United Nations and so on and on; but we will not win peace because we will not
give up our position, our authority, our money, our properties, our stupid lives. To rely on others is
utterly futile; others cannot bring us peace. No leader is going to give us peace, no government, no
army, no country. What will bring peace is inward transformation which will lead to outward action.
Inward transformation is not isolation, is not a withdrawal from outward action. On the contrary, there
can be right action only when there is right thinking and there is no right thinking when there is no
The First And Last Freedom 109 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 32. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 10 ’ON WAR’
self-knowledge. Without knowing yourself, there is no peace.
To put an end to outward war, you must begin to put an end to war in yourself. Some of you will
nod your heads and say, ”I agree”, and go outside and do exactly the same as you have been doing
for the last ten or twenty years. Your agreement is merely verbal and has no signiﬁcance, for the
world’s miseries and wars are not going to be stopped by your casual assent. They will be stopped
only when you realize the danger, when you realize your responsibility, when you do not leave it to
somebody else. If you realize the suffering, if you see the urgency of immediate action and do not
postpone, then you will transform yourself; peace will come only when you yourself are peaceful,
when you yourself are at peace with your neighbour.
The First And Last Freedom 110 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 33
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 11 ’ON FEAR’
Question: How am I to get rid of fear, which inﬂuences all my activities?
Krishnamurti: What do we mean by fear? Fear of what? There are various types of fear and we
need not analyse every type. But we can see that fear comes into being when our comprehension
of relationship is not complete. Relationship is not only between people but between ourselves and
nature, between ourselves and property, between ourselves and ideas; as long as that relationship
is not fully understood, there must be fear. Life is relationship. To be is to be related and without
relationship there is no life. Nothing can exist in isolation; so long as the mind is seeking isolation,
there must be fear. Fear is not an abstraction; it exists only in relation to something.
The question is, how to be rid of fear? First of all, anything that is overcome has to be conquered
again and again. No problem can be ﬁnally overcome, conquered; it can be understood but not
conquered. They are two completely different processes and the conquering process leads to
further confusion, further fear. To resist, to dominate, to do battle with a problem or to build a
defence against it is only to create further conﬂict, whereas if we can understand fear, go into it fully
step by step, explore the whole content of it, then fear will never return in any form.
As I said, fear is not an abstraction; it exists only in relationship. What do we mean by fear?
Ultimately we are afraid, are we not?, of not being, of not becoming. Now, when there is fear
of not being, of not advancing, or fear of the unknown, of death, can that fear be overcome by
determination, by a conclusion, by any choice? Obviously not. Mere suppression, sublimation,
or substitution, creates further resistance, does it not? Therefore fear can never be overcome
through any form of discipline, through any form of resistance. That fact must be clearly seen,
felt and experienced: fear cannot be overcome through any form of defence or resistance nor can
there be freedom from fear through the search for an answer or through mere intellectual or verbal
111CHAPTER 33. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 11 ’ON FEAR’
Now what are we afraid of? Are we afraid of a fact or of an idea about the fact? Are we afraid of the
thing as it is, or are we afraid of what we think it is? Take death, for example. Are we afraid of the
fact of death or of the idea of death? The fact is one thing and the idea about the fact is another.
Am I afraid of the word ‘death’ or of the fact itself? Because I am afraid of the word, of the idea, I
never understand the fact, I never look at the fact, I am never in direct relation with the fact. It is only
when I am in complete communion with the fact that there is no fear. If I am not in communion with
the fact, then there is fear, and there is no communion with the fact so long as I have an idea, an
opinion, a theory, about the fact, so I have to be very clear whether I am afraid of the word, the idea
or of the fact. If I am face to face with the fact, there is nothing to understand about it: the fact is
there, and I can deal with it. If I am afraid of the word, then I must understand the word, go into the
whole process of what the word, the term, implies.
For example, one is afraid of loneliness, afraid of the ache, the pain of loneliness. Surely that
fear exists because one has never really looked at loneliness, one has never been in complete
communion with it. The moment one is completely open to the fact of loneliness one can understand
what it is, but one has an idea, an opinion about it, based on previous knowledge; it is this idea,
opinion, this previous knowledge about the fact, that creates fear. Fear is obviously the out- come
of naming, of terming, of projecting a symbol to represent the fact; that is fear is not independent of
the word, of the term.
I have a reaction, say, to loneliness; that is I say I am afraid of being nothing. Am I afraid of the fact
itself or is that fear awakened because I have previous knowledge of the fact, knowledge being the
word, the symbol, the image? How can there be fear of a fact? When I am face to face with a fact,
in direct communion with it, I can look at it, observe it; therefore there is no fear of the fact. What
causes fear is my apprehension about the fact, what the fact might be or do.
It is my opinion, my idea, my experience, my knowledge about the fact, that creates fear. So long as
there is verbalization of the fact, giving the fact a name and therefore identifying or condemning it, so
long as thought is judging the fact as an observer, there must be fear. Thought is the product of the
past, it can only exist through verbalization, through symbols, through images; so long as thought is
regarding or translating the fact, there must be fear.
Thus it is the mind that creates fear, the mind being the process of thinking. Thinking is verbalization.
You cannot think without words, without symbols, images; these images, which are the prejudices,
the previous knowledge, the apprehensions of the mind, are projected upon the fact, and out of that
there arises fear. There is freedom from fear only when the mind is capable of looking at the fact
without translating it, without giving it a name, a label. This is quite difﬁcult, because the feelings,
the reactions, the anxieties that we have, are promptly identiﬁed by the mind and given a word. The
feeling of jealousy is identiﬁed by that word. Is it possible not to identify a feeling, to look at that
feeling without naming it? It is the naming of the feeling that gives it continuity, that gives it strength.
The moment you give a name to that which you call fear, you strengthen it; but if you can look at that
feeling without terming it, you will see that it withers away. Therefore if one would be completely free
of fear it is essential to understand this whole process of terming, of projecting symbols, images,
giving names to facts. There can be freedom from fear only when there is self-knowledge. Self-
knowledge is the beginning of wisdom, which is the ending of fear.
The First And Last Freedom 112 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 34
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 12 ’ON BOREDOM AND
Question: I am not interested in anything, but most people are busy with many interests. I don’t
have to work, so I don’t. Should I undertake some useful work?
Krishnamurti: Become a social worker or a political worker or a religious worker – is that it? Because
you have nothing else to do, therefore you become a reformer! If you have nothing to do, if you are
bored, why not be bored? Why not be that? If you are in sorrow, be sorrowful. Don’t try to ﬁnd a
way out of it, because your being bored has an immense signiﬁcance, if you can understand it, live
with it. If you say, ”I am bored, therefore I will do something else”, you are merely try to escape
from boredom, and, as most of our activities are escapes, you do much more harm socially and in
every other way. The mischief is much greater when you escape than when you are what you are
and remain with it. The difﬁculty is, how to remain with it and not run away; as most of our activities
are a process of escape it is immensely difﬁcult for you to stop escaping and face it. Therefore I am
glad if you are really bored and I say, ”Full stop, let’s stay there, let’s look at it. Why should you do
If you are bored, why are you bored? What is the thing called boredom? Why is it that you are not
interested in anything? There must be reasons and causes which have made you dull: suffering,
escapes, beliefs, incessant activity, have made the mind dull, the heart unpliable. If you could ﬁnd
out why you are bored, why there is no interest, then surely you would solve the problem, wouldn’t
you? Then the awakened interest will function. If you are not interested in why you are bored, you
cannot force yourself to be interested in an activity, merely to be doing something – like a squirrel
going round in a cage. I know that this is the kind of activity most of us indulge in. But we can ﬁnd out
inwardly, psychologically, why we are in this state of utter boredom; we can see why most of us are in
this state: we have exhausted ourselves emotionally and mentally; we have tried so many things, so
113CHAPTER 34. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 12 ’ON BOREDOM AND INTEREST’
many sensations, so many amusements, so many experiments, that we have become dull, weary.
We join one group, do everything wanted of us and then leave it; we then go to something else and
try that. If we fail with one psychologist, we go to somebody else or to the priest; if we fail there, we
go to another teacher, and so on; we always keep going. This process of constantly stretching and
letting go is exhausting, isn’t it? Like all sensations, it soon dulls the mind.
We have done that, we have gone from sensation to sensation, from excitement to excitement, till
we come to a point when we are really exhausted. Now, realizing that, don’t proceed any further;
take a rest. Be quiet. Let the mind gather strength by itself; don’t force it. As the soil renews itself
during the winter time, so, when the mind is allowed to be quiet, it renews itself. But it is very difﬁcult
to allow the mind to be quiet, to let it lie fallow after all this, for the mind wants to be doing something
all the time. When you come to that point where you are really allowing yourself to be as you are –
bored, ugly, hideous, or whatever it is – then there is a possibility of dealing with it.
What happens when you accept something, when you accept what you are? When you accept that
you are what you are, where is the problem? There is a problem only when we do not accept a
thing as it is and wish to transform it – which does not mean that I am advocating contentment; on
the contrary. If we accept what we are, then we see that the thing which we dreaded, the thing
which we called boredom, the thing which we called despair, the thing which we called fear, has
undergone a complete change. There is a complete transformation of the thing of which we were
afraid. That is why it is important, as I said, to understand the process, the ways of our own thinking.
Self-knowledge cannot be gathered through anybody, through any book, through any confession,
psychology, or psychoanalyst. It has to be found by yourself, because it is your life; without the
widening and deepening of that knowledge of the self, do what you will, alter any outward or inward
circumstances, inﬂuences – it will ever be a breeding ground of despair, pain, sorrow. To go beyond
the self-enclosing activities of the mind, you must understand them; and to understand them is to
be aware of action in relationship, relationship to things, to people and to ideas. In that relationship,
which is the mirror, we begin to see ourselves, without any justiﬁcation or condemnation; and from
that wider and deeper knowledge oF the ways of our own mind, it is possible to proceed further; it is
possible for the mind to be quiet, to receive that which is real.
The First And Last Freedom 114 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 35
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 13 ’ON HATE’
Question: If I am perfectly honest, I have to admit that I resent, and at times hate, almost everybody.
It makes my life very unhappy and painful. I understand intellectually that I am this resentment, this
hatred; but I cannot cope with it. Can you show me a way?
Krishnamurti: What do we mean by ‘intellectually’? When we say that we understand something
intellectually, what do we mean by that? Is there such a thing as intellectual understanding? Or is
it that the mind merely understands the words, because that is our only way of communicating with
each other? Can we, however, really understand anything merely verbally, mentally? That is the ﬁrst
thing we have to be clear about: whether so-called intellectual understanding is not an impediment
to understanding. Surely understanding is integral, not divided, not partial? Either I understand
something or I don’t. To say to oneself, ”I understand something intellectually”, is surely a barrier to
understanding. It is a partial process and therefore no understanding at all.
Now the question is this: ”How am I, who am resentful, hateful, how am I to be free of, or cope with
that problem?” How do we cope with a problem? What is a problem? Surely, a problem is something
which is disturbing.
I am resentful, I am hateful; I hate people and it causes pain. And I am aware of it. What am I to
do? It is a very disturbing factor in my life. What am I to do, how am I to be really free of it – not just
momentarily slough it off but fundamentally be free of it? How am I to do it?
It is a problem to me because it disturbs me. If it were not a disturbing thing, it would not be a
problem to me, would it? Because it causes pain, disturbance, anxiety, because I think it is ugly, I
want to get rid of it. Therefore the thing that I am objecting to is the disturbance, isn’t it? I give it
different names at different times, in different moods; one day I call it this and another something
115CHAPTER 35. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 13 ’ON HATE’
else but the desire is, basically, not to be disturbed. Isn’t that it? Because pleasure is not disturbing,
I accept it. I don’t want to be free from pleasure, because there is no disturbance – at least, not for
the time being, but hate, resentment, are very disturbing factors in my life and I want to get rid of
My concern is not to be disturbed and I am trying to ﬁnd a way in which I shall never be disturbed.
Why should I not be disturbed? I must be disturbed, to ﬁnd out, must I not? I must go through
tremendous upheavals, turmoil, anxiety, to ﬁnd out, must I not? If I am not disturbed I shall remain
asleep and perhaps that is what most of us do want – to be paciﬁed, to be put to sleep, to get away
from any disturbance, to ﬁnd isolation, seclusion, security. If I do not mind being disturbed – really, not
just superﬁcially, if I don’t mind being disturbed, because I want to ﬁnd out – then my attitude towards
hate, towards resentment, undergoes a change, doesn’t it? If I do not mind being disturbed, then the
name is not important, is it? The word ‘hate’ is not important, is it? Or‘resentment’ against people
is not important, is it? Because then I am directly experiencing the state which I call resentment
without verbalizing that experience.
Anger is a very disturbing quality, as hate and resentment are; and very few of us experience anger
directly without verbalizing it. If we do not verbalize it, if we do not call it anger, surely there is
a different experience, is there not?, Because we term it, we reduce a new experience or ﬁx it in
the terms of the old, whereas, if we do not name it, then there is an experience which is directly
understood and this understanding brings about a transformation in that experiencing. Take, for
example, meanness. Most of us, if we are mean, are unaware of it – mean about money matters,
mean about forgiving people, you know, just being mean. I am sure we are familiar with that. Now,
being aware of it, how are we going to be free from that quality? – not to become generous, that is
not the important point. To be free from meanness implies generosity, you haven’t got to become
generous. Obviously one must be aware of it. You may be very generous in giving a large donation
to your society, to your friends, but awfully mean about giving a bigger tip – you know what I mean
by ‘mean’. One is unconscious of it. When one becomes aware of it, what happens? We exert our
will to be generous; we try to overcome it; we discipline ourselves to be generous and so on and so
on. But, after all, the exertion of will to be something is still part of meanness in a larger circle, so
if we do not do any of those things but are merely aware of the implications of meanness, without
giving it a term, then we will see that there takes place a radical transformation.
Please experiment with this. First, one must be disturbed, and it is obvious that most of us do not
like to be disturbed. We think we have found a pattern of life – the Master, the belief, whatever it is –
and there we settle down. It is like having a good bureaucratic job and functioning there for the rest
of one’s life. With that same mentality we approach various qualities of which we want to be rid. We
do not see the importance of being disturbed, of being inwardly insecure, of not being dependent.
Surely it is only in insecurity that you discover, that you see, that you understand? We want to be
like a man with plenty of money, at ease; he will not be disturbed; he doesn’t want to be disturbed.
Disturbance is essential for understanding and any attempt to ﬁnd security is a hindrance to
understanding. When we want to get rid of something which is disturbing, it is surely a hindrance.
If we can experience a feeling directly, without naming it, I think we shall ﬁnd a great deal in it;
then there is no longer a battle with it, because the experiencer and the thing experienced are
one, and that is essential. So long as the experiencer verbalizes the feeling, the experience, he
separates himself from it and acts upon it; such action is an artiﬁcial, illusory action. But if there
The First And Last Freedom 116 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 35. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 13 ’ON HATE’
is no verbalization, then the experiencer and the thing experienced are one. That integration is
necessary and has to be radically faced.
The First And Last Freedom 117 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 36
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 14 ’ON GOSSIP’
Question: Gossip has value in self-revelation, especially in revealing others to me. Seriously, why
not use gossip as a means of discovering what is? I do not shiver at the word ‘gossip’ just because
it has been condemned for ages.
Krishnamurti: I wonder why we gossip? Not because it reveals others to us. And why should others
be revealed to us? Why do you want to know others? Why this extraordina1y concern about others?
First of all, why do we gossip? It is a form of restlessness, is it not? Like worry, it is an indication
of a restless mind. Why this desire to interfere with others, to know what others are doing, saying?
It is a very superﬁcial mind that gossips, isn’t it? – an inquisitive mind which is wrongly directed.
The questioner seems to think that others are revealed to him by his being concerned with them –
with their doings, with their thoughts, with their opinions. But do we know others if we don’t know
ourselves? Can we judge others, if we do not know the way of our own thinking, the way we act, the
way we behave? Why this extraordinary concern over others? Is it not an escape, really, this desire
to ﬁnd out what others are thinking and feeling and gossiping about? Doesn’t it offer an escape
from ourselves? Is there not in it also the desire to interfere with others’ lives? Isn’t our own life
sufﬁciently difﬁcult, sufﬁciently complex, sufﬁciently painful, without dealing with others’, interfering
with others’? Is there time to think about others in that gossipy, cruel, ugly manner? Why do we do
this? You know, everybody does it. Practically everybody gossips about somebody else. Why?
I think, ﬁrst of all, we gossip about others because we are not sufﬁciently interested in the process
of our own thinking and of our own action. We want to see what others are doing and perhaps, to
put it kindly, to imitate others. Generally, when we gossip it is to condemn others, but, stretching it
charitably, it is perhaps to imitate others. Why do we want to imitate others? Doesn’t it all indicate an
extraordinary shallowness on our own part? It is an extraordinarily dull mind that wants excitement,
and goes outside itself to get it. In other words gossip is a form of sensation, isn’t it?, in which we
118CHAPTER 36. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 14 ’ON GOSSIP’
indulge. It may be a different kind of sensation, but there is always this desire to ﬁnd excitement,
distraction. If one really goes into this question deeply, one comes back to oneself, which shows
that one is really extraordinarily shallow and seeking excitement from outside by talking about others.
Catch yourself the next time you are gossiping about somebody; if you are aware of it, it will indicate
an awful lot to you about yourself. Don’t cover it up by saying that you are merely inquisitive about
others. It indicates restlessness, a sense of excitement, a shallowness, a lack of real, profound
interest in people which has nothing to do with gossip.
The next problem is, how to stop gossip. That is the next question, isn’t it? When you are aware that
you are gossiping, how do you stop gossiping? If it has become a habit, an ugly thing that continues
day after day, how do you stop it? Does that question arise? When you know you are gossiping,
when you are aware that you are gossiping, aware of all its implications, do you then say to yourself,
”How am I to stop it?” Does it not stop of its own accord, the moment you are aware that you are
gossiping? The ’how’ does not arise at all. The ‘how’ arises only when you are unaware; and gossip
indicates a lack of awareness. Experiment with this for yourself the next time you are gossiping, and
see how quickly, how immediately you stop gossiping when you are aware of what you are talking
about, aware that your tongue is running away with you. It does not demand the action of will to
stop it. All that is necessary is to be aware, to be conscious of what you are saying and to see the
implications of it. You don’t have to condemn or justify gossip. Be aware of it and you will see how
quickly you stop gossiping; because it reveals to oneself one’s own ways of action, one’s behaviour,
thought pattern; in that revelation, one discovers oneself, which is far more important than gossiping
about others, about what they are doing, what they are thinking, how they behave.
Most of us who read daily newspapers are ﬁlled with gossip, global gossip. It is all an escape
from ourselves, from our own pettiness, from our own ugliness. We think that through a superﬁcial
interest in world events we are becoming more and more wise, more capable of dealing with our
own lives. All these, surely, are ways of escaping from ourselves, are they not? In ourselves we are
so empty, shallow; we are so frightened of ourselves. We are so poor in ourselves that gossip acts
as a form of rich entertainment, an escape from ourselves. We try to ﬁll that emptiness in us with
knowledge, with rituals, with gossip, with group meetings – with the innumerable ways of escape, so
the escapes become all-important, and not the understanding of what is. The understanding of what
is demands attention; to know that one is empty, that one is in pain, needs immense attention and
not escapes, but most of us like these escapes, because they are much more pleasurable, more
pleasant. Also, when we know ourselves as we are, it is very difﬁcult to deal with ourselves; that is
one of the problems with which we are faced. We don’t know what to do. When I know that I am
empty, that I am suffering, that I am in pain, I don’t know what to do, how to deal with it. So one
resorts to all kinds of escapes.
The question is, what to do? Obviously, of course, one cannot escape; for that is most absurd and
childish. But when you are faced with yourself as you are, what are you to do? First, is it possible
not to deny or justify it but just to remain with it, as you are? – which is extremely arduous, because
the mind seeks explanation, condemnation, identiﬁcation. If it does not do any of those things but
remains with it, then it is like accepting something. If I accept that I am brown, that is the end of
it; but if I am desirous of changing to a lighter colour, then the problem arises. To accept what is
is most difﬁcult; one can do that only when there is no escape and condemnation or justiﬁcation
is a form of escape. Therefore when one understands the whole process of why one gossips and
when one realizes the absurdity of it, the cruelty and all the things involved in it, then one is left with
The First And Last Freedom 119 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 36. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 14 ’ON GOSSIP’
what one is; and we approach it always either to destroy it, or to change it into something else. If
we don’t do either of those things but approach it with the intention of understanding it, being with it
completely, then we will ﬁnd that it is no longer the thing that we dreaded. Then there is a possibility
of transforming that which is.
The First And Last Freedom 120 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 37
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 15 ’ON CRITICISM’
Question: What place has criticism in relationship? What is the difference between destructive and
Krishnamurti: First of all, why do we criticize? Is it in order to understand? Or is it merely a nagging
process? If I criticize you, do I understand you? Does understanding come through judgement? If
I want to comprehend, if I want to understand not superﬁcially but deeply the whole signiﬁcance of
my relationship to you, do I begin to criticize you? Or am I aware of this relationship between you
and me, silently observing it – not projecting my opinions, criticisms, judgements, identiﬁcations or
condemnations, but silently observing what is happening? And if I do not criticize, what happens?
One is apt to go to sleep, is one not? Which does not mean that we do not go to sleep if we
are nagging. Perhaps that becomes a habit and we put ourselves to sleep through habit. Is
there a deeper, wider understanding of relationship, through criticism? It doesn’t matter whether
criticism is constructive or destructive – that is irrelevant, surely. Therefore the question is: ”What
is the necessary state of mind and heart that will understand relationship?” What is the process
of understanding? How do we understand something? How do you understand your child, if you
are interested in your child? You observe, don’t you? You watch him at play, you study him in
his different moods; you don’t project your opinion on to him. You don’t say he should be this or
that. You are alertly watchful, aren’t you?, actively aware. Then, perhaps, you begin to understand
the child. If you are constantly criticizing, constantly injecting your own particular personality, your
idiosyncrasies, your opinions, deciding the way he should or should not be, and all the rest of it,
obviously you create a barrier in that relationship. Unfortunately most of us criticize in order to
shape, in order to interfere; it gives us a certain amount of pleasure, a certain gratiﬁcation, to shape
something – the relationship with a husband, child or whoever it may be. You feel a sense of power
in it, you are the boss, and in that there is a tremendous gratiﬁcation. Surely through all that process
there is no understanding of relationship. There is mere imposition, the desire to mould another to
121CHAPTER 37. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 15 ’ON CRITICISM’
the particular pattern of your idiosyncrasy, your desire, your wish. All these prevent, do they not?,
the understanding of relationship.
Then there is self-criticism. To be critical of oneself, to criticize, condemn, or justify oneself – does
that bring understanding of oneself? When I begin to criticize myself, do I not limit the process
of understanding, of exploring? Does introspection, a form of self-criticism, unfold the self? What
makes the unfoldment of the self possible? To be constantly analytical, fearful, critical – surely
that does not help to unfold. What brings about the unfoldment of the self so that you begin to
understand it is the constant awareness of it without any condemnation, without any identiﬁcation.
There must be a certain spontaneity; you cannot be constantly analysing it, disciplining it, shaping
it. This spontaneity is essential to understanding. If I merely limit, control, condemn, then I put a
stop to the movement of thought and feeling, do I not? It is in the movement of thought and feeling
that I discover – not in mere control. When one discovers, then it is important to ﬁnd out how to act
about it. If I act according to an idea, according to a standard, according to an ideal, then I force
the self into a particular pattern. In that there is no understanding, there is no transcending. If I can
watch the self without any condemnation, without any identiﬁcation, then it is possible to go beyond
it. That is why this whole process of approximating oneself to an ideal is so utterly wrong. Ideals are
homemade gods and to conform to a self-projected image is surely not a release.
Thus there can be understanding only when the mind is silently aware, observing – which is arduous,
because we take delight in being active, in being restless, critical, in condemning, justifying. That
is our whole structure of being; and, through the screen of ideas, prejudices, points of view,
experiences, memories, we try to understand. Is it possible to be free of all these screens and
so understand directly? Surely we do that when the problem is very intense; we do not go through
all these methods – we approach it directly. The understanding of relationship comes only when
this process of self-criticism is understood and the mind is quiet. If you are listening to me and
are trying to follow, with not too great an effort, what I wish to convey, then there is a possibility
of our understanding each other. But if you are all the time criticizing, throwing up your opinions,
what you have learned from books, what somebody else has told you and so on and so on, then
you and I are not related, because this screen is between us. If we are both trying to ﬁnd out the
issues of the problem, which lie in the problem itself, if both of us are eager to go to the bottom
of it, ﬁnd the truth of it, discover what it is – then we are related. Then your mind is both alert and
passive, watching to see what is true in this. Therefore your mind must be extraordinarily swift, not
anchored to any idea or ideal, to any judgement, to any opinion that you have consolidated through
your particular experiences. Understanding comes, surely, when there is the swift pliability of a mind
which is passively aware. Then it is capable of reception, then it is sensitive. A mind is not sensitive
when it is crowded with ideas, prejudices, opinions, either for or against.
To understand relationship, there must be a passive awareness – which does not destroy
relationship. On the contrary, it makes relationship much more vital, much more signiﬁcant. Then
there is in that relationship a possibility of real affection; there is a warmth, a sense of nearness,
which is not mere sentiment or sensation. If we can so approach or be in that relationship to
everything, then our problems will be easily solved – the problems of property, the problems of
possession, because we are that which we possess. The man who possesses money is the money.
The man who identiﬁes himself with property is the property or the house or the furniture. Similarly
with ideas or with people; when there is possessiveness, there is no relationship. Most of us possess
because we have nothing else if we do not possess. We are empty shells if we do not possess, if we
The First And Last Freedom 122 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 37. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 15 ’ON CRITICISM’
do not ﬁll our life with furniture, with music, with knowledge, with this or that. And that shell makes a
lot of noise and that noise we call living; and with that we are satisﬁed. When there is a disruption,
a breaking away of that, then there is sorrow, because then you suddenly discover yourself as you
are – an empty shell, without much meaning. To be aware of the whole content of relationship is
action, and from that action there is a possibility of true relationship, a possibility of discovering its
great depth, its great signiﬁcance and of knowing what love is.
The First And Last Freedom 123 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 38
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 16 ’ON BELIEF IN GOD’
Question: Belief in God has been a powerful incentive to better liv1ng. Why do you deny God? Why
do you not try to revive man’s faith in the idea of God?
Krishnamurti: Let us look at the problem widely and intelligently. I am not denying God – it would be
foolish to do so. Only the man who does not know reality indulges in meaningless words. The man
who says he knows, does not know; the man who is experiencing reality from moment to moment
has no means of communicating that reality.
Belief is a denial of truth, belief hinders truth; to believe in God is not to ﬁnd God. Neither the
believer nor the non-believer will ﬁnd God; because reality is the unknown, and your belief or non-
belief in the unknown is merely a self-projection and therefore not real. I know you believe and I
know it has very little meaning in your life. There are many people who believe; millions believe
in God and take consolation. First of all, why do you believe? You believe because it gives you
satisfaction, consolation, hope, and you say it gives signiﬁcance to life. Actually your belief has very
little signiﬁcance, because you believe and exploit, you believe and kill, you believe in a universal
God and murder each other. The rich man also believes in God; he exploits ruthlessly, accumulates
money, and then builds a temple or becomes a philanthropist.
The men who dropped the atomic bomb on Hirosh1ma said that God was with them; those who
ﬂew from England to destroy Germany said that God was their co-pilot. The dictators, the prime
ministers, the generals, the presidents, all talk of God, they have immense faith in God. Are they
doing service, making a better life for man? The people who say they believe in God have destroyed
half the world and the world is in complete misery. Through religious intolerance there are divisions
of people as believers and non-believers, leading to religious wars. It indicates how extraordinarily
politically-minded you are.
124CHAPTER 38. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 16 ’ON BELIEF IN GOD’
Is belief in God ”a powerful incentive to better living”? Why do you want an incentive to better living?
Surely, your incentive must be your own desire to live cleanly and simply, must it not? If you look to
an incentive you are not interested in making life possible for all, you are merely interested in your
incentive, which is different from mine – and we will quarrel over the incentive. If we live happily
together not because we believe in God but because we are human beings, then we will share the
entire means of production in order to produce things for all. Through lack of intelligence we accept
the idea of a super-intelligence which we call ‘God; but this ‘God’, this super-intelligence, is not going
to give us a better life. What leads to a better life is intelligence; and there cannot be intelligence
if there is belief, if there are class divisions, if the means of production are in the hands of a few,
if there are isolated nationalities and sovereign governments. All this obviously indicates lack of
intelligence and it is the lack of intelligence that is preventing a better living, not non-belief in God.
You all believe in different ways, but your belief has no reality whatsoever. Reality is what you are,
what you do, what you think, and your belief in God is merely an escape from your monotonous,
stupid and cruel life. Furthermore, belief invariably divides people: there is the Hindu, the Buddhist,
the Christian, the communist, the socialist, the capitalist and so on. Belief, idea, divides; it never
brings people together. You may bring a few people together in a group but that group is opposed
to another group. Ideas and beliefs are never unifying; on the contrary, they are separative,
disintegrating and destructive. Therefore your belief in God is really spreading misery in the world;
though it may have brought you momentary consolation, in actuality it has brought you more misery
and destruction in the form of wars, famines, class divisions and the ruthless action of separate
individuals. So your belief has no validity at all. If you really believed in God, if it were a real
experience to you, then your face would have a smile; you would not be destroying human beings.
Now, what is reality, what is God? God is not the word, the word is not the thing. To know that which
is immeasurable, which is not of time, the mind must be free of time, which means the mind must
be free from all thought, from all ideas about God. What do you know about God or truth?, You do
not really know anything about that reality. All that you know are words, the experiences of others
or some moments of rather vague experience of your own. Surely that is not God, that is not reality,
that is not beyond the ﬁeld of time. To know that which is beyond time, the process of time must
be understood, time being thought, the process of becoming, the accumulation of knowledge. That
is the whole background of the mind; the mind itself is the background, both the conscious and the
unconscious, the collective and the individual. So the mind must be free of the known, which means
the mind must be completely silent, not made silent. The mind that achieves silence as a result,
as the outcome of determined action, of practice, of discipline, is not a silent mind. The mind that
is forced, controlled, shaped, put into a frame and kept quiet, is not a still mind. You may succeed
for a period of time in forcing the mind to be superﬁcially silent, but such a mind is not a still mind.
Stillness comes only when you understand the whole process of thought, because to understand
the process is to end it and the ending of the process of thought is the beginning of silence.
Only when the mind is completely silent not only on the upper level but fundamentally, right through,
on both the superﬁcial and the deeper levels of consciousness – only then can the unknown come
into being. The unknown is not something to be experienced by the mind; silence alone can be
experienced, nothing but silence. If the mind experiences anything but silence, it is merely projecting
its own desires and such a mind is not silent; so long as the mind is not silent, so long as thought
in any form, conscious or unconscious, is in movement, there can be no silence. Silence is freedom
from the past, from knowledge, from both conscious and unconscious memory; when the mind is
The First And Last Freedom 125 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 38. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 16 ’ON BELIEF IN GOD’
completely silent, not in use, when there is the silence which is not a product of effort, then only
does the timeless, the eternal come into being. That state is not a state of remembering – there is
no entity that remembers, that experiences.
Therefore God or truth or what you will is a thing that comes into being from moment to moment, and
it happens only in a state of freedom and spontaneity, not when the mind is disciplined according
to a pattern. God is not a thing of the mind, it does not come through self-projection, it comes only
when there is virtue, which is freedom. Virtue is facing the fact of what is and the facing of the fact is
a state of bliss. Only when the mind is blissful, quiet, without any movement of its own, without the
projection of thought, conscious or unconscious – only then does the eternal come into being.
The First And Last Freedom 126 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 39
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 17 ’ON MEMORY’
Question: Memory, you say, is incomplete experience. I have a memory and a vivid impression of
your previous talks. In what sense is it an incomplete experience? Please explain this idea in all its
Krishnamurti: What do we mean by memory? You go to school and are full of facts, technical
knowledge. If you are an engineer, you use the memory of technical knowledge to build a bridge.
That is factual memory. There is also psychological memory. You have said something to me,
pleasant or unpleasant, and I retain it; when I next meet you, I meet you with that memory, the
memory of what you have said or have not said. There are two facets to memory, the psychological
and the factual. They are always interrelated, therefore not clear cut. We know that factual memory is
essential as a means of livelihood but is psychological memory essential? What is the factor which
retains the psychological memory? What makes one psychologically remember insult or praise?
Why does one retain certain memories and reject others? Obviously one retains memories which
are pleasant and avoids memories which are unpleasant. If you observe, you will see that painful
memories are put aside more quickly than the pleasurable ones. Mind is memory, at whatever level,
by whatever name you call it; mind is the product of the past, it is founded on the past, which is
memory, a conditioned state. Now with that memory we meet life, we meet a new challenge. The
challenge is always new and our response is always old, because it is the outcome of the past.
So experiencing without memory is one state and experiencing with memory is another. That is
there is a challenge, which is always new. I meet it with the response, with the conditioning of the
old. So what happens? I absorb the new, I do not understand it; and the experiencing of the new
is conditioned by the past. Therefore there is a partial understanding of the new, there is never
complete understanding. It is only when there is complete understanding of anything that it does not
leave the scar of memory.
127CHAPTER 39. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 17 ’ON MEMORY’
When there is a challenge, which is ever new, you meet it with the response of the old. The old
response conditions the new and therefore twists it, gives it a bias, therefore there is no complete
understanding of the new so that the new is absorbed into the old and accordingly strengthens the
old. This may seem abstract but it is not difﬁcult if you go into it a little closely and carefully. The
situation in the world at the present time demands a new approach, a new way of tackling the world
problem, which is ever new. We are incapable of approaching it anew because we approach it with
our conditioned minds, with national, local, family and religious prejudices. Our previous experiences
are acting as a barrier to the understanding of the new challenge, so we go on cultivating and
strengthening memory and therefore we never understand the new, we never meet the challenge
fully, completely. It is only when one is able to meet the challenge anew, afresh, without the past,
only then does it yield its fruits, its riches.
The questioner says, ”I have a memory and a vivid impression of your previous talks. In what
sense is it an incomplete experience?” Obviously, it is an incomplete experience if it is merely an
impression, a memory. If you understand what has been said, see the truth of it, that truth is not a
memory. Truth is not a memory, because truth is ever new, constantly transforming itself. You have a
memory of the previous talk. Why? Because you are using the previous talk as a guide, you have not
fully understood it. You want to go into it and unconsciously or consciously it is being maintained.
If you understand something completely, that is see the truth of something wholly, you will ﬁnd
there is no memory whatsoever. Our education is the cultivation of memory, the strengthening of
memory. Your religious practices and rituals, your reading and knowledge, are all the strengthening
of memory. What do we mean by that? Why do we hold to memory? I do not know if you have
noticed that, as one grows older, one looks back to the past, to its joys, to its pains, to its pleasures;
if one is young, one looks to the future. Why are we doing this? Why has memory become so
important? For the simple and obvious reason that we do not know how to live wholly, completely
in the present. We are using the present as a means to the future and therefore the present has
no signiﬁcance. We cannot live in the present because we are using the present as a passage to
the future. Because I am going to become something, there is never a complete understanding
of myself, and to understand myself, what I am exactly now, does not require the cultivation of
memory. On the contrary, memory is a hindrance to the understanding of what is. I do not know if
you have noticed that a new thought, a new feeling, comes only when the mind is not caught in the
net of memory. When there is an interval between two thoughts, between two memories, when that
interval can be maintained, then out of that interval a new state of being comes which is no longer
memory. We have memories, and we cultivate memory as a means of continuance. The ‘me’ and
the ‘mine’ becomes very important so long as the cultivation of memory exists, and as most of us are
made up of ‘me’ and ‘mine’, memory plays a very important part in our lives. If you had no memory,
your property, your family, your ideas, would not be important as such; so to give strength to ‘me’
and ‘mine’, you cultivate memory. If you observe, you will see that there is an interval between two
thoughts, between two emotions. In that interval, which is not the product of memory, there is an
extraordinary freedom from the ‘me’ and the ‘mine’ and that interval is timeless.
Let us look at the problem differently. Surely memory is time, is it not? Memory creates yesterday,
today and tomorrow. Memory of yesterday conditions today and therefore shapes tomorrow. That
is the past through the present creates the future. There is a time process going on, which is the
will to become. Memory is time, and through time we hope to achieve a result. I am a clerk today
and, given time and opportunity, I will become the manager or the owner. Therefore I must have
time, and with the same mentality we say, ”I shall achieve reality, I shall approach God”. Therefore
The First And Last Freedom 128 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 39. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 17 ’ON MEMORY’
I must have time to realize, which mean I must cultivate memory, strengthen memory by practice,
by discipline, to be something, to achieve, to gain, which mean continuation in time. Through time
we hope to achieve the timeless, through time we hope to gain the eternal. Can you do that? Can
you catch the eternal in the net of time, through memory, which is of time? The timeless can be only
when memory, which is the ‘me’ and the ‘mine’, ceases. If you see the truth of that – that through
time the timeless cannot be understood or received – then we can go into the problem of memory.
The memory of technical things is essential; but the psychological memory that maintains the self,
the ‘me’ and the ‘mine’, that gives identiﬁcation and self-continuance, is wholly detrimental to life and
to reality. When one sees the truth of that, the false drops away; therefore there is no psychological
retention of yesterday’s experience.
You see a lovely sunset, a beautiful tree in a ﬁeld and when you ﬁrst look at it, you enjoy it completely,
wholly; but you go back to it with the desire to enjoy it again. What happens when you go back with
the desire to enjoy it? There is no enjoyment, because it is the memory of yesterday’s sunset that is
now making you return, that is pushing, urging you to enjoy. Yesterday there was no memory, only a
spontaneous appreciation, a direct response; today you are desirous of recapturing the experience
of yesterday. That is, memory is intervening between you and the sunset, therefore there is no
enjoyment, there is no richness, fullness of beauty. Again, you have a friend, who said something
to you yesterday, an insult or a compliment and you retain that memory; with that memory you meet
your friend today. You do not really meet your friend – you carry with you the memory of yesterday,
which intervenes. So we go on, surrounding ourselves and our actions with memory, and therefore
there is no newness, no freshness. That is why memory makes life weary, dull and empty. We live
in antagonism with each other because the ‘me’ and the ‘mine’ are strengthened through memory.
Memory comes to life through action in the present; we give life to memory through the present
but when we do not give life to memory, it fades away. Memory of facts, of technical things, is an
obvious necessity, but memory as psychological retention is detrimental to the understanding of life,
the communion with each other.
The First And Last Freedom 129 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 40
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 18 ’SURRENDER TO
Question: What is the difference between surrendering to the will of God and what you are saying
about the acceptance of what is ?
Krishnamurti: Surely there is a vast difference, is there not? Surrendering to the will of God implies
that you already know the will of God. You are not surrendering to something you do not know. If
you know reality, you cannot surrender to it; you cease to exist; there is no surrendering to a higher
will. If you are surrendering to a higher will, then that higher will is the projection of yourself, for the
real cannot be known through the known. It comes into being only when the known ceases to be.
The known is a creation of the mind, because thought is the result of the known, of the past, and
thought can only create what it knows; therefore what it knows is not the eternal. That is why, when
you surrender to the will of God, you are surrendering to your own projections; it may be gratifying,
comforting but it is not the real.
To understand what is demands a different process – perhaps the word ‘process’ is not right but what
I mean is this: to understand what is is much more difﬁcult, it requires greater intelligence, greater
awareness, than merely to accept or give yourself over to an idea. To understand what is does not
demand effort; effort is a distraction. To understand something, to understand what is you cannot
be distracted, can you? If I want to understand what you are saying I cannot listen to music, to the
noise of people outside, I must give my whole attention to it. Thus it is extraordinarily difﬁcult and
arduous to be aware of what is, because our very thinking has become a distraction. We do not want
to understand what is. We look at what is through the spectacles of prejudice, of condemnation or
of identiﬁcation, and it is very arduous to remove these spectacles and to look at what is. Surely
what is is a fact, is the truth, and all else is an escape, is not the truth. To understand what is, the
conﬂict of duality must cease, because the negative response of becoming something other than
130CHAPTER 40. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 18 ’SURRENDER TO ‘WHAT IS”
what is is the denial of the understanding of what is. If I want to understand arrogance I must not go
into the opposite, I must not be distracted by the effort of becoming or even by the effort of trying to
understand what is. If I am arrogant, what happens? If I do not name arrogance, it ceases; which
means that in the problem itself is the answer and not away from it.
it is not a question of accepting what is; you do not accept what is, you do not accept that you are
brown or white, because it is a fact; only when you are trying to become something else do you
have to accept. The moment you recognize a fact it ceases to have any signiﬁcance; but a mind
that is trained to think of the past or of the future, trained to run away in multifarious directions,
such a mind is incapable of understanding what is. Without understanding what is you cannot
ﬁnd what is real and without that understanding life has no signiﬁcance, life is a constant battle
wherein pain and suffering continue. The real can only be understood by understanding what is.
It cannot be understood if there is any condemnation or identiﬁcation. The mind that is always
condemning or identifying cannot understand; it can only understand that within which it is caught.
The understanding of what is, being aware of what is, reveals extraordinary depths, in which is
reality, happiness and joy.
The First And Last Freedom 131 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 41
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 19 ’ON PRAYER AND
Question: Is not the longing expressed in prayer a way to God?
Krishnamurti: First of all, we are going to examine the problems contained in this question. In it are
implied prayer, concentration and meditation. Now what do we mean by prayer? First of all, in prayer
there is petition, supplication to what you call God, reality. You, as an individual, are demanding,
petitioning, begging, seeking guidance from something which you call God; therefore your approach
is one of seeking a reward, seeking a gratiﬁcation. You are in trouble, national or individual, and you
pray for guidance; or you are confused and you beg for clarity, you look for help to what you call God.
In this is implied that God, whatever God may be – we won’t discuss that for the moment – is going
to clear up the confusion which you and I have created. After all, it is we who have brought about
the confusion, the misery, the chaos, the appalling tyranny, the lack of love, and we want what we
call God to clear it up. In other words, we want our confusion, our misery, our sorrow, our conﬂict, to
be cleared away by somebody else, we petition another to bring us light and happiness.
Now when you pray, when you beg, petition for something, it generally comes into being. When you
ask, you receive; but what you receive will not create order, because what you receive does not bring
clarity, understanding. it only satisﬁes, gives gratiﬁcation but does not bring about understanding,
because, when you demand, you receive that which you yourself project. How can reality, God,
answer your particular demand? Can the immeasurable, the unutterable, be concerned with our
petty little worries, miseries, confusions, which we ourselves have created? Therefore what is it that
answers? Obviously the immeasurable cannot answer the measured, the petty, the small. But what
is it that answers? At the moment when we pray we are fairly silent, in a state of receptivity; then
our own subconscious brings a momentary clarity. You want something, you are longing for it, and
in that moment of longing, of obsequious begging, you are fairly receptive; your conscious, active
132CHAPTER 41. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 19 ’ON PRAYER AND MEDITATION’
mind is comparatively still, so the unconscious projects itself into that and you have an answer. It is
surely not an answer from reality, from the immeasurable – it is your own unconscious responding.
So don’t let us be confused and think that when your prayer is answered you are in relationship with
reality. Reality must come to you; you cannot go to it.
In this problem of prayer there is another factor involved: the response of that which we call the inner
voice. As I said, when the mind is supplicating, petitioning, it is comparatively still; when you hear
the inner voice, it is your own voice projecting itself into that comparatively still mind. Again, how can
it be the voice of reality? A mind that is confused, ignorant, craving, demanding, petitioning, how can
it understand. reality? The mind can receive reality only when it is absolutely still, not demanding,
not craving, not longing, not asking, whether for yourself, for the nation or for another. When the
mind is absolutely still, when desire ceases, then only reality comes into being. A person who is
demanding, petitioning, supplicating, longing for direction will ﬁnd what he seeks but it will not be
the truth. What he receives will be the response of the unconscious layers of his own mind which
project themselves into the conscious; that still, small voice which directs him is not the real but only
the response of the unconscious.
In this problem of prayer there is also the question of concentration. With most of us, concentration
is a process of exclusion. Concentration is brought about through effort, compulsion, direction,
imitation, and so concentration is a process of exclusion. I am interested in so-called meditation
but my thoughts are distracted, so I ﬁx my mind on a picture, an image, or an idea and exclude all
other thoughts. This process of concentration, which is exclusion, is considered to be a means of
meditating. That is what you do, is it not? When you sit down to meditate, you ﬁx your mind on a
word, on an image, or on a picture but the mind wanders all over the place. There is the constant
interruption of other ideas, other thoughts, other emotions and you try to push them away; you
spend your time battling with your thoughts. This process you call meditation. That is you are trying
to concentrate on something in which you are not interested and your thoughts keep on multiplying,
increasing, interrupting, so you spend your energy in exclusion, in warding off; pushing away; if you
can concentrate on your chosen thought, on a particular object, you think you have at last succeeded
in meditation. Surely that is not meditation, is it? Meditation is not an exclusive process – exclusive
in the sense of warding off, building resistance against encroaching ideas. Prayer is not meditation
and concentration as exclusion is not meditation.
What is meditation? Concentration is not meditation, because where there is interest it is
comparatively easy to concentrate on something. A general who is planning war, butchery, is very
concentrated. A business man making money is very concentrated – he may even be ruthless,
putting aside every other feeling and concentrating completely on what he wants. A man who
is interested in anything is naturally, spontaneously concentrated. Such concentration is not
meditation, it is merely exclusion.
So what is meditation? Surely meditation is understanding – meditation of the heart is understanding.
How can there be understanding if there is exclusion? How can there be understanding when
there is petition, supplication? In understanding there is peace, there is freedom; that which
you understand, from that you are liberated. Merely to concentrate or to pray does not bring
understanding. Understanding is the very basis, the fundamental process of meditation. You don’t
have to accept my word for it but if you examine prayer and concentration very carefully, deeply, you
will ﬁnd that neither of them leads to understanding. They merely lead to obstinacy, to a ﬁxation,
The First And Last Freedom 133 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 41. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 19 ’ON PRAYER AND MEDITATION’
to illusion. Whereas meditation, in which there is understanding, brings about freedom, clarity and
What, then, do we mean by understanding? Understanding means giving right signiﬁcance, right
valuation, to all things. To be ignorant is to give wrong values; the very nature of stupidity is the
lack of comprehension of right values. Understanding comes into being when there are right values,
when right values are established. And how is one to establish right values – the right value of
property, the right value of relationship, the right value of ideas? For the right values to come into
being, you must understand the thinker, must you not? If I don’t understand the thinker, which is
myself what I choose has no meaning; that is if I don’t know myself, then my action, my thought,
has no foundation whatsoever. Therefore self-knowledge is the beginning of meditation – not the
knowledge that you pick up from my books, from authorities, from gurus, but the knowledge that
comes into being through self-inquiry, which is self-awareness. Meditation is the beginning of self-
knowledge and without self-knowledge there is no meditation. If I don’t understand the ways of my
thoughts, of my feelings, if I don’t understand my motives, my desires, my demands, my pursuit of
patterns of action, which are ideas – if I do not know myself, there is no foundation for thinking; the
thinker who merely asks, prays, or excludes, without understanding himself, must inevitably end in
confusion, in illusion.
The beginning of meditation is self-knowledge, which means being aware of every movement of
thought and feeling, knowing all the layers of my consciousness, not only the superﬁcial layers but
the hidden, the deeply concealed activities. To know the deeply concealed activities, the hidden
motives, responses, thoughts and feelings, there must be tranquillity in the conscious mind; that
is the conscious mind must be still in order to receive the projection of the unconscious. The
superﬁcial, conscious mind is occupied with its daily activities, with earning a livelihood, deceiving
others, exploiting others, running away from problems – all the daily activities of our existence.
That superﬁcial mind must understand the right signiﬁcance of its own activities and thereby bring
tranquillity to itself. It cannot bring about tranquillity, stillness, by mere regimentation, by compulsion,
by discipline. It can bring about tranquillity, peace, stillness, only by understanding its own activities,
by observing them, by being aware of them, by seeing its own ruthlessness, how it talks to the
servant, to the wife, to the daughter, to the mother and so on. When the superﬁcial, conscious mind
1s thus fully aware of all its activities, through that understanding it becomes spontaneously quiet,
not drugged by compulsion or regimented by desire; then it is in a position to receive the intimation,
the hints of the unconscious, of the many, many hidden layers of the mind – the racial instincts,
the buried memories, the concealed pursuits, the deep wounds that are still unhealed. It is only
when all these have projected themselves and are understood, when the whole consciousness is
unburdened, unfettered by any wound, by any memory whatsoever, that it is in a position to receive
Meditation is self-knowledge and without self-knowledge there is no meditation. If you are not aware
of all your responses all the time, if you are not fully conscious, fully cognizant of your daily activities,
merely to lock yourself in a room and sit down in front of a picture of your guru, of your Master, to
meditate, is an escape, because without self-knowledge there is no right thinking and, without right
thinking, what you do has no meaning, however noble your intentions are. Thus prayer has no
signiﬁcance without self-knowledge but when there is self-knowledge there is right thinking and
hence right action. When there is right action, there is no confusion and therefore there is no
supplication to someone else to lead you out of it. A man who is fully aware is meditating; he
The First And Last Freedom 134 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 41. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 19 ’ON PRAYER AND MEDITATION’
does not pray, because he does not want anything. Through prayer, through regimentation, through
repetition and all the rest of it, you can bring about a certain stillness, but that is mere dullness,
reducing the mind and the heart to a state of weariness. it is drugging the mind; and exclusion,
which you call concentration, does not lead to reality – no exclusion ever can. What brings about
understanding is self-knowledge, and it is not very difﬁcult to be aware if there is right intention. If
you are interested to discover the whole process of yourself – not merely the superﬁcial part but the
total process of your whole being – then it is comparatively easy. If you really want to know yourself,
you will search out your heart and your mind to know their full content and when there is the intention
to know, you will know. Then you can follow, without condemnation or justiﬁcation, every movement
of thought and feeling; by following every thought and every feeling as it arises you bring about
tranquillity which is not compelled, not regimented, but which is the outcome of having no problem,
no contradiction. It is like the pool that becomes peaceful, quiet, any evening when there is no wind;
when the mind is still, then that which is immeasurable comes into being.
The First And Last Freedom 135 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 42
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 20 ’ON THE
CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS MIND’
Question: The conscious mind is ignorant and afraid of the unconscious mind. You are addressing
mainly the conscious mind and is that enough? Will your method bring about release of the
unconscious? Please explain in detail how one can tackle the unconscious mind fully.
Krishnamurti: We are aware that there is the conscious and the unconscious mind but most of us
function only on the conscious level, in the upper layer of the mind, and our whole life is practically
limited to that. We live in the so-called conscious mind and we never pay attention to the deeper
unconscious mind from which there is occasionally an intimation, a hint; that hint is disregarded,
perverted or translated according to our particular conscious demands at the moment. Now the
questioner asks, ”You are addressing mainly the conscious mind and is that enough?” Let us see
what we mean by the conscious mind. Is the conscious mind different from the unconscious mind?
We have divided the conscious from the unconscious; is this justiﬁed? Is this true? Is there such
a division between the conscious and the unconscious? Is there a deﬁnite barrier, a line where the
conscious ends and the unconscious begins? We are aware that the upper layer, the conscious
mind, is active but is that the only instrument that is active throughout the day? If I were addressing
merely the upper layer of the mind, then surely what I am saying would be valueless, it would have
no meaning. Yet most of us cling to what the conscious mind has accepted, because the conscious
mind ﬁnds it convenient to adjust to certain obvious facts; but the unconscious may rebel, and often
does, and so there is conﬂict between the so-called conscious and the unconscious.
Therefore, our problem is this, is it not? There is in fact only one state, not two states such as
the conscious and the unconscious; there is only a state of being, which is consciousness, though
you may divide it as the conscious and the unconscious. But that consciousness is always of the
past, never of the present; you are conscious only of things that are over. You are conscious of
136CHAPTER 42. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 20 ’ON THE CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS MIND’
what I am trying to convey the second afterwards, are you not; you understand it a moment later.
You are never conscious or aware of the now. Watch your own hearts and minds and you will see
that consciousness is functioning between the past and the future and that the present is merely a
passage of the past to the future. Consciousness is therefore a movement of the past to the future.
If you watch your own mind at work, you will see that the movement to the past and to the future
is a process in which the present is not. Either the past is a means of escape from the present,
which may be unpleasant, or the future is a hope away from the present. So the mind is occupied
with the past or with the future and sloughs off the present. That is the mind is conditioned by
the past, conditioned as an Indian, a Brahmin or a non-Brahmin, a Christian, a Buddhist and so
on, and that conditioned mind projects itself into the future; therefore it is never capable of looking
directly and impartially at any fact. It either condemns and rejects the fact or accepts and identiﬁes
itself with the fact. Such a mind is obviously not capable of seeing any fact as a fact. That is
our state of consciousness which is conditioned by the past and our thought is the conditioned
response to the challenge of a fact; the more you respond according to the conditioning of belief,
of the past, the more there is the strengthening of the past. That strengthening of the past is
obviously the continuity of itself, which it calls the future. So that is the state of our mind, of our
consciousness – a pendulum swinging backwards and forwards between the past and the future.
That is our consciousness, which is made up not only of the upper layers of the mind but of the
deeper layers as well. Such consciousness obviously cannot function at a different level, because it
only knows those two movements of backwards and forwards.
If you watch very carefully you will see that it is not a constant movement but that there is an interval
between two thoughts; though it may be but an inﬁnitesimal fraction of a second, there is an interval
that has signiﬁcance in the swinging backwards and forwards of the pendulum. We see the fact that
our thinking is conditioned by the past which is projected into the future; the moment you admit the
past, you must also admit the future, because there are not two such states as the past and the
future but one state which includes both the conscious and the unconscious, both the collective past
and the individual past. The collective and the individual past, in response to the present, give out
certain responses which create the individual consciousness; therefore consciousness is of the past
and that is the whole background of our existence. The moment you have the past, you inevitably
have the future, because the future is merely the continuity of the modiﬁed past but it is still the past,
so our problem is how to bring about a transformation in this process of the past without creating
another conditioning, another past.
To put it differently, the problem is this: Most of us reject one particular form of conditioning and
ﬁnd another form, a wider, more signiﬁcant or more pleasant conditioning. You give up one religion
and take on another, reject one form of belief and accept another. Such substitution is obviously
not understanding life, life being relationship. Our problem is how to be free from all conditioning.
Either you say it is impossible, that no human mind can ever be free from conditioning, or you begin
to experiment, to inquire, to discover. If you assert that it is impossible, obviously you are out of the
running. Your assertion may be based on limited or wide experience or on the mere acceptance of
a belief but such assertion is the denial of search, of research, of inquiry, of discovery. To ﬁnd out if
it is possible for the mind to be completely free from all conditioning, you must be free to inquire and
Now I say it is deﬁnitely possible for the mind to be free from all conditioning – not that you should
accept my authority. If you accept it on authority, you will never discover, it will be another substitution
The First And Last Freedom 137 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 42. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 20 ’ON THE CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS MIND’
and that will have no signiﬁcance. When I say it is possible, I say it because for me it is a fact and I
can show it to you verbally, but if you are to ﬁnd the truth of it for yourself, you must experiment with
it and follow it swiftly.
The understanding of the whole process of conditioning does not come to you through analysis or
introspection, because the moment you have the analyser that very analyser himself is part of the
background and therefore his analysis is of no signiﬁcance. That is a fact and you must put it aside.
The analyser who examines, who analyses the thing which he is looking at, is himself part of the
conditioned state and therefore whatever his interpretation, his understanding, his analysis may be,
it is still part of the background. So that way there is no escape and to break the background is
essential, because to meet the challenge of the new, the mind must be new; to discover God, truth,
or what you will, the mind must be fresh, uncontaminated by the past. To analyse the past, to arrive
at conclusions through a series of experiments, to make assertions and denials and all the rest of
it, implies, in its very essence, the continuance of the background in different forms; when you see
the truth of that fact you will discover that the analyser has come to an end. Then there is no entity
apart from the background: there is only thought as the background, thought being the response of
memory, both conscious and unconscious, individual and collective.
The mind is the result of the past, which is the process of conditioning. How is it possible for
the mind to be free? To be free, the mind must not only see and understand its pendulum-like
swing between the past and the future but also be aware of the interval between thoughts. That
interval is spontaneous, it is not brought about through any causation, through any wish, through
If you watch very carefully, you will see that though the response, the movement of thought, seems
so swift, there are gaps, there are intervals between thoughts. Between two thoughts there is a
period of silence which is not related to the thought process. If you observe you will see that that
period of silence, that interval, is not of time and the discovery of that interval, the full experiencing of
that interval, liberates you from conditioning – or rather it does not liberate ‘you’ but there is liberation
from conditioning. So the understanding of the process of thinking is meditation. We are now not
only discussing the structure and the process of thought, which is the background of memory, of
experience, of knowledge, but we are also trying to ﬁnd out if the mind can liberate itself from the
background. It is only when the mind is not giving continuity to thought, when it is still with a stillness
that is not induced, that is without any causation – it is only then that there can be freedom from the
The First And Last Freedom 138 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 43
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 21 ’ON SEX’
Question: We know sex as an inescapable physical and psychological necessity and it seems to be
a root cause of chaos in the personal life of our generation. How can we deal with this problem?
Krishnamurti: Why is it that whatever we touch we turn into a problem? We have made God a
problem, we have made love a problem, we have made relationship, living a problem, and we have
made sex a problem. Why? Why is everything we do a problem, a horror? Why are we suffering?
Why has sex become a problem? Why do we submit to living with problems, why do we not put an
end to them? Why do we not die to our problems instead of carrying them day after day, year after
year? Sex is certainly a relevant question but there is the primary question, why do we make life
into a problem? Working, sex, earning money, thinking, feeling, experiencing – you know, the whole
business of living – why is it a problem? Is it not essentially because we always think from a particular
point of view, from a ﬁxed point of view? We are always thinking from a centre towards the periphery
but the periphery is the centre for most of us and so anything we touch is superﬁcial. But life is
not superﬁcial; it demands living completely and because we are living only superﬁcially we know
only superﬁcial reaction. Whatever we do on the periphery must inevitably create a problem, and
that is our life: we live in the superﬁcial and we are content to live there with all the problems of the
superﬁcial. Problems exist so long as we live in the superﬁcial, on the periphery, the periphery being
the ‘me’ and its sensations, which can be externalized or made subjective, which can be identiﬁed
with the universe, with the country or with some other thing made up by the mind.
So long as we live within the ﬁeld of the mind there must be complications, there must be problems;
that is all we know. Mind is sensation, mind is the result of accumulated sensations and reactions
and anything it touches is bound to create misery, confusion, an endless problem. The mind is the
real cause of our problems, the mind that is working mechanically night and day, consciously and
unconsciously. The mind is a most superﬁcial thing and we have spent generations, we spend our
139CHAPTER 43. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 21 ’ON SEX’
whole lives, cultivating the mind, making it more and more clever, more and more subtle, more and
more cunning, more and more dishonest and crooked, all of which is apparent in every activity of
our life. The very nature of our mind is to be dishonest, crooked, incapable of facing facts, and that
is the thing which creates problems; that is the thing which is the problem itself.
What do we mean by the problem of sex? Is it the act, or is it a thought about the act? Surely it is
not the act. The sexual act is no problem to you, any more than eating is a problem to you, but if
you think about eating or anything else all day long because you have nothing else to think about,
it becomes a problem to you. Is the sexual act the problem or is it the thought about the act? Why
do you think about it? Why do you build it up, which you are obviously doing? The cinemas, the
magazines, the stories, the way women dress, everything is building up your thought of sex. Why
does the mind build it up, why does the mind think about sex at all? Why? Why has it become a
central issue in your life? When there are so many things calling, demanding your attention, you give
complete attention to the thought of sex. What happens, why are your minds so occupied with it?
Because that is a way of ultimate escape, is it not? It is a way of complete self-forgetfulness. For the
time being, at least for that moment, you can forget yourself – and there is no other way of forgetting
yourself. Everything else you do in life gives emphasis to the ‘me’, to the self. Your business, your
religion, your gods, your leaders, your political and economic actions, your escapes, your social
activities, your joining one party and rejecting another – all that is emphasizing and giving strength
to the ‘me’. That is there is only one act in which there is no emphasis on the ‘me’, so it becomes a
problem, does it not? When there is only one thing in your life which is an avenue to ultimate escape
to complete forgetfulness of yourself if only for a few seconds, you cling to it because that is the
only moment in which you are happy. Every other issue you touch becomes a nightmare, a source
of suffering and pain, so you cling to the one thing which gives complete self-forgetfulness, which
you call happiness. But when you cling to it, it too becomes a nightmare, because then you want to
be free from it, you do not want to be a slave to it. So you invent, again from the mind, the idea of
chastity, of celibacy, and you try to be celibate, to be chaste, through suppression, all of which are
operations of the mind to cut itself off from the fact. This again gives particular emphasis to the ‘me’
who is trying to become something, so again you are caught in travail, in trouble, in effort, in pain.
Sex becomes an extraordinarily difﬁcult and complex problem so long as you do not understand
the mind which thinks about the problem. The act itself can never be a problem but the thought
about the act creates the problem. The act you safeguard; you live loosely, or indulge yourself in
marriage, thereby making your wife into a prostitute which is all apparently very respectable, and
you are satisﬁed to leave it at that. Surely the problem can be solved only when you understand the
whole process and structure of the ‘me’ and the ‘mine: my wife, my child, my property, my car, my
achievement, my success; until you understand and resolve all that, sex as a problem will remain.
So long as you are ambitious, politically, religiously or in any way, so long as you are emphasizing
the self, the thinker, the experiencer, by feeding him on ambition whether in the name of yourself as
an individual or in the name of the country, of the party or of an idea which you call religion – so long
as there is this activity of self-expansion, you will have a sexual problem. You are creating, feeding,
expanding yourself on the one hand, and on the other you are trying to forget yourself, to lose
yourself if only for a moment. How can the two exist together? Your life is a contradiction; emphasis
on the ‘me’ and forgetting the ‘me’. Sex is not a problem; the problem is this contradiction in your life;
and the contradiction cannot be bridged over by the mind, because the mind itself is a contradiction.
The contradiction can be understood only when you understand fully the whole process of your
daily existence. Going to the cinemas and watching women on the screen, reading books which
The First And Last Freedom 140 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 43. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 21 ’ON SEX’
stimulate the thought, the magazines with their half-naked pictures, your way of looking at women,
the surreptitious eyes that catch yours – all these things are encouraging the mind through devious
ways to emphasize the self and at the same time you try to be kind, loving, tender. The two cannot
go together. The man who is ambitious, spiritually or otherwise, can never be without a problem,
because problems cease only when the self is forgotten, when the ‘me’ is non-existent, and that
state of the non-existence of the self is not an act of will, it is not a mere reaction. Sex becomes a
reaction; when the mind tries to solve the problem, it only makes the problem more confused, more
troublesome, more painful. The act is not the problem but the mind is the problem, the mind which
says it must be chaste. Chastity is not of the mind. The mind can only suppress its own activities
and suppression is not chastity. Chastity is not a virtue, chastity cannot be cultivated. ‘The man who
is cultivating humility is surely not a humble man; he may call his pride humility, but he is a proud
man, and that is why he seeks to become humble. Pride can never become humble and chastity
is not a thing of the mind – you cannot become chaste. You will know chastity only when there is
love, and love is not of the mind nor a thing of the mind. Therefore the problem of sex which tortures
so many people all over the world cannot be resolved till the mind is understood. We cannot put
an end to thinking but thought comes to an end when the thinker ceases and the thinker ceases
only when there is an understanding of the whole process. Fear comes into being when there is
division between the thinker and his thought; when there is no thinker, then only is there no conﬂict
in thought. What is implicit needs no effort to understand. The thinker comes into being through
thought; then the thinker exerts himself to shape, to control his thoughts or to put an end to them.
The thinker is a ﬁctitious entity, an illusion of the mind. When there is a realization of thought as a
fact, then there is no need to think about the fact. If there is simple, choiceless awareness, then that
which is implicit in the fact begins to reveal itself. Therefore thought as fact ends. Then you will see
that the problems which are eating at our hearts and minds, the problems of our social structure,
can be resolved. Then sex is no longer a problem, it has its proper place, it is neither an impure
thing nor a pure thing. Sex has its place; but when the mind gives it the predominant place, then it
becomes a problem. The mind gives sex a predominant place because it cannot live without some
happiness and so sex becomes a problem; when the mind understands its whole process and so
comes to an end, that is when thinking ceases, then there is creation and it is that creation which
makes us happy. To be in that state of creation is bliss, because it is self-forgetfulness in which there
is no reaction as from the self. This is not an abstract answer to the daily problem of sex – it is the
only answer. The mind denies love and without love there is no chastity; it is because there is no
love that you make sex into a problem.
The First And Last Freedom 141 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 44
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 22 ’ON LOVE’
Question: What do you mean by love ?
Krishnamurti: We are going to discover by understanding what love is not, because, as love is the
unknown, we must come to it by discarding the known. The unknown cannot be discovered by a
mind that is full of the known. What we are going to do is to ﬁnd out the values of the known, look
at the known, and when that is looked at purely, without condemnation, the mind becomes free from
the known; then we shall know what love is. So, we must approach love negatively, not positively.
What is love with most of us? When we say we love somebody, what do we mean? We mean
we possess that person. From that possession arises jealousy, because if I lose him or her what
happens? I feel empty, lost; therefore I legalize possession; I hold him or her. From holding,
possessing that person, there is jealousy, there is fear and all the innumerable conﬂicts that arise
from possession. Surely such possession is not love, is it?
Obviously love is not sentiment. To be sentimental, to be emotional, is not love, because
sentimentality and emotion are mere sensations. A religious person who weeps about Jesus or
Krishna, about his guru or somebody else, is merely sentimental, emotional. He is indulging in
sensation, which is a process of thought, and thought is not love. Thought is the result of sensation,
so the person who is sentimental, who is emotional, cannot possibly know love. Again, aren’t we
emotional and sentimental? Sentimentality, emotionalism, is merely a form of self-expansion. To be
full of emotion is obviously not love, because a sentimental person can be cruel when his sentiments
are not responded to, when his feelings have no outlet. An emotional person can be stirred to hatred,
to war, to butchery. A man who is sentimental, full of tears for his religion, surely has no love.
Is forgiveness love? What is implied in forgiveness? You insult me and I resent it, remember it;
then, either through compulsion or through repentance, I say, ”I forgive you”. First I retain and then
142CHAPTER 44. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 22 ’ON LOVE’
I reject. Which means what? I am still the central ﬁgure. I am still important, it is I who am forgiving
somebody. As long as there is the attitude of forgiving it is I who am important, not the man who is
supposed to have insulted me. So when I accumulate resentment and then deny that resentment,
which you call forgiveness, it is not love. A man who loves obviously has no enmity and to all these
things he is indifferent. Sympathy, forgiveness, the relationship of possessiveness, jealousy and
fear – all these things are not love. They are all of the mind, are they not? As long as the mind is
the arbiter, there is no love, for the mind arbitrates only through possessiveness and its arbitration
is merely possessiveness in different forms. The mind can only corrupt love, it cannot give birth to
love, it cannot give beauty. You can write a poem about love, but that is not love.
Obviously there is no love when there is no real respect, when you don’t respect another, whether
he is your servant or your friend. Have you not noticed that you are not respectful, kindly, generous,
to your servants, to people who are so-called ‘below’ you? You have respect for those above, for
your boss, for the millionaire, for the man with a large house and a title, for the man who can give
you a better position, a better job, from whom you can get something. But you kick those below
you, you have a special language for them. Therefore where there is no respect, there is no love;
where there is no mercy, no pity, no forgiveness, there is no love. And as most of us are in this
state we have no love. We are neither respectful nor merciful nor generous. We are possessive, full
of sentiment and emotion which can be turned either way: to kill, to butcher or to unify over some
foolish, ignorant intention. So how can there be love? You can know love only when all these things
have stopped, come to an end, only when you don’t possess, when you are not merely emotional
with devotion to an object. Such devotion is a supplication, seeking something in a different form.
A man who prays does not know love. Since you are possessive, since you seek an end, a result,
through devotion, through prayer, which make you sentimental, emotional, naturally there is no love;
obviously there is no love when there is no respect. You may say that you have respect but your
respect is for the superior, it is merely the respect that comes from wanting something, the respect
of fear. If you really felt respect, you would be respectful to the lowest as well as to the so-called
highest; since you haven’t that, there is no love. How few of us are generous, forgiving, merciful! You
are generous when it pays you, you are merciful when you can see something in return. When these
things disappear, when these things don’t occupy your mind and when the things of the mind don’t
ﬁll your heart, then there is love; and love alone can transform the present madness and insanity
in the world – not systems, not theories, either of the left or of the right. You really love only when
you do not possess, when you are not envious, not greedy, when you are respectful, when you have
mercy and compassion, when you have consideration for your wife, your children, your neighbour,
your unfortunate servants.
Love cannot be thought about, love cannot be cultivated, love cannot be practised. The practice of
love, the practice of brotherhood, is still within the ﬁeld of the mind, therefore it is not love. When
all this has stopped, then love comes into being, then you will know what it is to love. Then love
is not quantitative but qualitative. You do not say, ”I love the whole world” but when you know how
to love one, you know how to love the whole. Because we do not know how to love one, our love
of humanity is ﬁctitious. When you love, there is neither one nor many: there is only love. It is
only when there is love that all our problems can be solved and then we shall know its bliss and its
The First And Last Freedom 143 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 45
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 23 ’ON DEATH’
Question: What relation has death to life?
Krishnamurti: Is there a division between life and death? Why do we regard death as something
apart from life? Why are we afraid of death? And why have so many books been written about
death? Why is there this line of demarcation between life and death? And is that separation real, or
merely arbitrary, a thing of the mind?
When we talk about life, we mean living as a process of continuity in which there is identiﬁcation.
Me and my house, me and my wife, me and my bank account, me and my past experiences – that
is what we mean by life, is it not? Living is a process of continuity in memory, conscious as well as
unconscious, with its various struggles, quarrels, incidents, experiences and so on. All that is what
we call life; in opposition to that there is death, which is putting an end to all that. Having created the
opposite, which is death, and being afraid of it, we proceed to look for the relationship between life
and death; if we can bridge the gap with some explanation, with belief in continuity, in the hereafter,
we are satisﬁed. We believe in reincarnation or in some other form of continuity of thought and then
we try to establish a relationship between the known and the unknown. We try to bridge the known
and the unknown and thereby try to ﬁnd the relationship between the past and the future. That is
what we are doing, is it not?, when we inquire if there is any relationship between life and death. We
want to know how to bridge the living and the ending – that is our fundamental desire.
Now, can the end, which is death, be known while living? If we can know what death is while we
are living, then we shall have no problem. It is because we cannot experience the unknown while
we are living that we are afraid of it. Our struggle is to establish a relationship between ourselves,
which is the result of the known, and the unknown which we call death. Can there be a relationship
between the past and something which the mind cannot conceive, which we call death? Why do we
144CHAPTER 45. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 23 ’ON DEATH’
separate the two? Is it not because our mind can function only within the ﬁeld of the known, within
the ﬁeld of the continuous? One only knows oneself as a thinker, as an actor with certain memories
of misery, of pleasure, of love, affection, of various kids of experience; one only knows oneself as
being continuous – otherwise one would have no recollection of oneself as being something. Now
when that something comes to the end, which we call death, there is fear of the unknown; so we
want to draw the unknown into the known and our whole effort is to give continuity to the unknown.
That is, we do not want to know life, which includes death, but we want to know how to continue and
not come to an end. We do not want to know life and death, we only want to know how to continue
That which continues has no renewal. There can be nothing new, there can be nothing creative, in
that which has continuance – which is fairly obvious. It is only when continuity ends that there is a
possibility of that which is ever new. But it is this ending that we dread and we don’t see that only
in ending can there be renewal, the creative, the unknown – not in carrying over from day to day our
experiences, our memories and misfortunes. It is only when we die each day to all that is old that
there can be the new. The new cannot be where there is continuity – the new being the creative,
the unknown, the eternal, God or what you will. The person, the continuous entity, who seeks the
unknown, the real, the eternal, will never ﬁnd it, because he can ﬁnd only that which he projects out
of himself and that which he projects is not the real. Only in ending, in dying, can the new be known;
and the man who seeks to ﬁnd a relationship between life and death, to bridge the continuous with
that which he thinks is beyond, is living in a ﬁctitious, unreal world, which is a projection of himself.
Now is it possible, while living, to die – which means coming to an end, being as nothing? Is it
possible, while living in this world where everything is becoming more and more or becoming less
and less, where everything is a process of climbing, achieving, succeeding, is it possible, in such
a world, to know death? Is it possible to end all memories – not the memory of facts, the way to
your house and so on, but the inward attachment through memory to psychological security, the
memories that one has accumulated, stored up, and in which one seeks security, happiness? Is it
possible to put an end to all that – which means dying every day so that there may be a renewal
tomorrow? It is only then that one knows death while living. Only in that dying, in that coming to an
end, putting an end to continuity, is there renewal, that creation which is eternal.
The First And Last Freedom 145 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 46
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 24 ’ON TIME’
Question: Can the past dissolve all at once, or does it invariably need time ?
Krishnamurti: We are the result of the past. Our thought is founded upon yesterday and many
thousand yesterdays. We are the result of time, and our responses, our present attitudes, are the
cumulative effect of many thousand moments, incidents and experiences. So the past is, for the
majority of us, the present, which is a fact which cannot be denied. You, your thoughts, your actions,
your responses, are the result of the past. Now the questioner wants to know if that past can be
wiped out immediately, which means not in time but immediately wiped out; or does this cumulative
past require time for the mind to be freed in the present? It is important to understand the question,
which is this: As each one of us is the result of the past, with a background of innumerable inﬂuences,
constantly varying, constantly changing, is it possible to wipe out that background without going
through the process of time?
What is the past? What do we mean by the past? Surely we do not mean the chronological
past. We mean, surely, the accumulated experiences, the accumulated responses, memories,
traditions, knowledge, the subconscious storehouse of innumerable thoughts, feelings, inﬂuences
and responses. With that background, it is not possible to understand reality, because reality must
be of no time: it is timeless. So one cannot understand the timeless with a mind which is the outcome
of time. The questioner wants to know if it is possible to free the mind, or for the mind, which is the
result of time, to cease to be immediately; or must one go through a long series of examinations
and analyses and so free the mind from its background. The mind is the background; the mind is
the result of time; the mind is the past, the mind is not the future. It can project itself into the future
and the mind uses the present as a passage into the future, so it is still – whatever it does, whatever
its activity, its future activity, its present activity, its past activity – in the net of time. Is it possible for
the mind to cease completely, for the thought process to come to an end? Now there are obviously
146CHAPTER 46. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 24 ’ON TIME’
many layers to the mind; what we call consciousness has many layers, each layer interrelated with
the other layer, each layer dependent on the other, interacting; our whole consciousness is not only
experiencing but also naming or terming and storing up as memory. That is the whole process of
consciousness, is it not ?
When we talk about consciousness, do we not mean the experiencing, the naming or the terming
of that experience and thereby storing up that experience in memory? All this, at different levels, is
consciousness. Can the mind, which is the result of time, go through the process of analysis, step
by step, in order to free itself from the background or is it possible to be free entirely from time and
look at reality directly?
To be free of the background, many of the analysts say that you must examine every response,
every complex, every hindrance, every blockage, which obviously implies a process of time. This
means the analyser must understand what he is analysing and he must not misinterpret what he
analyses. If he mistranslates what he analyses it will lead him to wrong conclusions and therefore
establish another background. The analyser must be capable of analysing his thoughts and feelings
without the slightest deviation; and he must not miss one step in his analysis, because to take a
wrong step, to draw a wrong conclusion, is to re-establish a background along a different line, on a
different level. This problem also arises: Is the analyser different from what he analyses? Are not
the analyser and the thing that is analysed a joint phenomenon?
Surely the experiencer and the experience are a joint phenomenon; they are not two separate
processes, so ﬁrst of all let us see the difﬁculty of analysing. It is almost impossible to analyse the
whole content of our consciousness and thereby be free through that process. After all, who is the
analyser? The analyser is not different, though he may think he is different, from that which he is
analysing. He may separate himself from that which he analyses but the analyser is part of that
which he analyses. I have a thought, I have a feeling – say, for exampLe, I am angry. The person
who analyses anger is still part of anger and therefore the analyser as well as the analysed are
a joint phenomenon, they are not two separate forces or processes. So the difﬁculty of analysing
ourselves, unfolding, looking at ourselves page after page, watching every reaction, every response,
is incalculably difﬁcult and long. Therefore that is not the way to free ourselves from the background,
is it? There must be a much simpler, a more direct way, and that is what you and I are going to ﬁnd
out. In order to ﬁnd out we must discard that which is false and not hold on to it. So analysis is not
the way, and we must be free of the process of analysis.
Then what have you left? You are only used to analysis, are you not? The observer observing – the
observer and the observed being a joint phenomenon – the observer trying to analyse that which he
observes will not free him from his background. If that is so, and it is, you abandon that process,
do you not? If you see that it is a false way, if you realize not merely verbally but actually that it is
a false process, then what happens to your analysis? You stop analysing, do you not? Then what
have you left? Watch it, follow it, and you will see how rapidly and swiftly one can be free from the
background. If that is not the way, what else have you left? What is the state of the mind which is
accustomed to analysis, to probing, looking into, dissecting, drawing conclusions and so on? If that
process has stopped, what is the state of your mind?
You say that the mind is blank. Proceed further into that blank mind. In other words, when you
discard what is known as being false, what has happened to your mind? After all, what have you
The First And Last Freedom 147 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 46. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 24 ’ON TIME’
discarded? You have discarded the false process which is the outcome of a background. Is that
not so? With one blow, as it were, you have discarded the whole thing. Therefore your mind, when
you discard the analytical process with all its implications and see it as false, is freed from yesterday
and therefore is capable of looking directly, without; going through the process of time, and thereby
discarding the background immediately.
To put the whole question differently, thought is the result of time, is it not? Thought is the result of
environment, of social and religious inﬂuences, which is all part of time. Now, can thought be free
of time? That is, thought which is the result of time, can it stop and be free from the process of
time? Thought can be controlled, shaped; but the control of thought is still within the ﬁeld of time
and so our difﬁculty is: How can a mind that is the result of time, of many thousand yesterdays,
be instantaneously free of this complex background? You can be free of it, not tomorrow but in the
present, in the now. That can be done only when you realize that which is false; and the false is
obviously the analytical process and that is the only thing we have. When the analytical process
completely stops, not through enforcement but through understanding the inevitable falseness of
that process, then you will ﬁnd that your mind is completely dissociated from the past – which does
not mean that you do not recognize the past but that your mind has no direct communion with the
past. So it can free itself from the past immediately, now, and this dissociation from the past, this
complete freedom from yesterday, not chronologically but psychologically, is possible; and that is
the only way to understand reality.
To put it very simply, when you want to understand something, what is the state of your mind?
When you want to understand your child, when you want to understand somebody, something that
someone is saying, what is the state of your mind? You are not analysing, criticizing, judging what
the other is saying; you are listening, are you not? Your mind is in a state where the thought process
is not active but is very alert. That alertness is not of time, is it? You are merely being alert, passively
receptive and yet fully aware; and it is only in this state that there is understanding. When the mind
is agitated, questioning, worrying, dissecting, analysing, there is no understanding. When there is
the intensity to understand, the mind is obviously tranquil. This, of course, you have to experiment
with, not take my word for it, but you can see that the more and more you analyse, the less and less
you understand. You may understand certain events, certain experiences, but the whole content of
consciousness cannot be emptied through the analytical process. It can be emptied only when you
see the falseness of the approach through analysis. When you see the false as the false, then you
begin to see what is true; and it is truth that is going to liberate you from the background.
The First And Last Freedom 148 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 47
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 25 ’ON ACTION
Question: For Truth to come, you advocate action without idea. Is it possible to act at all times
without idea, that is, without a purpose in view?
Krishnamurti: What is our action at present? What do we mean by action? Our action – what we
want to do or to be – is based on idea, is it not? That is all we know; we have ideas, ideals, promises,
various formulas as to what we are and what we are not. The basis of our action is reward in the
future or fear of punishment. We know that, don’t we? Such activity is isolating, self-enclosing.
You have an idea of virtue and according to that idea you live, you act, in relationship. To you,
relationship, collective or individual, is action which is towards the ideal, towards virtue, towards
achievement and so on.
When my action is based on an ideal which is an idea – such as ”I must be brave”, ”I must follow
the example”, ”I must he charitable”, ”I must be socially conscious” and so on – that idea shapes
my action, guides my action. We all say, ”There is an example of virtue which I must follow; which
means, ”I must live according to that”. So action is based on that idea. Between action and idea,
there is a gulf, a division, there is a time process. That is so, is it not? In other words, I am not
charitable, I am not loving, there is no forgiveness in my heart but I feel I must be charitable. So
there is a gap, between what I am and what I should be; we are all the time trying to bridge that gap.
That is our activity, is it not?
Now what would happen if the idea did not exist? At one stroke, you would have removed the gap,
would you not? You would be what you are. You say ”I am ugly, I must become beautiful; what
am I to do?” – which is action based on idea. You say ”I am not compassionate, I must become
compassionate”. So you introduce idea separate from action. Therefore there is never true action of
149CHAPTER 47. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 25 ’ON ACTION WITHOUT IDEA’
what you are but always action based on the ideal of what you will he. The stupid man always says
he is going to become clever. He sits working, struggling to become; he never stops, he never says
”I am stupid”. So his action, which is based on idea, is not action at all.
Action means doing, moving. But when you have idea, it is merely ideation going on, thought process
going on in relation to action. If there is no idea, what would happen? You are what you are. You are
uncharitable, you are unforgiving, you are cruel, stupid, thoughtless. Can you remain with that? If
you do, then see what happens. When I recognize I am uncharitable, stupid, what happens when I
am aware it is so? Is there not charity, is there not intelligence? When I recognize uncharitableness
completely, not verbally, not artiﬁcially, when I realize I am uncharitable and unloving, in that very
seeing of what is is there not love? Don’t I immediately become charitable? If I see the necessity
of being clean, it is very simple; I go and wash, But if it is an ideal that I should be clean, then what
happens? Cleanliness is then postponed or is superﬁcial.
Action based on idea is very superﬁcial, is not true action at all, is only ideation, which is merely the
thought process going on.
Action which transforms us as human beings, which brings regeneration, redemption, transformation
– call it what you will – such action is not based on idea. It is action irrespective of the sequence
of reward or punishment. Such action is timeless, because mind, which is the time process, the
calculating process, the dividing, isolating process, does not enter into it.
This question is not so easily solved. Most of you put questions and expect an answer ”yes” or ”no”. It
is easy to ask questions like ”What do you mean?” and then sit back and let me explain but it is much
more arduous to ﬁnd out the answer for yourselves, go into the problem so profoundly, so clearly
and without any corruption that the problem ceases to be. That can only happen when the mind is
really silent in the face of the problem. The problem, if you love it, is as beautiful as the sunset. If
you are antagonistic to the problem, you will never understand. Most of us are antagonistic because
we are frightened of the result, of what may happen if we proceed, so we lose the signiﬁcance and
the purview of the problem.
The First And Last Freedom 150 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 48
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 26 ’ON THE OLD AND
Question: When I listen to you, all seems clear and new. At home, the old, dull restlessness asserts
itself. What is wrong with me?
Krishnamurti: What is actually taking place in our lives? There is constant challenge and response.
That is existence, that is life, is it not? – a constant challenge and response. The challenge is
always new and the response is always old. I met you yesterday and you come to me today. You
are different, you are modiﬁed, you have changed, you are new; but I have the picture of you as
you were yesterday. Therefore I absorb the new into the old. I do not meet you anew but I have
yesterday’s picture of you, so my response to the challenge is always conditioned. Here, for the
moment, you cease to be a Brahmin, a Christian, high-caste or whatever it is – you forget everything.
You are just listening, absorbed, trying to ﬁnd out. When you resume your daily life, you become
your old self – you are back in your job, your caste, your system, your family. In other words, the
new is always being absorbed by the old, into the old habits, customs, ideas, traditions, memories.
There is never the new, for you are always meeting the new with the old. The challenge is new but
you meet it with the old. The problem in this question is how to free thought from the old so as to
be new all the time. When you see a ﬂower, when you see a face, when you see the sky, a tree, a
smile, how are you to meet it anew? Why is it that we do not meet it anew? Why is it that the old
absorbs the new and modiﬁes it; why does the new cease when you go home?
The old response arises from the thinker. Is not the thinker always the old? Because your thought
is founded on the past, when you meet the new it is the thinker who is meeting it; the experience
of yesterday is meeting it. The thinker is always the old. So we come back to the same problem
in a different way: How to free the mind from itself as the thinker ? How to eradicate memory,
not factual memory but psychological memory, which is the accumulation of experience? Without
151CHAPTER 48. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 26 ’ON THE OLD AND THE NEW’
freedom from the residue of experience, there can be no reception of the new. To free thought, to be
free of the thought process and so to meet the new is arduous, is it not?, because all our beliefs, all
our traditions, all our methods in education are a process of imitation, copying, memorizing, building
up the reservoir of memory. That memory is constantly responding to the new; the response of that
memory we call thinking and that thinking meets the new. So how can there be the new? Only
when there is no residue of memory can there be newness and there is residue when experience is
not ﬁnished, concluded, ended; that is when the understanding of experience is incomplete. When
experience is complete, there is no residue – that is the beauty of life. Love is not residue, love is
not experience, it is a state of being. Love is eternally new. Therefore our problem is: Can one meet
the new constantly, even at home? Surely one can. To do that, one must bring about a revolution in
thought, in feeling; you can be free only when every incident is thought out from moment to moment,
when every response is ﬁnally understood, not merely casually looked at and thrown aside. There
is freedom from accumulating memory only when every thought, every feeling is completed, thought
out to the end. In other words, when each thought and feeling is thought out, concluded, there is
an ending and there is a space between that ending and the next thought. In that space of silence,
there is renewal, the new creativeness takes place.
This is not theoretical, this is not impractical. If you try to think out every thought and every feeling,
you will discover that it is extraordinarily practical in your daily life, for then you are new and what is
new is eternally enduring. To be new is creative and to be creative is to be happy; a happy man is
not concerned whether he is rich or poor, he does not care to what level of society he belongs, to
what caste or to what country. He has no leaders, no gods, no temples, no churches and therefore
no quarrels, no enmity.
Surely that is the most practical way of solving our difﬁculties in this present world of chaos? It is
because we are not creative, in the sense in which I am using that word, that we are so antisocial
at all the different levels of our consciousness. To be very practical and effective in our social
relationships, in our relationship with everything, one must be happy; there cannot be happiness if
there is no ending, there cannot be happiness if there is a constant process of becoming. In ending,
there is renewal, rebirth, a newness, a freshness, a joy.
The new is absorbed into the old and the old destroys the new, so long as there is background,
so long as the mind, the thinker, is conditioned by his thought. To be free from the background,
from the conditioning inﬂuences, from memory, there must be freedom from continuity. There is
continuity so long as thought and feelings are not ended completely. You complete a thought when
you pursue the thought to its end and thereby bring an end to every thought, to every feeling. Love
is not habit, memory; love is always new. There can be a meeting of the new only when the mind
is fresh; and the mind is not fresh so long as there is the residue of memory. Memory is factual, as
well as psychological. I am not talking of factual memory but of psychological memory. So long as
experience is not completely understood, there is residue, which is the old, which is of yesterday,
the thing that is past; the past is always absorbing the new and therefore destroying the new. It is
only when the mind is free from the old that it meets everything anew, and in that there is joy.
The First And Last Freedom 152 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 49
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 27 ’ON NAMING’
Question: How can one be aware of an emotion without naming or labelling it? If I am aware of
a feeling, I seem to know what that feeling is almost immediately after it arises. Or do you mean
something different when you say, ‘Do not name’?
Krishnamurti: Why do we name anything? Why do we give a label to a ﬂower, to a person, to a
feeling? Either to communicate one’s feelings, to describe the ﬂower and so on and so on; or to
identify oneself with that feeling. Is not that so? I name something, a feeling, to communicate it.
‘I am angry.’ Or I identify myself with that feeling in order to strengthen it or to dissolve it or to do
something about 1t. We give a name to something, to a rose, to communicate it to others or, by
giving it a name, we think we have understood it. We say, ”That is a rose”, rapidly look at it and go
on. By giving it a name, we think we have understood it; we have classiﬁed it and think that thereby
we have understood the whole content and beauty of that ﬂower.
By giving a name to something, we have merely put it into a category and we think we have
understood it; we don’t look at it more closely. If we do not give it a name, however, we are forced
to look at it. That is we approach the ﬂower or whatever it is with a newness, with a new quality of
examination; we look at it as though we had never looked at it before. Naming is a very convenient
way of disposing of things and of people – by saying that they are Germans, Japanese, Americans,
Hindus, you can give them a label and destroy the label. If you do not give a label to people you
are forced to look at them and then it is much more difﬁcult to kill somebody. You can destroy the
label with a bomb and feel righteous, but if you do not give a label and must therefore look at the
individual thing – whether it is a man or a ﬂower or an incident or an emotion – then you are forced to
consider your relationship with it, and with the action following. So terming or giving a label is a very
convenient way of disposing of anything, of denying, condemning or justifying it. That is one side of
153CHAPTER 49. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 27 ’ON NAMING’
What is the core from which you name, what is the centre which is always naming, choosing,
labelling. We all feel there is a centre, a core, do we not?, from which we are acting, from which we
are judging, from which we are naming. What is that centre, that core? Some would like to think it
is a spiritual essence, God, or what you will. So let us ﬁnd out what is that core, that centre, which
is naming, terming, judging. Surely that core is memory, isn’t it? A series of sensations, identiﬁed
and enclosed – the past, given life through the present. That core, that centre, feeds on the present
through naming, labelling, remembering.
We will see presently, as we unfold it, that so long as this centre, this core, exists, there can be
no understanding. It is only with the dissipation of this core that there is understanding, because,
after all, that core is memory; memory of various experiences which have been given names, labels,
identiﬁcations. With those named and labelled experiences, from that centre, there is acceptance
and rejection, determination to be or not to be, according to the sensations, pleasures and pains
of the memory of experience. So that centre is the word. If you do not name that centre, is there
a centre? That is if you do not think in terms of words, if you do not use words, can you think?
Thinking comes into being through verbalization; or verbalization begins to respond to thinking. The
centre, the core is the memory of innumerable experiences of pleasure and pain, verbalized. Watch
it in yourself, please, and you will see that words have become much more important, labels have
become much more important, than the substance; and we live on words.
For us, words like truth, God, have become very important – or the feeling which those words
represent. When we say the word ‘American’, ‘Christian’, ‘Hindu’ or the word ‘anger’ – we are the
word representing the feeling. But we don’t know what that feeling is, because the word has become
important. When you call yourself a Buddhist, a Christian, what does the word mean, what is the
meaning behind that word, which you have never examined? Our centre, the core is the word, the
label. If the label does not matter, if what matters is that which is behind the label, then you are able
to inquire but if you are identiﬁed with the label and stuck with it, you cannot proceed. And we are
identiﬁed with the label: the house, the form, the name, the furniture, the bank account, our opinions,
our stimulants and so on and so on. We are all those things – those things being represented by
a name. The things have become important, the names, the labels; and therefore the centre, the
core, is the word.
If there is no word, no label, there is no centre, is there? There is a dissolution, there is an emptiness
– not the emptiness of fear, which is quite a different thing. There is a sense of being as nothing;
because you have removed all the labels or rather because you have understood why you give
labels to feelings and ideas you are completely new, are you not? There is no centre from which
you are acting. The centre, which is the word, has been dissolved. The label has been taken
away and where are you as the centre? You are there but there has been a transformation. That
transformation is a little bit frightening; therefore, you do not proceed with what is still involved in it;
you are already beginning to judge it, to decide whether you like it or don’t like it. You don’t proceed
with the understanding of what is coming but you are already judging, which means that you have a
centre from which you are acting. Therefore you stay ﬁxed the moment you judge; the words ‘like’
and ‘dislike’ become important. But what happens when you do not name? You look at an emotion,
at a sensation, more directly and therefore have quite a different relationship to it, just as you have
to a ﬂower when you do not name it. You are forced to look at it anew. When you do not name
a group of people, you are compelled to look at each individual face and not treat them all as the
mass. Therefore you are much more alert, much more observing, more understanding; you have a
The First And Last Freedom 154 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 49. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 27 ’ON NAMING’
deeper sense of pity, love; but if you treat them all as the mass, it is over.
If you do not label, you have to regard every feeling as it arises. When you label, is the feeling
different from the label? Or does the label awaken the feeling? Please think it over. When we label,
most of us intensify the feeling. The feeling and the naming are instantaneous. If there were a gap
between naming and feeling, then you could ﬁnd out if the feeling is different from the naming and
then you would be able to deal with the feeling without naming it.
The problem is this, is it not?, how to be free from a feeling which we name, such as anger? Not
how to subjugate it, sublimate it, suppress it, which are all idiotic and immature, but how to be really
free from it? To be really free from it, we have to discover whether the word is more important than
the feeling. The word ‘anger’ has more signiﬁcance than the feeling itself. Really to ﬁnd that out
there must be a gap between the feeling and the naming. That is one part.
If I do not name a feeling, that is to say if thought is not functioning merely because of words or if I do
not think in terms of words, images or symbols, which most of us do – then what happens? Surely
the mind then is not merely the observer. When the mind is not thinking in terms of words, symbols,
images, there is no thinker separate from the thought, which is the word. Then the mind is quiet, is it
not? – not made quiet, it is quiet. When the mind is really quiet, then the feelings which arise can be
dealt with immediately. It is only when we give names to feelings and thereby strengthen them that
the feelings have continuity; they are stored up in the centre, from which we give further labels, either
to strengthen or to communicate them. When the mind is no longer the centre, as the thinker made
up of words, of past experiences – which are all memories, labels, stored up and put in categories,
in pigeonholes – when it is not doing any of those things, then, obviously the mind is quiet. It is no
longer bound, it has no longer a centre as the me – my house, my achievement, my work – which
are still words, giving impetus to feeling and thereby strengthening memory. When none of these
things is happening, the mind is very quiet. That state is not negation. On the contrary, to come
to that point, you have to go through all this, which is an enormous undertaking; it is not merely
learning a few sets of words and repeating them like a school-boy – ‘not to name’, ‘not to name’. To
follow through all its implications, to experience it, to see how the mind works and thereby come to
that point when you are no longer naming, which means that there is no longer a centre apart from
thought – surely this whole process is real meditation.
When the mind is really tranquil, then it is possible for that which is immeasurable to come into
being. Any other process, any other search for reality, is merely self-projected, homemade and
therefore unreal. But this process is arduous and it means that the mind has to be constantly aware
of everything that is inwardly happening to it. To come to this point, there can be no judgement or
justiﬁcation from the beginning to the end – not that this is an end. There is no end, because there
is something extraordinary still going on. This is no promise. It is for you to experiment, to go into
yourself deeper and deeper and deeper, so that all the many layers of the centre are dissolved and
you can do it rapidly or lazily. It is extraordinarily interesting to watch the process of the mind, how
it depends on words, how the words stimulate memory or resuscitate the dead experience and give
life to it. In that process the mind is living either in the future or in the past. Therefore words have
an enormous signiﬁcance, neurologically as well as psychologically. And please do not learn all
this from me or from a book. You cannot learn it from another or ﬁnd it in a book. What you learn
or ﬁnd in a book will not be the real. But you can experience it, you can watch yourself in action,
watch yourself thinking, see how you think, how rapidly you are naming the feeling as it arises – and
The First And Last Freedom 155 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 49. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 27 ’ON NAMING’
watching the whole process frees the mind from its centre. Then the mind, being quiet, can receive
that which is eternal.
The First And Last Freedom 156 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 50
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 28 ’ON THE KNOWN
AND THE UNKNOWN’
Question: Our mind knows only the known. What is it in us that drives us to ﬁnd the unknown reality,
Krishnamurti: Does your mind urge toward the unknown ? Is there an urge in us for the unknown,
for reality, for God? Please think it out seriously. This is not a rhetorical question but let us actually
ﬁnd out. Is there an inward urge in each one of us to ﬁnd the unknown? Is there? How can you ﬁnd
the unknown? If you do not know it, how can you ﬁnd it? Is there an urge for reality, or is it merely a
desire for the known, expanded? Do you understand what I mean? I have known many things; they
have not given me happiness, satisfaction, joy. So now I am wanting something else that will give
me greater joy, greater happiness, greater vitality – what you will. Can the known, which is my mind
– because my mind is known, the result of the past, – can that mind seek the unknown? If I do not
know reality, the unknown, how can I search for it? Surely it must come, I cannot go after it. If I go
after it, I am going after something which is the known, projected by me.
Our problem is not what it is in us that drives us to ﬁnd the unknown – that is clear enough. It is
our own desire to be more secure, more permanent, more established, more happy, to escape from
turmoil, from pain, confusion. That is our obvious drive. When there is that drive, that urge, you will
ﬁnd a marvellous escape, a marvellous refuge – in the Buddha, in the Christ or in political slogans
and all the rest of it. That is not reality; that is not the unknowable, the unknown. Therefore the urge
for the unknown must come to an end, the search for the unknown must stop; which means there
must be understanding of the cumulative known, which is the mind. The mind must understand itself
as the known, because that is all it knows. You cannot think about something that you do not know.
You can only think about something that you know.
157CHAPTER 50. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 28 ’ON THE KNOWN AND THE UNKNOWN’
Our difﬁculty is for the mind not to proceed in the known; that can only happen when the mind
understands itself and how all its movement is from the past, projecting itself through the present,
to the future. It is one continuous movement of the known; can that movement come to an end?
It can come to an end only when the mechanism of its own process is understood, only when the
mind understands itself and its workings, its ways, its purposes, its pursuits, its demands – not only
the superﬁcial demands but the deep inward urges and motives. This is quite an arduous task. It
isn’t just in a meeting or at a lecture or by reading a book, that you are going to ﬁnd out. On the
contrary, it needs constant watchfulness, constant awareness of every movement of thought – not
only when you are waking but also when you are asleep. It must be a total process, not a sporadic,
Also, the intention must be right. That is there must be a cessation of the superstition that inwardly
we all want the unknown. It is an illusion to think that we are all seeking God – we are not. We
don’t have to search for light. There will be light when there is no darkness and through darkness
we cannot ﬁnd the light. All that we can do is to remove those barriers that create darkness and the
removal depends on the intention. If you are removing them in order to see light, then you are not
removing anything, you are only substituting the word light for darkness. Even to look beyond the
darkness is an escape from darkness.
We have to consider not what it is that is driving us but why there is in us such confusion, such
turmoil, such strife and antagonism – all the stupid things of our existence. When these are not,
then there is light, we don’t have to look for it. When stupidity is gone, there is intelligence. But
the man who is stupid and tries to become intelligent is still stupid. Stupidity can never be made
wisdom; only when stupidity ceases is there wisdom, intelligence. The man who is stupid and tries
to become intelligent, wise, obviously can never be so. To know what is stupidity, one must go into
it, not superﬁcially, but fully, completely, deeply, profoundly; one must go into all the different layers
of stupidity and when there is the cessation of that stupidity, there is wisdom.
Therefore it is important to ﬁnd out not if there is something more, something greater than the known,
which is urging us to the unknown, but to see what it is in us that is creating confusion, wars, class
differences, snobbishness, the pursuit of the famous, the accumulation of knowledge, the escape
through music, through art, through so many ways. It is important, surely, to see them as they are
and to come back to ourselves as we are. From there we can proceed. Then the throwing off of
the known is comparatively easy. When the mind is silent, when it is no longer projecting itself into
the future, wishing for something; when the mind is really quiet, profoundly peaceful, the unknown
comes into being. You don’t have to search for it. You cannot invite it. That which you can invite is
only that which you know. You cannot invite an unknown guest. You can only invite one you know.
But you do not know the unknown, God, reality, or what you will. It must come. It can come only
when the ﬁeld is right, when the soil is tilled, but if you till in order for it to come, then you will not
Our problem is not how to seek the unknowable, but to understand the accumulative processes of
the mind, which is ever the known. That is an arduous task: that demands constant attention, a
constant awareness in which there is no sense of distraction, of identiﬁcation, of condemnation; it is
being with what is. Then only can the mind be still. No amount of meditation, discipline, can make
the mind still, in the real sense of the word. Only when the breezes stop does the lake become
quiet. You cannot make the lake quiet. Our job is not to pursue the unknowable but to understand
The First And Last Freedom 158 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 50. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 28 ’ON THE KNOWN AND THE UNKNOWN’
the confusion, the turmoil, the misery, in ourselves; and then that thing darkly comes into being, in
which there is joy.
The First And Last Freedom 159 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 51
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 29 ’TRUTH AND LIE’
Question: How does truth, as you have said, when repeated become a lie? What really is a lie?
Why is it wrong to lie? Is not this a profound and subtle problem on all the levels of our existence?
Krishnamurti: There are two questions in this, so let us examine the ﬁrst, which is: When a truth is
repeated, how does it become a lie? What is it that we repeat? Can you repeat an understanding? I
understand something. Can I repeat it? I can verbalize it, I can communicate it but the experience is
not what is repeated, surely? We get caught in the word and miss the signiﬁcance of the experience.
If you have had an experience, can you repeat it? You may want to repeat it, you may have the
desire for its repetition, for its sensation, but once you have had an experience, it is over, it cannot
be repeated. What can be repeated is the sensation and the corresponding word that gives life to
that sensation. As, unfortunately, most of us are propagandists, we are caught in the repetition of
the word. So we live on words, and the truth is denied.
Take, for example, the feeling of love. Can you repeat it ? When you hear the words ‘Love your
neighbour’, is that a truth to you? It is truth only when you do love your neighbour; and that love
cannot be repeated but only the word. Yet most of us are happy, content, with the repetition, ‘Love
your neighbour’ or ‘Don’t be greedy’. So the truth of another, or an actual experience which you
have had, merely through repetition, does not become a reality. On the contrary, repetition prevents
reality. Merely repeating certain ideas is not reality.
The difﬁculty in this is to understand the question without thinking in terms of the opposite. A lie is
not something opposed to truth. One can see the truth of what is being said, not in opposition or in
contrast, as a lie or a truth; but just see that most of us repeat without understanding. For instance,
we have been discussing naming and not naming a feeling and so on. Many of you will repeat it, I
am sure, thinking that it is the ‘truth’. You will never repeat an experience if it is a direct experience.
160CHAPTER 51. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 29 ’TRUTH AND LIE’
You may communicate it but when it is a real experience the sensations behind it are gone, the
emotional content behind the words is entirely dissipated.
Take, for example, the idea that the thinker and the thought are one. It may be a truth to you,
because you have directly experienced it. If I repeated it, it would not be true, would it? – true, not
as opposed to the false, please. It would not be actual, it would be merely repetitive and therefore
would have no signiﬁcance. You see, by repetition we create a dogma, we build a church and in
that we take refuge. The word and not truth, becomes the ‘truth’. The word is not the thing. To us,
the thing is the word and that is why one has to be so extremely careful not to repeat something
which one does not really understand. If you understand something, you can communicate it, but
the words and the memory have lost their emotional signiﬁcance. Therefore if one understands that,
in ordinary conversation, one’s outlook, one’s vocabulary, changes.
As we are seeking truth through self-knowledge and are not mere propagandists, it is important
to understand this. Through repetition one mesmerizes oneself by words or by sensations. One
gets caught in illusions. To be free of that, it is imperative to experience directly and to experience
directly one must be aware of oneself in the process of repetition, of habits, or words, of sensations.
That awareness gives one an extraordinary freedom, so that there can be a renewal, a constant
experiencing, a newness.
The other question is: ”What really is a lie? Why is it wrong to lie? Is this not a profound and
subtle problem on all the levels of our existence?” What is a lie? A contradiction, isn’t it?, a
self-contradiction. One can consciously contradict or unconsciously; it can either be deliberate
or unconscious; the contradiction can be either very, very subtle or obvious. When the cleavage in
contradiction is very great, then either one becomes unbalanced or one realizes the cleavage and
sets about to mend it.
To understand this problem, what is a lie and why we lie, one has to go into it without thinking
in terms of an opposite. Can we look at this problem of contradiction in ourselves without trying
not to be contradictory? Our difﬁculty in examining this question is, is it not?, that we so readily
condemn a lie but, to understand it, can we think of it not in terms of truth and falsehood but of what
is contradiction? Why do we contradict? Why is there contradiction in ourselves? Is there not an
attempt to live up to a standard, up to a pattern – a constant approximation of ourselves to a pattern,
a constant effort to be something, either in the eyes of another or in our own eyes? There is a desire,
is there not? to conform to a pattern; when one is not living up to that pattern, there is contradiction.
Now why do we have a pattern, a standard, an approximation, an idea which we are trying to live up
to? Why? Obviously to be secure, to be safe, to be popular, to have a good opinion of ourselves and
so on. There is the seed of contradiction. As long as we are approximating ourselves to something,
trying to be something, there must be contradiction; therefore there must be this cleavage between
the false and the true. I think this is important, if you will quietly go into it. Not that there is not the
false and the true; but why the contradiction in ourselves? Is it not because we are attempting to be
something – to be noble, to be good, to be virtuous, to be creative, to be happy and so on? in the very
desire to be something, there is a contradiction – not to be something else. It is this contradiction
that is so destructive. If one is capable of complete identiﬁcation with something, with this or with
that, then contradiction ceases; when we do identify ourselves completely with something, there is
self-enclosure, there is a resistance, which brings about unbalance – which is an obvious thing.
The First And Last Freedom 161 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 51. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 29 ’TRUTH AND LIE’
Why is there contradiction in ourselves? I have done something and I do not want it to be discovered;
I have thought something which does not come up to the mark, which puts me in a state of
contradiction, and I do not like it. Where there is approximation, there must be fear and it is this
fear that contradicts. Whereas if there is no becoming, no attempting to be something, then there
is no sense of fear; there is no contradiction; there is no lie in us at any level, consciously or
unconsciously – something to be suppressed, something to be shown up. As most of our lives are a
matter of moods and poses, depending on our moods, we pose – which is contradiction. When the
mood disappears, we are what we are. It is this contradiction that is really important, not whether
you tell a polite white lie or not. So long as this contradiction exists, there must be a superﬁcial
existence and therefore superﬁcial fears which have to be guarded – and then white lies – , you
know, all the rest of it follows. Let us look at this question, not asking what is a lie and what is truth
but, without these opposites, go into the problem of contradiction in ourselves – which is extremely
difﬁcult, because as we depend so much on sensations, most of our lives are contradictory. We
depend on memories, on opinions; we have so many fears which we want to cover up – all these
create contradiction in ourselves; when that contradiction becomes unbearable, one goes off one’s
head. One wants peace and everything that one does creates war, not only in the family but outside.
Instead of understanding what creates conﬂict, we only try to become more and more one thing or
the other, the opposite, thereby creating greater cleavage.
Is it possible to understand why there is contradiction in ourselves – not only superﬁcially but much
more deeply, psychologically? First of all, is one aware that one lives a contradictory life? We
want peace and we are nationalists; we want to avoid social misery and yet each one of us is
individualistic, limited, self-enclosed. We are constantly living in contradiction. Why? Is it not
because we are slaves to sensation? This is neither to be denied nor accepted. It requires a great
deal of understanding of the implications of sensation, which are desires. We want so many things,
all in contradiction with one another. We are so many conﬂicting masks; we take on a mask when
it suits us and deny it when something else is more proﬁtable, more pleasurable. It is this state of
contradiction which creates the lie. In opposition to that, we create ‘truth’. But surely truth is not the
opposite of a lie. That which has an opposite is not truth. The opposite contains its own opposite,
therefore it is not truth and to understand this problem very profoundly, one must be aware of all the
contradictions in which we live. When I say, ‘I love you’, with it goes jealousy, envy, anxiety, fear –
which is contradiction. It is this contradiction which must be understood and one can understand it
only when one is aware of it, aware without any condemnation or justiﬁcation – merely looking at it.
To look at it passively, one has to understand all the processes of justiﬁcation and condemnation.
It is not an easy thing, to look passively at something; but in understanding that, one begins to
understand the whole process of the ways of one’s feeling and thinking. When one is aware of the
full signiﬁcance of contradiction in oneself, it brings an extraordinary change: you are yourself, then,
not something you are trying to be. You are no longer following an ideal, seeking happiness. You
are what you are and from there you can proceed. Then there is no possibility of contradiction.
The First And Last Freedom 162 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 52
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 30 ’ON GOD’
Question: You have realized reality. Can you tell us what God is?
Krishnamurti: How do you know I have realized? To know that I have realized, you also must have
realized. This is not just a clever answer. To know something you must be of it. You must yourself
have had the experience also and therefore your saying that I have realized has apparently no
meaning. What does it matter if I have realized or have not realized? Is not what I am saying the
truth? Even if I am the most perfect human being, if what I say is not the truth why would you even
listen to me? Surely my realization has nothing whatever to do with what I am saying and the man
who worships another because that other has realized is really worshipping authority and therefore
he can never ﬁnd the truth. To understand what has been realized and to know him who has realized
is not at all important, is it?
I know the whole tradition says, ”Be with a man who has realized.” How can you know that he
has realized? All that you can do is to keep company with him and even that is extremely difﬁcult
nowadays. There are very few good people, in the real sense of the word – people who are not
seeking something, who are not after something. Those who are seeking something or are after
something are exploiters and therefore it is very difﬁcult for anyone to ﬁnd a companion to love.
We idealize those who have realized and hope that they will give us something, which is a false
relationship. How can the man who has realized communicate if there is no love? That is our
difﬁculty. In all our discussions we do not really love each other; we are suspicious. You want
something from me, knowledge, realization, or you want to keep company with me, all of which
indicates that you do not love. You want something and therefore you are out to exploit. If we really
love each other then there will be instantaneous communication. Then it does not matter if you
have realized and I have not or if you are the high or the low. Since our hearts have withered, God
163CHAPTER 52. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 30 ’ON GOD’
has become awfully important. That is, you want to know God because you have lost the song in
your heart and you pursue the singer and ask him whether he can teach you how to sing. He can
teach you the technique but the technique will not lead you to creation. You cannot be a musician by
merely knowing how to sing. You may know all the steps of a dance but if you have not creation in
your heart, you are only functioning as a machine. You cannot love if your object is merely to achieve
a result. There is no such thing as an ideal, because that is merely an achievement. Beauty is not
an achievement, it is reality, now, not tomorrow. If there is love you will understand the unknown,
you will know what God is and nobody need tell you – and that is the beauty of love. It is eternity in
itself. Because there is no love, we want someone else, or God, to give it to us. If we really loved,
do you know what a different world this would be? We should be really happy people. Therefore
we should not invest our happiness in things, in family, in ideals. We should be happy and therefore
things, people and ideals would not dominate our lives. They are all secondary things. Because we
do not love and because we are not happy we invest in things, thinking they will give us happiness,
and one of the things in which we invest is God.
You want me to tell you what reality is. Can the indescribable be put into words? Can you measure
something immeasurable? Can you catch the wind in your ﬁst? If you do, is that the wind? If you
measure that which is immeasurable, is that the real? If you formulate it, is it the real? Surely not, for
the moment you describe something which is indescribable, it ceases to be the real. The moment
you translate the unknowable into the known, it ceases to be the unknowable. Yet that is what we
are hankering after. All the time we want to know, because then we shall be able to continue, then
we shall be able, we think, to capture ultimate happiness, permanency. We want to know because
we are not happy, because we are striving miserably, because we are worn out, degraded. Yet
instead of realizing the simple fact – that we are degraded, that we are dull, weary, in turmoil – we
want to move away from what is the known into the unknown, which again becomes the known and
therefore we can never ﬁnd the real.
Therefore instead of asking who has realized or what God is why not give your whole attention and
awareness to what is? Then you will ﬁnd the unknown, or rather it will come to you. If you understand
what is the known, you will experience that extraordinary silence which is not induced, not enforced,
that creative emptiness in which alone reality can enter. It cannot come to that which is becoming,
which is striving; it can only come to that which is being, which understands what is. Then you will
see that reality is not in the distance; the unknown is not far off; it is in what is. As the answer to a
problem is in the problem, so reality is in what is; if we can understand it, then we shall know truth.
It is extremely difﬁcult to be aware of dullness, to be aware of greed, to be aware of ill will, ambition
and so on. The very fact of being aware of what is is truth. It is truth that liberates, not your striving
to be free. Thus reality is not far but we place it far away because we try to use it as a means of self-
continuity. It is here, now, in the immediate. The eternal or the timeless is now and the now cannot
be understood by a man who is caught in the net of time. To free thought from time demands action,
but the mind is lazy, it is slothful, and therefore ever creates other hindrances. It is only possible by
right meditation, which means complete action, not a continuous action, and complete action can
only be understood when the mind comprehends the process of continuity, which is memory – not the
factual but the psychological memory. As long as memory functions, the mind cannot understand
what is. But one’s mind, one’s whole being, becomes extraordinarily creative, passively alert, when
one understands the signiﬁcance of ending, because in ending there is renewal, while in continuity
there is death, there is decay.
The First And Last Freedom 164 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 53
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 31 ’ON IMMEDIATE
Question: Can we realize on the spot the truth you are speaking of, without any previous
Krishnamurti: What do you mean by truth? Do not let us use a word of which we do not know the
meaning; we can use a simpler word, a more direct word. Can you understand, can you comprehend
a problem directly? That is what is implied, is it not? Can you understand what is, immediately,
now? In understanding what is, you will understand the signiﬁcance of truth; but to say that one
must understand truth has very little meaning. Can you understand a problem directly, fully, and
be free of it? That is what is implied in this question, is it not? Can you understand a crisis, a
challenge, immediately, see its whole signiﬁcance and be free of it? What you understand leaves
no mark; therefore understanding or truth is the liberator. Can you be liberated now from a problem,
from a challenge? Life is, is it not?, a series of challenges and responses and if your response
to a challenge is conditioned, limited, incomplete, then that challenge leaves its mark, its residue,
which is further strengthened by another new challenge. So there is a constant residual memory,
accumulations, scars, and with all these scars you try to meet the new and therefore you never meet
the new. Therefore you never understand, there is never a liberation from any challenge.
The problem, the question is, whether I can understand a challenge completely, directly; sense all its
signiﬁcance, all its perfume, its depth, its beauty and its ugliness and so be free of it. A challenge is
always new, is it not? The problem is always new, is it not? A problem which you had yesterday, for
example, has undergone such modiﬁcation that when you meet it today, it is already new. But you
meet it with the old, because you meet it without transforming, merely modifying your own thoughts.
Let me put it in a different way. I met you yesterday. In the meantime you have changed. You have
undergone a modiﬁcation but I still have yesterday’s picture of you. I meet you today with my picture
165CHAPTER 53. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 31 ’ON IMMEDIATE REALIZATION’
of you and therefore I do not understand you – I understand only the picture of you which I acquired
yesterday. If I want to understand you, who are modiﬁed, changed, I must remove, I must be free of
the picture of yesterday. In other words to understand a challenge, which is always new, I must also
meet it anew, there must be no residue of yesterday; so I must say adieu to yesterday.
After all, what is life? It is something new all the time, is it not? It is something which is ever
undergoing change, creating a new feeling. Today is never the same as yesterday and that is the
beauty of life. Can you and I meet every problem anew? Can you, when you go home, meet your
wife and your child anew, meet the challenge anew? You will not be able to do it if you are burdened
with the memories of yesterday. Therefore, to understand the truth of a problem, of a relationship,
you must come to it afresh – not with an ‘open mind’, for that has no meaning. You must come to it
without the scars of yesterday’s memories – which means, as each challenge arises, be aware of all
the responses of yesterday and by being aware of yesterday’s residue, memories, you will ﬁnd that
they drop away without struggle and therefore your mind is fresh.
Can one realize truth immediately, without preparation? I say yes – not out of some fancy of mine, not
out of some illusion; but psychologically experiment with it and you will see. Take any challenge, any
small incident – don’t wait for some great crisis – and see how you respond to it. Be aware of it, of your
responses, of your intentions, of your attitudes and you will understand them, you will understand
your background. I assure you, you can do it immediately if you give your whole attention to it. If
you are seeking the full meaning of your background, it yields its signiﬁcance and then you discover
in one stroke the truth, the understanding of the problem. Understanding comes into being from the
now, the present, which is always timeless. Though it may be tomorrow, it is still now; merely to
postpone, to prepare to receive that which is tomorrow, is to prevent yourself from understanding
what is now. Surely you can understand directly what is now, can’t you? To understand what is, you
have to be undisturbed, undistracted, you have to give your mind and heart to it. It must be your
sole interest at that moment, completely. Then what is gives you its full depth, its full meaning, and
thereby you are free of that problem.
If you want to know the truth, the psychological signiﬁcance of property, for instance, if you really
want to understand it directly, now, how do you approach it? Surely you must feel akin to the problem,
you must not be afraid of it, you must not have any creed, any answer, between yourself and the
problem. Only when you are directly in relationship with the problem will you ﬁnd the answer. If
you introduce an answer, if you judge, have a psychological disinclination, then you will postpone,
you will prepare to understand tomorrow what can only be understood in the ‘now’. Therefore you
will never understand. To perceive truth needs no preparation; preparation implies time and time
is not the means of understanding truth. Time is continuity and truth is timeless, non-continuous.
Understanding is non-continuous, it is from moment to moment, unresidual.
I am afraid I am making it all sound very difﬁcult, am I not? But it is easy, simple to understand, if
you will only experiment with it. If you go off into a dream, meditate over it, it becomes very difﬁcult.
When there is no barrier between you and me, I understand you. If I am open to you, I understand
you directly – and to be open is not a matter of time. Will time make me open? Will preparation,
system, discipline, make me open to you? No. What will make me open to you is my intention to
understand. I want to be open because I have nothing to hide, I am not afraid; therefore I am open
and there is immediate communion, there is truth. To receive truth, to know its beauty, to know its
joy, there must be instant receptivity, unclouded by theories, fears and answers.
The First And Last Freedom 166 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 54
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 32 ’ON SIMPLICITY’
Question: What is simplicity? Does it imply seeing very clearly the essentials and discarding
Krishnamurti: Let us see what simplicity is not. Don’t say – ”That is negation” or ”Tell us something
positive”. That is immature, thoughtless reaction. Those people who offer you the ‘positive’ are
exploiters; they have something to give you which you want and through which they exploit you.
We are doing nothing of that kind. We are trying to ﬁnd out the truth of simplicity. Therefore you
must discard, put ideas behind and observe anew. The man who has much is afraid of revolution,
inwardly and outwardly. Let us ﬁnd out what is not simplicity. A complicated mind is not simple, is it?
A clever mind is not simple; a mind that has an end in view for which it is working, a reward, a fear,
is not a simple mind, is it? A mind that is burdened with knowledge is not a simple mind; a mind that
is crippled with beliefs is not a simple mind, is it? A mind that has identiﬁed itself with something
greater and is striving to keep that identity, is not a simple mind, is it? We think it is simple to have
only one or two loincloths, we want the outward show of simplicity and we are easily deceived by
that. That is why the man who is very rich worships the man who has renounced.
What is simplicity? Can simplicity be the discarding of non-essentials and the pursuing of essentials
– which means a process of choice? Does it not mean choice – choosing essentials and discarding
non-essentials? What is this process of choosing? What is the entity that chooses? Mind, is it
not? It does not matter what you call it. You say, ‘I will choose this, which is the essential’. How do
you know what is the essential? Either you have a pattern of what other people have said or your
own experience says that something is the essential. Can you rely on your experience? When you
choose, your choice is based on desire, is it not? What you call ‘the essential’ is that which gives
you satisfaction. So you are back again in the same process, are you not? Can a confused mind
choose? If it does, the choice must also be confused.
167CHAPTER 54. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 32 ’ON SIMPLICITY’
Therefore the choice between the essential and the non-essential is not simplicity. It is a conﬂict. A
mind in conﬂict, in confusion, can never be simple. When you discard, when you really observe and
see all these false things, the tricks of the mind, when you look at it and are aware of it, then you will
know for yourself what simplicity is. A mind which is bound by belief is never a simple mind. A mind
that is crippled with knowledge is not simple. A mind that is distracted by God, by women, by music,
is not a simple mind. A mind caught in the routine of the ofﬁce, of rituals, of prayers, such a mind is
not simple. Simplicity is action, without idea. But that is a very rare thing; that means creativeness.
So long as there is not creation, we are centres of mischief, misery and destruction. Simplicity is
not a thing which you can pursue and experience. Simplicity comes, as a ﬂower opens at the right
moment, when each one understands the whole process of existence and relationship. Because
we have never thought about it, observed it, we are not aware of it; we value all the outer forms of
few possessions but those are not simplicity. Simplicity is not to be found; it does not lie as a choice
between the essential and the non-essential. It comes into being only when the self is not; when the
mind is not caught in speculations, conclusions, beliefs, ideations. Such a free mind only can ﬁnd
truth. Such a mind alone can receive that which is immeasurable, which is unnameable; and that is
The First And Last Freedom 168 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 55
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 33 ’ON
Question: How is one who is superﬁcial to become serious?
Krishnamurti: First of all, we must be aware that we are superﬁcial, must we not? What does it mean
to be superﬁcial? Essentially, to be dependent, does it not? To depend on stimulation, to depend on
challenge, to depend on another, to depend psychologically on certain values, certain experiences,
certain memories – does not all that make for superﬁciality? When I depend on going to church
every morning or every week in order to be uplifted, in order to be helped, does that not make me
superﬁcial? If I have to perform certain rituals to maintain my sense of integrity or to regain a feeling
which I may once have had, does that not make me superﬁcial? Does it not make me superﬁcial
when I give myself over to a country, to a plan or to a particular political group? Surely this whole
process of dependence is an evasion of myself; this identiﬁcation with the greater is the denial of
what I am. But I cannot deny what I am; I must understand what I am and not try to identify myself
with the universe, with God, with a particular political party or what you will. All this leads to shallow
thinking and from shallow thinking there is activity which is everlastingly mischievous, whether on a
worldwide scale, or on the individual scale.
First of all, do we recognize that we are doing these things? We do not; we justify them. We say,
”What shall I do if I don’t do these things? I’ll be worse off; my mind will go to pieces. Now, at
least, I am struggling towards something better.” The more we struggle the more superﬁcial we are.
I have to see that ﬁrst, have I not? That is one of the most difﬁcult things; to see what I am, to
acknowledge that I am stupid, that I am shallow, that I am narrow, that I am jealous. If I see what I
am, if I recognize it, then with that I can start. Surely, a shallow mind is a mind that escapes from
what is; not to escape requires arduous investigation, the denial of inertia. The moment I know I am
shallow, there is already a process of deepening – if I don’t do anything about the shallowness. If
169CHAPTER 55. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 33 ’ON SUPERFICIALITY’
the mind says, ”I am petty, and I am going to go into it, I am going to understand the whole of this
pettiness, this narrowing inﬂuence”, then there is a possibility of transformation; but a petty mind,
acknowledging that it is petty and trying to be non-petty by reading, by meeting people, by travelling,
by being incessantly active like a monkey, is still a petty mind.
Again, you see, there is a real revolution only if we approach this problem rightly. The right
approach to the problem gives an extraordinary conﬁdence which I assure you moves mountains –
the mountains of one’s own prejudices, conditionings. Being aware of a shallow mind, do not try to
become deep. A shallow mind can never know great depths. It can have plenty of knowledge,
information, it can repeat words – you know the whole paraphernalia of a superﬁcial mind that
is active. But if you know that you are superﬁcial, shallow, if you are aware of the shallowness
and observe all its activities without judging, without condemnation, then you will soon see that
the shallow thing has disappeared entirely, without your action upon it. That requires patience,
watchfulness, not an eager desire for a result, for achievement. It is only a shallow mind that wants
an achievement, a result.
The more you are aware of this whole process, the more you will discover the activities of the mind
but you must observe them without trying to put an end to them, because the moment you seek an
end, you are again caught in the duality of the ‘me’ and the ‘not-me’ – which continues the problem.
The First And Last Freedom 170 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 56
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 34 ’ON TRIVIALITY’
Question: With what should the mind be occupied?
Krishnamurti: Here is a very good example of how conﬂict is brought into being: the conﬂict
between what should be and what is. First we establish what should be, the ideal, and then try
to live according to that pattern. We say that the mind should be occupied with noble things, with
unselﬁshness, with generosity, with kindliness, with love; that is the pattern, the belief, the should be,
the must, and we try to live accordingly. So there is a conﬂict set going, between the projection of
what should be and the actuality, the what is, and through that conﬂict we hope to be transformed. So
long as we are struggling with the should be, we feel virtuous, we feel good, but which is important:
the should be or what is? With what are our minds occupied – actually, not ideologicallY? W1th
trivialities, are they not? With how one looks, with ambition, with greed, with envy, with gossip, with
cruelty. The mind lives in a world of trivialities and a trivial mind creating a noble pattern is still trivial,
is it not? The question is not with what should the mind be occupied but can the mind free itself from
trivialities? If we are at all aware, if we are at all inquiring, we know our own particular trivialities:
incessant talk, the everlasting chattering of the mind, worry over this and that, curiosity as to what
people are doing or not doing, trying to achieve a result, groping after one’s own aggrandizement
and so on. With that we are occupied and we know it very well. Can that be transformed? That is
the problem, is it not? To ask with what the mind should be occupied is mere immaturity.
Now, being aware that my mind is trivial and occupied with trivialities, can it free itself from this
condition? Is not the mind, by its very nature, trivial? What is the mind but the result of memory?
Memory of what? Of how to survive, not only physically but also psychologically through the
development of certain qualities, virtues, the storing up of experiences, the establishing of itself in
its own activities. Is that not trivial? The mind, being the result of memory, of time, is trivial in itself;
what can it do to free itself from its own triviality? Can it do anything? Please see the importance of
171CHAPTER 56. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 34 ’ON TRIVIALITY’
this. Can the mind, which is self-centred activity, free itself from that activity? Obviously, it cannot;
whatever it does, it is still trivial. It can speculate about God, it can devise political systems, it can
invent beliefs; but it is still within the ﬁeld of time, its change is still from memory to memory, it is
still bound by its own limitation. Can the mind break down that limitation? Or does that limitation
break down when the mind is quiet, when it is not active, when it recognizes its own trivialities,
however great it may have imagined them to be? When the mind, having seen its trivialities, is
fully aware of them and so becomes really quiet – only then is there a possibility of these trivialities
dropping away. So long as you are inquiring with what the mind should be occupied, it will be
occupied with trivialities, whether it builds a church, whether it prays or whether it goes to a shrine.
The mind itself is petty, small, and by merely saying it is petty you haven’t dissolved its pettiness.
You have to understand it, the mind has to recognize its own activities, and in the process of that
recognition, in the awareness of the trivialities which it has consciously and unconsciously built, the
mind becomes quiet. In that quietness there is a creative state and this is the factor which brings
about a transformation.
The First And Last Freedom 172 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 57
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 35 ’ON THE STILLNESS
OF THE MIND’
Question: Why do you speak of the stillness of the mind, and what is this stillness?
Krishnamurti: Is it not necessary, if we would understand anything, that the mind should be still? If
we have a problem, we worry over it, don’t we? We go into it, we analyse it, we tear it to pieces,
in the hope of understanding it. Now, do we understand through effort, through analysis, through
comparison, through any form of mental struggle? Surely, understanding comes only when the mind
is very quiet. We say that the more we struggle with the question of starvation, of war, or any other
human problem, the more we come into conﬂict with it, the better we shall understand it. Now, is that
true? Wars have been going on for centuries, the conﬂict between individuals, between societies;
war, inward and outward, is constantly there. Do we resolve that war, that conﬂict, by further conﬂict,
by further struggle, by cunning endeavour? Or do we understand the problem only when we are
directly in front of it, when we are faced with the fact? We can face the fact only when there is no
interfering agitation between the mind and the fact, so is it not important, if we are to understand,
that the mind be quiet?
You will inevitably ask, ”How can the mind be made still?” That is the immediate response, is it
not? You say, ”My mind is agitated and how can I keep it quiet?” Can any system make the mind
quiet? Can a formula, a discipline, make the mind still? It can; but when the mind is made still,
is that quietness, is that stillness? Or is the mind only enclosed within an idea, within a formula,
within a phrase? Such a mind is a dead mind, is it not? That is why most people who try to be
spiritual, so-called spiritual, are dead – because they have trained their minds to be quiet, they have
enclosed themselves within a formula for being quiet. Obviously, such a mind is never quiet; it is
only suppressed, held down.
173CHAPTER 57. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 35 ’ON THE STILLNESS OF THE MIND’
The mind is quiet when it sees the truth that understanding comes only when it is quiet; that if I would
understand you, I must be quiet, I cannot have reactions against you, I must not be prejudiced, I
must put away all my conclusions, my experiences and meet you face to face. Only then, when the
mind is free from my conditioning, do I understand. When I see the truth of that, then the mind is
quiet – and then there is no question of how to make the mind quiet. Only the truth can liberate
the mind from its own ideation; to see the truth, the mind must realize the fact that so long as it is
agitated it can have no understanding. Quietness of mind, tranquillity of mind, is not a thing to be
produced by will-power, by any action of desire; if it is, then such a mind is enclosed, isolated, it is
a dead mind and therefore incapable of adaptability, of pliability, of swiftness. Such a mind is not
Our question, then, is not how to make the mind still but to see the truth of every problem as it
presents itself to us. It is like the pool that becomes quiet when the wind stops. Our mind is agitated
because we have problems; and to avoid the problems, we make the mind still. Now the mind has
projected these problems and there are no problems apart from the mind; and so long as the mind
projects any conception of sensitivity, practises any form of stillness, it can never be still. When
the mind realizes that only by being still is there understanding – then it becomes very quiet. That
quietness is not imposed, not disciplined, it is a quietness that cannot be understood by an agitated
Many who seek quietness of mind withdraw from active life to a village, to a monastery, to the
mountains, or they withdraw into ideas, enclose themselves in a belief or avoid people who give them
trouble. Such isolation is not stillness of mind. The enclosure of the mind in an idea or the avoidance
of people who make life complicated does not bring about stillness of mind. Stillness of mind comes
only when here is no process of isolation through accumulation but complete understanding of the
whole process of relationship. Accumulation makes the mind old; only when the mind is new, when
the mind is fresh, without the process of accumulation – only then is there a possibility of having
tranquillity of mind. Such a mind is not dead, it is most active. The still mind is the most active mind
but if you will experiment with it, go into it deeply, you will see that in stillness there is no projection
of thought. Thought, at all levels, is obviously the reaction of memory and thought can never be in
a state of creation. It may express creativeness but thought in itself can never be creative. When
there is silence, that tranquillity of mind which is not a result, then we shall see that in that quietness
there is extraordinary activity, an extraordinary action which a mind agitated by thought can never
know. In that stillness, there is no formulation, there is no idea, there is no memory; that stillness is
a state of creation that can be experienced only when there is complete understanding of the whole
process of the ‘me’. Otherwise, stillness has no meaning. Only in that stillness, which is not a result,
is the eternal discovered, which is beyond time.
The First And Last Freedom 174 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 58
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 36 ’ON THE MEANING
Question: We live but we do not know why. To so many of us, life seems to have no meaning. Can
you tell us the meaning and purpose of our living?
Krishnamurti: Now why do you ask this question? Why are you asking me to tell you the meaning
of life, the purpose of life? What do we mean by life? Does life have a meaning, a purpose? Is
not living in itself its own purpose, its own meaning? Why do we want more? Because we are so
dissatisﬁed with our life, our life is so empty, so tawdry, so monotonous, doing the same thing over
and over again, we want something more, something beyond that which we are doing. Since our
everyday life is so empty, so dull, so meaningless, so boring, so intolerably stupid, we say life must
have a fuller meaning and that is why you ask this question. Surely a man who is living richly, a man
who sees things as they are and is content with what he has, is not confused; he is clear, therefore
he does not ask what is the purpose of life. For him the very living is the beginning and the end.
Our difﬁculty is that, since our life is empty, we want to ﬁnd a purpose to life and strive for it. Such a
purpose of life can only be mere intellection, without any reality; when the purpose of life is pursued
by a stupid, dull mind, by an empty heart, that purpose will also be empty. Therefore our purpose
is how to make our life rich, not with money and all the rest of it but inwardly rich – which is not
something cryptic. When you say that the purpose of life is to be happy, the purpose of life is to
ﬁnd God, surely that desire to ﬁnd God is an escape from life and your God is merely a thing that is
known. You can only make your way towards an object which you know; if you build a staircase to
the thing that you call God, surely that is not God. Reality can be understood only in living, not in
escape. When you seek a purpose of life, you are really escaping and not understanding what life
is. Life is relationship, life is action in relationship; when I do not understand relationship, or when
relationship is confused, then I seek a fuller meaning. Why are our lives so empty? Why are we
so lonely, frustrated? Because we have never looked into ourselves and understood ourselves. We
175CHAPTER 58. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 36 ’ON THE MEANING OF LIFE’
never admit to ourselves that this life is all we know and that it should therefore be understood fully
and completely. We prefer to run away from ourselves and that is why we seek the purpose of life
away from relationship. If we begin to understand action, which is our relationship with people, with
property, with beliefs and ideas, then we will ﬁnd that relationship itself brings its own reward. You do
not have to seek. It is like seeking love. Can you ﬁnd love by seeking it? Love cannot be cultivated.
You will ﬁnd love only in relationship, not outside relationship, and it is because we have no love that
we want a purpose of life. When there is love, which is its own eternity, then there is no search for
God, because love is God.
It is because our minds are full of technicalities and superstitious mutterings that our lives are so
empty and that is why we seek a purpose beyond ourselves. To ﬁnd life’s purpose we must go
through the door of ourselves; consciously or unconsciously we avoid facing things as they are in
themselves and so we want God to open for us a door which is beyond. This question about the
purpose of life is put only by those who do not love. Love can be found only in action, which is
The First And Last Freedom 176 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 59
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 37 ’ON THE
CONFUSION OF THE MIND’
Question: I have listened to all your talks and I have read all your books. Most earnestly I ask you,
what can be the purpose of my life if, as you say, all thought has to cease, all knowledge to be
suppressed, all memory lost? How do you relate that state of being, whatever it may be according to
you, to the world in which we live? What relation has such a being to our sad and painful existence?
Krishnamurti: We want to know what this state is which can only be when all knowledge, when the
recognizer, is not; we want to know what relationship this state has to our world of daily activity,
daily pursuits. We know what our life is now – sad, painful, constantly fearful, nothing permanent; we
know that very well. We want to know what relationship this other state has to that – and if we put
aside knowledge, become free from our memories and so on, what is the purpose of existence.
What is the purpose of existence as we know it now? – not theoretically but actually? What is
the purpose of our everyday existence? just to survive, isn’t it? – with all its misery, with all its
sorrow and confusion, wars, destruction and so on. We can invent theories, we can say: ”This
should not be, but something else should be.” But those are all theories, they are not facts. What
we know is confusion, pain, suffering, endless antagonisms. We know also, if we are at all aware,
how these come about. The purpose of life, from moment to moment, every day, is to destroy each
other, to exploit each other, either as individuals or as collective human beings. In our loneliness, in
our misery, we try to use others, we try to escape from ourselves – through amusements, through
gods, through knowledge, through every form of belief, through identiﬁcation. That is our purpose,
conscious or unconscious, as we now live. Is there a deeper, wider purpose beyond, a purpose that
is not of confusion, of acquisition? Has that effortless state any relation to our daily life ?
Certainly that has no relation at all to our life. How can it have? If my mind is confused, agonized,
lonely, how can that be related to something which is not of itself? How can truth be related to
177CHAPTER 59. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 37 ’ON THE CONFUSION OF THE MIND’
falsehood, to illusion? We do not want to admit that, because our hope, our confusion, makes us
believe in something greater, nobler, which we say is related to us. In our despair we seek truth,
hoping that in the discovery of it our despair will disappear.
So we can see that a confused mind, a mind ridden with sorrow, a mind that is aware of its own
emptiness, loneliness, can never ﬁnd that which is beyond itself. That which is beyond the mind can
only come into being when the causes of confusion, misery, are dispelled or understood. All that
I have been saying, talking about, is how to understand ourselves, for without self-knowledge the
other is not, the other is only an illusion. If we can understand the total process of ourselves, from
moment to moment, then we shall see that in clearing up our own confusion, the other comes into
being. Then experiencing that will have a relation to this. But this will never have a relation to that.
Being this side of the curtain, being in darkness, how can one have experience of light, of freedom?
But when once there is the experience of truth, then you can relate it to this world in which we live.
If we have never known what love is, but only constant wrangles, misery, conﬂicts, how can we
experience that love which is not of all this? But when once we have experienced that, then we do
not have to bother to ﬁnd out the relationship. Then love, intelligence, functions. But to experience
that state, all knowledge, accumulated memories, self-identiﬁed activities, must cease, so that the
mind is incapable of any projected sensations. Then, experiencing that, there is action in this world.
Surely that is the purpose of existence – to go beyond the self-centred activity of the mind. Having
experienced that state, which is not measurable by the mind, then the very experiencing of that
brings about an inward revolution. Then, if there is love, there is no social problem. There is no
problem of any kind when there is love. ‘Because we do not know how to love we have social
problems and systems of philosophy on how to deal with our problems. I say these problems can
never be solved by any system, either of the left or of the right or of the middle. They can be solved
– our confusion, our misery, our self-destruction – only when we can experience that state which is
The First And Last Freedom 178 Jiddu KrishnamurtiCHAPTER 60
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 38 ’ON
Question: What do you mean by transformation?
Krishnamurti: Obviously, there must be a radical revolution. The world crisis demands it. Our
lives demand it. Our everyday incidents, pursuits, anxieties, demand it. Our problems demand
it. There must be a fundamental, radical revolution, because everything about us has collapsed.
Though seemingly there is order, in fact there is slow decay, destruction: the wave of destruction is
constantly overtaking the wave of life.
So there must be a revolution – but not a revolution based on an idea. Such a revolution is merely
the continuation of the idea, not a radical transformation. A revolution based on an idea brings
bloodshed, disruption, chaos. Out of chaos you cannot create order; you cannot deliberately bring
about chaos and hope to create order out of that chaos. You are not the God-chosen who are to
create order out of confusion That is such a false way of thinking on the part of those people who
wish to create more and more confusion in order to bring about order. Because for the moment
they have power, they assume they know all the ways of producing order. Seeing the whole of
this catastrophe – the constant repetition of wars, the ceaseless conﬂict between classes, between
peoples, the awful economic and social inequality, the inequality of capacity and gifts, the gulf
between those who are extraordinarily happy, unrufﬂed, and those who are caught in hate, conﬂict,
and misery – seeing all this, there must be a revolution, there must be complete transformation, must
Is this transformation, is this radical revolution, an ultimate thing or is it from moment to moment? I
know we should like it to be the ultimate thing, because it is so much easier to think in terms of far
away. Ultimately we shall be transformed, ultimately we shall be happy, ultimately we shall ﬁnd truth;
179CHAPTER 60. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION 38 ’ON TRANSFORMATION’
in the meantime, let us carry on. Surely such a mind, thinking in terms of the future, is incapable
of acting in the present; therefore such a mind is not seeking transformation, it is merely avoiding
transformation. What do we mean by transformation?
Transformation is not in the future, can never be in the future. It can only be now, from moment
to moment. So what do we mean by transformation? Surely it is very simple: seeing the false
as the false and the true as the true. Seeing the truth in the false and seeing the false in that
which has been accepted as the truth. Seeing the false as the false and the true as the true is
transformation, because when you see something very clearly as the truth, that truth liberates.
When you see that something is false, that false thing drops away. When you see that ceremonies
are mere vain repetitions, when you see the truth of it and do not justify it, there is transformation,
is there not?, because another bondage is gone. When you see that class distinction is false, that
it creates conﬂict, creates misery, division between people – when you see the truth of it, that very
truth liberates. The very perception of that truth is transformation, is it not? As we are surrounded
by so much that is false, perceiving the falseness from moment to moment is transformation. Truth
is not cumulative. It is from moment to moment. That which is cumulative, accumulated, is memory,
and through memory you can never ﬁnd truth, for memory is of time – time being the past, the
present and the future. Time, which is continuity, can never ﬁnd that which is eternal; eternity is not
continuity. That which endures is not eternal. Eternity is in the moment. Eternity is in the now. The
now is not the reﬂection of the past nor the continuance of the past through the present to the future.
A mind which is desirous of a future transformation or looks to transformation as an ultimate end,
can never ﬁnd truth, for truth is a thing that must come from moment to moment, must be discovered
anew; there can be no discovery through accumulation. How can you discover the new if you have
the burden of the old? It is only with the cessation of that burden that you discover the new. To
discover the new, the eternal, in the present, from moment to moment, one needs an extraordinarily
alert mind, a mind that is not seeking a result, a mind that is not becoming. A mind that is becoming
can never know the full bliss of contentment; not the contentment of smug satisfaction; not the
contentment of an achieved result, but the contentment that comes when the mind sees the truth in
what is and the false in what is. The perception of that truth is from moment to moment; and that
perception is delayed through verbalization of the moment.
Transformation is not an end, a result. Transformation is not a result. Result implies residue, a
cause and an effect. Where there is causation, there is bound to be effect. The effect is merely the
result of your desire to be transformed. When you desire to be transformed, you are still thinking
in terms of becoming; that which is becoming can never know that which is being. Truth is being
from moment to moment and happiness that continues is not happiness. Happiness is that state of
being which is timeless. That timeless state can come only when there is a tremendous discontent –
not the discontent that has found a channel through which it escapes but the discontent that has no
outlet, that has no escape, that is no longer seeking fulﬁlment. Only then, in that state of supreme
discontent, can reality come into being. That reality is not to be bought, to be sold, to be repeated;
it cannot be caught in books. It has to be found from moment to moment, in the smile, in the tear,
under the dead leaf, in the vagrant thoughts, in the fullness of love.
Love is not different from truth. Love is that state in which the thought process, as time, has
completely ceased. Where love is, there is transformation. Without love, revolution has no meaning,
for then revolution is merely destruction, decay, a greater and greater evermounting misery. Where
there is love, there is revolution, because love is transformation from moment to moment.
The First And Last Freedom 180 Jiddu Krishnamurti